The Purity PDF english islamic book

The Purity PDF english islamic book

The
PURITY
I begin with the Name of Allah, the

Most Beneficent, Most
Merciful
THE PURITY
By
Dr. Abdul Rahman Abdul-Kareem
Al-Sheha
Translated by
Abu Hisham
Reviewed by
Osama Emara (Islamhouse.com)
Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
1422 H = 2001 G.
All rights reserved for the Author
except for free distribution without
any addition, modification, or
deletion to any part of the book.
The Purity
5
Table of Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….7
Qualities of Purification…………………………………………………………12
Purification From Tangible Impurities …………………………………..16
What is Wudu’?……………………………………………………………………17
Full Description of Wudu’……………………………………………………17
Supererogatory Acts of Wudu’…………………………………………….21
Things That Invalidate Wudu’……………………………………………..24
Wudu’ is Recommended for the Following……………………………….25
Some Infractions During Wudu’ ………………………………………….27
Some Verdicts on Wudu’………………………………………………………..31
Wiping over Boots and the Like ………………………………………….32
The Area to be Wiped …………………………………………………………32
Prerequisites for Wiping over Boots ……………………………………33
Description of Wiping over Boots ……………………………………….33
Time Limit …………………………………………………………………………34
Things that Terminate the Validity of Wiping …………………….34
Major Ritual Purification (Ghusl)……………………………………………35
Description of Complete Ritual Bath (Ghusl)……………………….36
Satisfactory Ghusl………………………………………………………………..38
Cases in which Ghusl is Recommended ………………………………38
Taboos (Forbidden Acts) in Case of Janabah
(Major Ritual Impurity)…………………………………………………………….39
The Purity
6
Some Offences and Errors in the Ritual Bath (Ghusl)…………..40
Tayammum……………………………………………………………………………..45
Factors that Make Tayammum Permissible………………………………..45
Description of Tayammum……………………………………………………47
Things That Invalidate Tayammum……………………………………..47
Notes…………………………………………………………………………………..47
Some Verdicts On Tayammum……………………………………………..49
Wiping over Splints and Bandages ……………………………………..50
Some Verdicts on Wiping Over the Splints …………………………52
How to Purify a Sick Man …………………………………………………..53
The Purity
7
Introduction
Praise be to Allah! May Allah exalt the mention of Prophet
Muhammad and render him, his family and his companions
safe from all evil.
Purity (Tahârah) is a beautiful word that is pleasing to the eye,
and a quality which everyone wishes to maintain. From an Islamic
perspective, purity has a general meaning. Thus it may mean,
on one hand, physical cleanliness which is the purity (of the
body) from perceptible filth or ritual purification. On the other
hand, it may mean spiritual purity which is the purity of the
self from vices, sins and abandoning disobediences, and getting
used to good deeds and words. This comprehensive meaning of
purity is expressed in the words of Prophet Muhammad, 
(This symbol means “may Allah send His blessing and peace
upon him”), as reported by Abu Hurairah, (may Allah be
pleased with him):
“What do you think if there was a river at the door of
one of you in which he bathes five times a day: Does
this leave any dirt on him?’ They answered, ‘Nothing is
left.’ The Prophet  said, ‘That is like the five prayers
with which Allah remove sins.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
Ritual purity is a prerequisite to prayer (Şalât); this comprises
either ablution (wudu’) for minor impurity or ceremonial bath
(ghusl) for major impurity. If a Muslim purifies himself in
accordance with Allah’s commandments and the Prophet’s
instructions, his prayer will purify him of sins. Islam is the
religion of both outward and inward purity. Allah’s Messenger
 warned those who neglected physical purity which is
considered a prerequisite for validity of certain devotions, like
prayer, touching or holding the Holy Qur’an, etc. Ibn ‘Abbass
reported Allah’s Messenger’s words when he passed by two
The Purity
8
graves:
“They are being punished for something which seemed
trivial to them: this one used not to clean himself of
urine; whereas the other was used to tale bearing.” Then
he requested a wet branch which he split into two
halves and put a half on either grave, then said, “With
that, punishment will be reduced unless they (the
branches) become dry.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
Training his companions to love purity, he used to say the
following supplication:
“O Allah! Praise be to You as much as that which fills
the heavens and the earth and as much as You will. O
Allah! Purify me with snow, hail and cool water. O
Allah! Purify me of sins as a white dress is purified of
dirt.” (Ahmad)
The teachings of Islam urge cleanliness. Jâbir narrated that
Allah’s Messenger  once came to them and saw a man with
shaggy hair. He said,
“Couldn’t he find something to tidy his hair up?” When
he saw another man with dirty clothes, he said,
“Couldn’t this man find water to clean his dress?”
(Ahmad ,Nasai and Abu Daud)
Ibn Al-Qayyim stated: “If a person purifies himself and then
meets Allah in the Hereafter he will enter Paradise without
obstacles. However, in case he does not purify himself in this
world: if his impurity persists, like the disbeliever, he will not
be allowed into Paradise; but if his impurity is transient, he will
be allowed to enter Paradise after he is purified in Hell of that
impurity for a period of time.” (Ighathatullahfan 1/57)
The Purity
9
What demonstrates the comprehensive meaning of purity in the
Islamic perspective is the fact that was expressed in the Holy
Qur’an in one word (i.e .Taharah) which gives several meanings:

  1. Purity from sins: The Qur’an says in this regard of
    which the meaning is translated as:
    Take alms from their wealth in order to purify them
    and sanctify them with it. (9:103)
    According to Ibn Abbass, may Allah be pleased with him ،
    “The Prophet  prescribed Zakatul-Fitr as a purification
    of the fasting person from empty and obscene talk and
    as food for the poor. If anyone pays it before the Eid
    prayer, it will be accepted as Zakat, and if anyone pays
    it after the prayer, it will be counted as alms (Sadaqa)
    like any other alms.” (Abu Daud & Ibn Majah)
  2. Purity (freedom) from idols, as indicated in the words
    of Allah, the Exalted (the meaning of which is):
    Purify My House for those who perform tawaf
    (circumambulate) and those who stay therein for
    worship and those who bow down and prostrate
    themselves (in worship). (2:125)
  3. Purity in the sense of glorification and veneration:
    Those who disbelieve among the people of the
    Scripture and the idolaters could not have left off
    (erring) till the clear proof came unto them, a messenger
    from Allah, reciting purified scriptures). (98:1-3)
    The Purity
    10
  4. Purity also means what is lawful :
    Upon them will be garments of fine green silk and
    heavy silk. They will be adorned with bracelets of silver,
    and their Lord will give them a purifying drink. (76:21)
  5. Purity of the heart from suspicion:
    And when you ask them (the Prophet’s wives) for
    anything you want, ask them from behind a partition:
    that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. (33:53)
  6. Purity from unchastity:
    And (remember) when the angels said: O Mary! Lo!
    Allah has chosen you and made you pure, and has
    preferred you above (all) the women of the world (of her
    times). (3:43)
    Purity from dirt and filth:
    And as for those who believe and do good works, We
    shall make them enter Gardens underneath which rivers
    flow, they abide therein for ever; there for them are
    purified mates (wives), and We shall make them enter
    plenteous shade. (4:57)
  7. Purity from ritual impurities:
    O you who believe! When you rise up for prayer, wash
    your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe
    your heads (with wet hands), and (wash) your feet up to
    the ankles. And if you are in a state of major ritual
    impurity (janabah), purify yourselves (by taking a bath).
    The Purity
    11
    And if you are sick or on a journey, or one of you comes
    from the answering of call of nature, or you have had
    contact with women, and you find no water, then go to
    clean earth and wipe your faces and hands with some of
    it. Allah does not want to place you in difficulty, but He
    wants to purify you and to perfect His grace upon you
    that you may give thanks. (5:6)
    A’ishah, (may Allah be pleased with her) reported: Asma asked
    the Prophet ، about washing after menstruation. He said:
    “Everyone amongst you should use water (mixed with
    the leaves of the lote-tree) and cleanse herself well, and
    then pour water on her head and rub it vigorously till it
    reaches the roots of the hair. Then she should wash
    herself well in that area. She should then take a piece of
    cotton smeared with musk and purify herself with it.”
    Asma said: How should she cleanse herself with the help of
    that? Upon this he (the Prophet ) observed:
    “Far removed is Allah from every imperfection! She
    should cleanse herself. Asma further asked about
    bathing after sexual intercourse. The Prophet  said:
    She should wash herself well or complete the ablution
    and then pour water on her head and rub it until it
    reaches the roots of her hair and then bathe the rest of
    her body. A’isha said: How good are the women of
    Ansar! Their shyness does not prevent them from
    learning religion. (Bukhari & Muslim)
    The Purity
    12
    Qualities of Purification
     It is equal in excellence to half the faith: The Prophet of Allah,
     said in this regard:
    “Cleanliness is equal to half the faith and saying: “Praise be to
    Allah (i.e. Alhamdu Lillah) makes the scale of good works
    become hefty. The utterance of‘ Subhan Allah’ (Far removed is
    Allah from every imperfection!) and ‘Alhamdu Lillah’ (Praise
    be to Allah!) fill the space between the heavens and the earth
    (with blessings). Salat (prayer) is light, alms giving is a proof
    (of one’s faith) and the Holy Qur’an is a plea in your favour or
    against you. Everyone begins his morning ready to bargain
    with his soul as a stake and frees it or loses it.” (Muslim)
     Purification is beloved and pleasing to God. Abu Hurairah,
    may Allah be pleased with him, reported the Prophet  as
    saying:
    “The following verse was revealed concerning the people of
    Quba: “Wherein are men who love to purify themselves.” They
    used to cleanse themselves with soul and water (after answering
    the call of nature), so this verse was revealed about them.” (Abu
    Daud & Tirmidhi)
     It is one of the qualities of believers because it is a type of
    worship seen only by Allah. The Prophet  said:
    “You should know that prayer is the best of your deeds. Only a
    believer keeps observing wudu’ (ablution).” (Ibn Majah, Darmi
    and Baihaqi)
     Maintaining purification is an act that leads to acceptance of
    supplication. The Noble Prophet  said,
    The Purity
    13
    “If a Muslim sleeps while he is pure (having performed
    ablution) then when he wakes up during night he mentions the
    name of Allah and asks Allah anything of the good things in
    this life and the Hereafter, Allah will surely give him what he
    asked.” (Ahmad & Tabrani)
     It also rasies one rank in the sight of God. The Prophet  said
    to Bilal at the time of the Fajr (Dawn) prayer:
    “O Bilal, Tell me the most promising work you have done in
    Islam, for I heard the knock of your shoes in the Heavenly
    Gardens. Bilal answered: I haven’t done an act more hopeful to
    me than this: I have never performed ablution during daytime
    or night but (after that) I performed what I could of voluntary
    prayers.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
     The act of maintaining purity removes the sins. The Prophet
     said:
    “When the time of a prescribed prayer comes, if any Muslim
    performs excellently its ablution, humility and bowing. It will
    be an expiation for his past sins, so long as he has not
    committed a major sin, and this applies to all times.”
    “May I tell you something by which Allah obliterates the sins
    and elevates the ranks (of a man)? They said: “Yes, O
    Messenger of Allah.” He said: Performing the ablution
    thoroughly despite odds, traversing of more paces towards the
    mosque, and waiting for the next prayer after observing a
    prayer. This is (as good as) Rabat (watching in the night in the
    cause of Allah.” (Muslim)
     Amr ibn Absah asked the Messenger of Allah  about
    ablution. The Messenger  said:
    “As for ablution when you wash your hands, your sins will be
    removed from underneath your nails and finger-tips. If you
    The Purity
    14
    rinse your mouth and nostrils, wash your face and hands and
    arms up to the elbows, wipe your head and wash your feet up to
    the ankles, you will have all your sins washed away. When you
    have placed your face on the ground in prostration to Allah, you
    will be purified of all your sins as you were on the day of your
    birth.” (Nasai)
     It is one of the qualities of true nature. The Prophet  said:
    “Ten acts are demands of true nature, namely: clipping the
    moustache, letting the beard grow, brushing the teeth with
    Miswak, snuffing up water in the nose, clipping the nails,
    washing the finger joints, plucking the hair under the armpits,
    shaving the pubes, and cleaning the private parts with water
    (after call of nature) The narrator said: I have forgotten the
    tenth, but it may have been rinsing the mouth.” (Muslim)
     One more feature of ablution is indicated in the tradition
    narrated by Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, that
    Allah’s Messenger  once visited the graveyard and said:
    “Peace be upon you! The abode of the believing people and we, if
    Allah so wills, are about to join you. I love to see my brothers.
    They (his Companion) said: ‘Aren’t we your brothers,
    Messenger of Allah?’ He said: ‘You are my Companions, and
    our brothers are those who have, so far, not come into the
    world.’ They said: Messenger of Allah, how would you
    recognize those persons of your Ummah who have not yet been
    born? He said: Supposing a man had horses with white blazes
    on foreheads and legs among horses which were all black, tell
    me, would he not recognize his own horses? They said:
    Certainly, Messenger of Allah. He said: They would come with
    white faces and arms and legs owing to ablution, and I would
    arrive at the Cistern (the basin from which the Prophet gives his
    followers fresh water to drink on the Day of Judgment) before
    them. Some people would be driven away from my Cistern as
    The Purity
    15
    the stray camel is driven away. I would call out: Come, come.
    Then it would be said (to me): These people changed themselves
    after you, and I would say: Be off, be off.” (Muslim)
    Maintaining purity and cleanliness is a major means of
    protection from infections. It is common knowledge that
    ‘prevention is better than cure’. In the olden days, it was said:
    “A dirham of prevention is better than a hundred weight of
    cure.”
    This book will deal only with purification from tangible or
    visible impurities. I pray to Allah to make it useful. Ameen
    Abdul Rahman Al-Sheha
    P O Box 59565,
    Riyadh 11535
    E-mail : [email protected]
    The Purity
    16
    Purification From Tangible Impurities
    For anyone who intends to perform prayer ،wudû’ (ablution) is
    a must, as it is a prerequisite for prayer. If one wants to perform
    prayer, he is required first to perform ablution in case of minor
    ritual impurity or ceremonial bath (ghusl) in case of major
    impurity (janabah). On relieving oneself, excrement or urine
    must be cleansed from the body either with water or by using
    tissue paper or stones. If he chooses to use either of them, water
    is better because it cleans in a more effective manner and
    removes filth itself:
     The urine, excrement and other discharges from the body
    (such as pre-seminal fluid) must be cleansed with water until
    the unclean matter is removed.
     Removal of such filthy matter can be executed by the use of
    stones, cloth, tissue paper and the like. The use of three clean
    stones0F
    1 for removing the filthy matter is a minimum. If it is not
    removed, the number of stones must be increased until
    cleanliness is achieved. Generally, odd number of stones is
    preferable, for the Prophet  said:
    “If one uses cleaning stones, let him use them three times ”.He
    also said“ :If one answers the call of nature, he must use three
    stones for cleaning; this will be sufficient”. (Ahmad, Abu Daud
    & Nasai)
     The right hand must not be used for cleaning of private parts,
    since this was forbidden. This is supported by the narration of
    Abdur-Rahman ibn Zaid, may Allah be pleased with him who
    reported:
    1 In this day and age, toilet paper is the normal substitute for stones.
    The Purity
    17
    “Salman was asked if the Prophet  had taught them
    everything including cleansing after relieving oneself, on that
    he answered: “Yes. He forbade us to face the Qiblah when
    defecating or urinating, to use the right hand for cleaning
    ourselves, to use less than three stones, or to clean ourselves
    with dung or a bone.” (Muslim, Abu Daud & Tirmidhi)
    What is Wudu’?
    It is cleaning with water specific parts of the body, namely: the
    face, both hands, the head and both feet. It is a prerequisite for
    both obligatory and voluntary prayers after minor impurity
    (like urinating, defecating passing gas/wind and eating camel
    meat). The Wudu’ was prescribed along with prayer (salat) one
    year before Hijrah and it is a privilege of the Muslim Nation
    over other nations.
    Ablution is a prerequisite for the following acts:
     Prayer (Salat), whether obligatory or voluntary. The Prophet
     said:
    “The prayer of none amongst you would be accepted in a state of
    impurity till he performs ablution ”.(Bukhari & Muslim)
     Tawaf (circumambulation of the Ka’bah): as Prophet
    Mohammad  said:
    “Circumambulation of the (Holy) House is a prayer, except for
    the fact that Allah has made talk permissible during it ”.
    (Musnad Shafai)
     Touching the Noble Book (The Qur’an): Abu Bakr ibn
    Muhammad ibn Amr said,
    “The Prophet  wrote a letter to the people of Yemen which
    read: “Nobody is allowed to touch the Qur’an unless he is
    pure.” (Nasai, Darqutni & Baihaqi)
    The Purity
    18
    Full Description of Wudu’
     Intention (or: niyah), which is an act of the heart and has
    nothing to do with the tongue. It denotes willing or planning to
    do something. Thus a person intends (in his heart) to perform
    wudu’ (ablution) in order to be permitted or able to perform acts
    that require wudu’ as a prior requirement, such as prayer, tawaf,
    and touching the Holy Qur’an. He may intend to remove the
    state of impurity without uttering such intent. That is because
    there is no Hadith that the Prophet () pronounced the intention
    in case of wudu’, prayer or any of his acts of worship. Besides,
    Allah is Well-Aware of the content of the heart. The proof of
    the necessity of intention (niyah) is the tradition narrated by
    Omar, may Allah be pleased with him, reading:
    “The (integrity of) acts is based on intentions, and each person
    will be rewarded according to what he intends.” (Agreed upon)
     Saying at the beginning of wudu’: “Bismillah,” (i.e. by the
    name of Allah) on account of Abu Hurairah’s tradition which
    states that:
    “No prayer is valid without wudu’, and no wudu’ is valid
    without mentioning the Name of Allah.” (Ahmad, Abu Daud,
    Ibn Majah etc.)
    The noble Prophet  also said:
    “Every important matter will be imperfect (or lacking in
    blessing) if it is not started with the name of Allah.” (Ahmad)
     Washing the palms of hands three times at the beginning of
    the wudu’. Aws ibn Aws Al-Thaqafi, may Allah be pleased with
    him, said:
    “I saw Allah’s Messenger, , wash his palms three times when
    he performed wudu’.” (Ahmad & Nasai)
    The Purity
    19
    The Prophet  also said:
    “If any of you wakes up, he should not dip his hand into a
    container unless he washes it three times, for he does not know
    where it was (what it was doing or touching) during the night.”
    (Agreed upon)
     Rinsing the mouth and nostrils three times.
    “Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, had water brought to him,
    upon which he rinsed his mouth and nostrils, then cleared his
    nose with his left hand. He did it three times, then said: Such is
    the ablution of Allah’s Prophet .” (Ahmad & Nasai)
    The Prophet  also said:
    “If a person performs wudu’ let him clear his nose, and if he
    cleans himself (with pebbles after urinating or defecating) let
    him do it with odd numbers.” (Bukhari)
    A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, reported the Prophet
     as saying:
    “Rinsing the mouth and nostrils are an essential part of
    wudu’.” (Darqutni)
    It is recommended to use the right hand when rinsing the
    mouth and nostrils (when putting water into them) and the left
    hand when rinsing the nostrils out (clearing them from dirt).
    This is based on the behaviour of Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah
    be pleased with him).
    “When he entered his hand in the container and took a handful
    of water, he then rinsed his mouth and nostrils, and cleared the
    latter with his left hand (He did this three times). After this he
    said: This is the wudu’ of Allah’s Prophet .” (Nasai)
     Washing the face once, as a minimum. It is optimum to do it
    three times, by pouring water on the face. The face must be
    covered with water from the top, where hair grows, down to
    The Purity
    20
    the bottom of the chin or beard, and from right to left earlobe.
    The Qur’an says of which the meaning is translated as:
    “O you who believe! When you rise to offer the prayer, wash
    your faces and your hands up to the elbows, wipe (by passing
    wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to the
    ankles.” (Al-Maidah: 6)
     Washing the hands from the tips of the fingers up to the
    elbows including the elbows once as a minimum, but three
    times is better. It is recommended to start with the right hand,
    then the left, and move the ring and watch (if any) so that water
    should reach under them. This is supported by the same verse
    mentioned in the former section.
    “Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, washed his
    right hand up to the upper arm, then the left hand like that. He
    washed his right foot up to the leg, then the left foot like that.
    Then he said: I saw the Messenger of Allah  perform ablution
    like this.” (Muslim)
     Wiping the head once with wet hands from front to back then
    the other way round. Abdullah ibn Zaid, may Allah be pleased
    with him, narrated that:
    “Allah’s Messenger  wiped his head from the forehead to the
    back of his head and then back to the forehead with his wet
    hands.” (Sunan narrators)
    In another description of the Prophet’s wudu’, it was
    mentioned that:
    “He wiped his head (with water) only once ”.(Agreed upon)
     Wiping the ears once (from the inside with index fingers and
    from the outside with thumbs). Ibn ‘Abbas, may Allah be
    pleased with them, in his description of the Prophet’s wudu’,
    said:
    The Purity
    21
    “He wiped his head and ears once ”.
    In another narration, he said :
    “He wiped his head and then his ears from the inside with the
    index fingers and from the outside with his thumbs”.( Ahmad &
    Abu Daud)
     Washing the feet once as a minimum. It is better, however, to
    wash them three times from the toes up to the ankles. The
    ankles should be included in washing. Ibn ‘Amr, may Allah be
    pleased with him, said:
    “We were with the Prophet  on a journey, and Al-‘Asr prayer
    was over-due. We were performing ablution and passing wet
    hands over our feet (not washing them thoroughly), when he
    said to us in a loud voice: Woe to the heels because of the hellfire.” (Agreed upon)
     Doing the above steps in order, and succession just like they
    have been mentioned in the Holy Qur’an of which the meaning
    is translated as:
    “O you who believe! When you rise up for prayer, wash your
    faces, and hands up to the elbows, and lightly wipe your heads
    and (wash) your feet up to the ankles ”.(Al-Maidah :6)
    Succession here means that one should not delay washing of a
    part of the body until the previous one has become dry. Omar,
    may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that :
    “The Prophet  saw a man praying, but a portion of his foot as
    large as a dirham was not touched with water. Therefore, the
    Prophet ordered him to repeat his wudu’ and prayer.”
    The Purity
    22
    Supererogatory Acts of Wudu’
     Starting on the right side. A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with
    her, narrated that:
    “Allah’s Messenger  liked beginning with the right side when
    putting on his shoes, combing his hair, his purification and in
    all his affairs.” (Agreed upon)
    He also said :
    “On performing ablution, begin with your right side ”.(Ibn
    Majah)
     Washing the parts three times each, except for the head which
    is wiped once.
    “A bedouin came to Allah’s Messenger  to ask him about
    wudu’. The Prophet  demonstrated for him three times each
    and said: This is wudu’. If anyone exceeds this, he will commit
    a wrongful act.” (Ahmad & Nasai)
     The use of miswak or tooth-stick. The Prophet  said:
    “Were it not that I might over-burden my people, I would have
    ordered them to use tooth-stick with every wudu’.” (Ahmad)
     Running fingers through the beard. Anas, may Allah be
    pleased with him, narrated that:
    “The Prophet, when performing wudu’, used to take a handful
    of water and pour it on his beard, running his fingers through
    it, and then say: Thus my Lord, glory be to Him, has commanded
    me.” (Abu Daud, Baihaqi & Hakim)
     Rubbing washed parts. Abdullah ibn Zaid, may Allah be
    pleased with him, narrated:
    “The Prophet  was brought a third of a Mudd (i.e. about six
    hundred grams) of water. He performed ablution and rubbed his
    arms.” (Ibn Khuzaimah)
    The Purity
    23
     Increasing the brightness of forehead by washing the top of it
    up to the roots of the hair, when washing the face, as well as
    washing the hands up to elbows and the feet above the ankles.
    The Prophet  said:
    “My people will come on the Day of Judgment with bright faces,
    hands
    and feet from the traces of wudu’. If any of you can lengthen
    his brightness, let him do it.” (Agreed upon)
     Running fingers between the fingers of the hands and the
    toes. Ibn ‘Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them, reported the
    Prophet  as saying:
    “When you perform wudu’, run your fingers between the
    fingers of your hands and toes of your feet.” (Ahmad,
    Tirmidhi & Ibn Majah)
     This includes moving the ring so that water will reach
    beneath it. Abu Rafe’a, may Allah be pleased with him,
    reported that:
    “Allah’s Messenger  used to move his ring when he
    performed wudu’.”
     Sniffing water up well inside the nose except for those who
    are fasting. Laqit ibn Saburah said:
    “O Messenger of Allah , tell me about wudu’. The Prophet 
    answered: Perform a perfect wudu’, run your fingers between
    the fingers of the hands and the toes, and sniff water up well
    inside the nose unless you are fasting.” (Sunan narrators)
     Avoiding waste of water. Abdullah ibn Mughaffal, may Allah
    be pleased with him, heard his son say: ‘O Allah! I beg You to
    give me the white palace on the right side of Paradise if I enter
    it.’ He said to him: ‘My son! Ask Allah for Paradise and seek
    refuge from Hell. I heard Allah’s Messenger  say:
    The Purity
    24
    “There will be in this nation some people who trespass in
    matters of purification and supplication ”.(Abu Daud)
    Our example in this regard is our Prophet  for:
    “He used to bathe himself with a Saa’1F
    2 (about 2.5 liters) up to
    five Mudds, and to perform wudu’ with a Mudd (about .6
    liter).” (Agreed upon)
     Invocation following it. Omar, may Allah be pleased with
    him, narrated that Allah’s Messenger  said:
    “If one of you performs ablution in a perfect manner then says :
    “I testify that there is no true god but Allah the Alone, has no
    associate with Him, and testify that Muhammad is His slave
    and Messenger”, the eight gates of Paradise will be opened for
    him to enter through any of them.” (Muslim)
     Performing two rak’at after wudu’ (i.e. wudu’ prayer), based on
    Allah’s Messenger tradition narrated by ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Amer,
    may Allah be pleased with him:
    “If a person performs ablution well, then prays two rak’at
    dedicating his heart and body to them, he will surely be entitled
    to Paradise.” (Muslim)
    Things That Invalidate Wudu’
     Relieving oneself (defecating or urinating), or passing wind.
    God, the Exalted, says:
    “..or one of you comes after answering the call of nature.” (AlMaidah: 6)
    The Prophet  said:
    “The prayer of any of you who is in a state of impurity (hadath)
    2 A weight of measure that is equal to about 2.5 litres of water.
    The Purity
    25
    will not be accepted until he performs ablution.”
    One man asked Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him:
    What is “hadath”, Abu Hurairah? He said:
    “Breaking wind.” (Agreed upon)
     Urethral discharge or pre-seminal fluid (madhi) and secretion
    of prostate (wadi). Ali said:
    “I was a man whose pre-seminal fluid flowed readily. So I
    requested a man to ask Allah’s Messenger  about it (in view
    of his relationship to his daughter). When he asked the Prophet
     he said: Wash your penis and perform ablution.” (Bukhari)
     Complete sleep (during which one loses consciousness). Ali,
    may Allah be pleased with him, reported Allah’s Messenger 
    as saying:
    “The eye when awake precludes breaking wind. If anyone sleeps
    he must perform ablution.” (Ahmad, Abu Daud & Ibn Majah)
    However, drowsiness during which one is still conscious does
    not invalidate wudu’.
     Eating camel’s meat. Jabir ibn Samurah, may Allah be pleased
    with him, narrated that a man asked the Prophet :
    “‘Should we perform ablution after eating mutton?’ He replied:
    ‘If you wish perform ablution, otherwise don’t perform it.’ The
    man asked (again): ‘Should we perform ablution after eating
    camel’s meat?’ He said: ‘Yes, perform ablution after eating
    camel’s meat.’ He asked: ‘Can we perform prayer at camel’s rest
    places?’ He answered: ‘No.” (Muslim & Ahmad)
     Loss of one’s senses or state of unconsciousness resulting
    from lunacy, epilepsy, fainting, drug or drunkenness, because
    integrity of the mind is a prerequisite to the validity of wudu’.
     Touching sexual organs (i.e. the penis, vulva or anus) with the
    exposed palm of the hand. The Prophet  said:
    The Purity
    26
    “If a man touches his penis he should perform wudu’, and if a
    woman touches her vulva she should (also) perform wudu’.”
    (Ahmad)
     Vomiting. It was narrated that:
    “The Prophet  vomited and then performed wudu’.” (Ahmad)
     Excessive bleeding. The Prophet  said:
    “Whoever vomits, bleeds through the nose during prayer should
    perform wudu’.”
     Touching a woman (such as his wife) with desire that leads to
    pre-seminal discharge, based on Ibn Abbas’ saying: Semen
    necessitates having a bath. As for pre-seminal fluid (madhi) and
    secretion of prostrate (wadi), he said: Wash your penis and
    perform wudu’ as that for prayer.
    Wudu’ is Recommended for the Following
     On going to sleep. Al-Bara’ ibn Azib, may Allah be pleased
    with him, narrated: the Prophet  said:
    “Whenever you go to bed perform ablution like the one you
    perform for prayer, lie on your right side and say: “Allahumma
    aslamtu wajhi ilayk, wa fawwadtu amri ilayk, wa alja’tu Zahri
    ilayk, raghbatan wa rahbatan ilayk, la malja’a wala manja
    minka illa ilayk. Allahumma amantu bikitabikal-ladhi anzalta,
    wa binabiyikal-ladhi arsalta.” (O Allah! I surrender to You and
    entrust all my affairs to You, and depend upon You for
    blessings, both with hope and fear of You. There is no fleeing
    from You, and there is no place of protection and safety except
    with You. O Allah! I believe in Your Book (the Qur’an) which
    You have revealed and in Your Prophet (Muhammad ) whom
    you have sent.) Then if you die on that very night, you will die
    The Purity
    27
    on the religion of pure nature (i.e. Islam). Let the aforesaid
    words be your last utterance (before sleep).” (Bukhari)
     In case of major ritual impurity (Janabah) if one wants to eat,
    drink, sleep or practise (with one’s wife) sex again. Ammar ibn
    Yasser said:
    “Allah’s Messenger  recommended the person who has
    Janabah to perform wudu’ like the one performed for prayer in
    case he/she wants to eat, drink or sleep.” (Ahmad & Tirmidhi)
    The Prophet  also said:
    “If a person goes to bed with his wife and then intends to have her
    again, let him perform wudu’.” (Narrated by all except Bukhari)
     Just before the ritual bath for Janabah, and after menstruation
    and postpartum (childbirth) period. A’ishah, may Allah be
    pleased with her, reported that:
    “Allah’s Messenger  on taking a bath for Janabah, used to
    wash his hands, and use his right hand to pour water on his left
    hand to wash his private parts, then perform wudu’ like that for
    prayer.” (Agreed upon)
     Renewal of wudu’ at each prayer. The Prophet  said:
    “Had it not been difficult for my nation (Muslims), I would
    have ordered them to perform wudu’ for each prayer, and to use
    the tooth-stick with each wudu’.” (Ahmad)
    He also said:
    “If a person performs wudu’ while he is (ritually) pure, the
    reward for his wudu’ will be ten-fold (i.e. ten hasanat will be
    recorded for him).” (Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah)
    The Purity
    28
    Some Infractions during Wudu’
     Uttering the intention to perform wudu’. According to Ibn AlQayyim, the Prophet  used not to say (aloud) at the beginning
    of wudu’: “I intend to remove ritual (minor) impurity or make
    prayer permissible.’ Neither he nor any of his Companions did
    that; not even one word has been ascribed to him in this
    respect, whether through authentic or doubtful chain of
    transmitters.
    Imam Ibn Taymiyah said: The intention to perform purification
    (i.e. wudu’, major ritual purification (ritual bath), tayammum,
    prayer (salat), obligatory charity (zakat), expiations, and other
    devotions) need not be uttered, as agreed between the Imams of
    Islam. Intention is in the heart. If a person pronounces
    unintentionally contrary to what he has intended in his heart,
    what he intends, not what he utters, shall be valid. (Fatawa
    Kubra p. 213 The Book of Purification)
     Supplications while washing wudu’ parts, such as saying on
    washing one’s right hand: ‘O Allah! Give me my Record on the
    Day of Judgment in my right hand.’ On washing the face, one
    may say: ‘Oh Allah! Make my face bright on the day when
    some faces grow bright and others grow dark.’ According to
    Ibn Al-Qayyim, nothing has proved to have been said by
    Allah’s Messenger  during wudu’ except ‘Bismillah’ at its
    beginning and the testimony. “There is no true god but Allah
    and Muhammad is His Messenger. O Allah! Make me among
    those who turn to You in repentance and those who purify
    themselves.”
    In another tradition narrated by Nasa’i, the following
    supplication is mentioned:
    The Purity
    29
    “O Allah! Glory and praises be to You. I testify that there is no
    true god but You. I seek Your forgiveness and turn to You in
    repentance”.
    Wiping the neck after wiping the head. Imam ibn Taymiyah,
    Allah’s Mercy be upon him, said: There is no proof that the
    Prophet  wiped his neck in wudu’; no authentic Hadith was
    reported in this regard. The authentic traditions that described
    the Prophet’s wudu’ did not contain any indication that he 
    wiped his neck. Therefore, the majority of Muslim scholars
    have not recommended this act. Those who recommended it
    relied on a tradition narrated by Abu Hurairah, may Allah be
    pleased with him, which is weak. If a person does not wipe his
    neck, his wudu’ is unanimously considered valid. (Fatawa
    Kubra, P.280, The Book of Purification)
     Incomplete wash of wudu’ parts.
    “The Prophet  saw a man praying and noticed that a portion
    of his foot as large as a dirham was not covered with water. So
    he ordered him to repeat his wudu’.” (Narrated by Imam
    Ahmad, by Abu Dawood, who added ‘and prayer,’ and by AlHakim)
     Repetition of wudu’ without performing a prayer (salat)
    between two wudu’s. Imam Ibn Taymiyah stated: Jurists only
    discussed the case of the person who performs prayer after the
    first wudu’: whether it is recommended for him to renew wudu’.
    In case he does not perform prayer after it, it is not
    recommended for him to renew his wudu’; such renewal would
    even be an act of heresy which is in conflict with the Prophet’s
    Sunnah and the practice of Muslims ever since the times of the
    Prophet  up to the present.
     Exceeding three times when washing the parts of wudu’, since
    this in conflict with the Prophet’s instruction when he said:
    The Purity
    30
    “If a person innovated in this religion something which does not
    belong to it, it would be rejected ”.(Agreed upon)
     Some people, when having filth on their bodies or clothes, do
    not only remove the filth (by washing it away), but also think
    that they must re-perform wudu’. Sheikh Saleh Al-Fozan’s
    answer to a question about this matter was as follows: If filth
    falls on a person’s body or garment (after he has performed
    wudu’), his wudu’ is not affected thereby as he has done nothing
    that invalidates wudu’. The only thing he has got to do is to
    wash the filth or impurity off his body or garment and perform
    his prayers, and there is nothing wrong in this. (Fatawa noorun
    ala-Darb, p.107)
     On washing the face, one must wash the whole face,
    including the area between the beard and the ears.
     Some women, after performing wudu’, may clean the private
    parts of babies with bare hands and then go to prayer, though
    their wudu’ has been invalidated by touching the private parts
    of their babies.
     Some women may have their nails polished. It should be noted
    that this would prevent water from reaching the nails, so it makes
    the wudu’ incomplete, hence invalid, and prayer would thereby be
    invalid. Such women must reperform their prayer after
    performing a valid wudu’. The same applies in case there is a
    screening layer of any paint or substance on any body part that is
    to be washed during wudu’, unless there is a legal excuse.
     Some people think that washing the private parts is required
    with every wudu’, which is not true. It is only required from the
    one who answers the call of nature (by urination or defecation).
    In case of sleep or passing wind, it is not required to wash such
    parts of the body; wudu’ can be performed directly.
    The Purity
    31
     Some people may think that touching the penis of an animal
    invalidates wudu’. According to Imam Ibn Taymiyah: Touching
    the penis of an animal, living or dead, does not invalidate
    wudu’. (Fatawa Kubra, P.280, The Book of Purification)
    The Purity
    32
    Some Verdicts on Wudu’
    If a person performs ablution then goes to prayer, is his
    prayer invalidated in case he feels as if something (i.e. urine)
    were dripping from him؟
    Mere feeling based on doubt does not invalidate prayer, so
    he should not interrupt his prayer .
    “The Prophet  was asked about a man who feels something
    occurring to him during his prayer, and he answered: ‘He
    should not leave his prayer unless he hears a sound or smells a
    scent.” (Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ahmad)
    However, if he is sure that drops of urine are really passed from
    his penis, his wudu’ will be invalidated and he is required to
    wash the urine, unless he is incontinent of urine (then his
    prayer would not be invalidated if he does what is due from
    him. (Fatawa Kubra, P.281, The Book of Purification)
    If a man kisses or hugs his wife and consequently passes
    pre-seminal fluid, is he required to re-perform wudu’ or not?
    His wudu’ becomes invalidated. He should clean his private
    (sexual) organs and perform wudu’. (Fatawa Kubra, p. 294,
    The Book of Purification)
    If pus is continually coming out from a man’s penis, would
    his prayer be still valid?
    He must not stop his prayer, but he prays as is possible for
    him. If the flow of pus does not stop for a time enough for
    wudu’ and prayer, he should perform his prayer even if the pus
    keeps coming out. However, he should use some protection
    that prevents the pus from spreading. (Fatawa Kubra, P. 310,
    The Book of Purification)
    Q
    A
    Q
    A
    Q
    A
    The Purity
    33
    Is the ritual bath (ghusl) enough so that you can do without
    wudu’?
    If one is required to have a ritual bath, he would be advised
    to perform wudu’ beforehand. Thus he performs a complete
    wudu’, then has the bath thereafter. When he completes his bath
    he, is not required to repeat wudu’. But if he performs the ritual
    bath (ghusl) only (without wudu’), observing the sequence of
    wudu’ organs it would be sufficient for him and the wudu’ is not
    necessary. (Islamic verdict by a group of scholars p1/191)
    Wiping over Socks
    The permissibility and validity of this is based on Jarir ibn
    Abdullah’s tradition:
    “I saw Allah’s Messenger  pass urine then perform wudu’
    and wipe over his Khuff (socks).” (Agreed upon)
    To perform ablution then put on your socks and wipe over
    them for other ablutions would be better than putting them on
    without ablution and taking them off thereafter for the next
    ablution. Al-Mughirah ibn Shu’bah said:
    “I was with Allah’s Messenger  on a journey. I intended to take
    his leather socks off but he said: ‘Leave them for I put them on after
    performing wudu’,’ and he wiped over them.”(Agreed upon)
    The Area to be Wiped
    The upper surface of the boots should be wiped, as the Prophet
     did this. Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said:
    “Had religion been based on personal opinion, then wiping over
    the bottom surface of the socks would have been more
    appropriate. I saw Allah’s Messenger  wipe over the top of his
    leather socks.” (Abu Daud and Tabrani)
    Q
    A
    The Purity
    34
    Pre-requisites for Wiping over Socks
  8. The leather socks and the like should be put on after
    performing wudu’. This is based on the aforesaid AlMughirah’s tradition.
  9. Boots or socks must be clean from filth. If they are
    impure or filthy they cannot be used (for wiping or
    prayer) .
    “Allah’s Messenger  one day led his Companions in prayer
    wearing the shoes. During prayer, he took off his shoes because
    Jibril (Gabriel) had told him that his shoes were not clean.”
  10. Wiping over leather socks and the like applies only in
    case of wudu’, not in case of ritual bath (ghusl). Safwan
    ibn Assal said:
    “Allah’s Messenger  told us to keep wearing our boots while on
    travel for three days and nights except in case of major ritual
    impurity (Janabah). Only in case of urinating, defecating and
    sleeping (we can wipe over them).” (Ahmad, Tirmidhi and Nasai)
  11. Wiping over boots must be within the prescribed time
    limit, which is one day and night for residents and three
    days and nights for travellers. Ali ibn Abi Talib asked
    about the time limit for wiping (over boots) and the
    Prophet’s answer was:
    “For a person travelling: Three days and three nights; for a
    resident: one day and one night ”.(Muslim & others)
  12. Boots must cover the area of the feet as required to be
    washed.
    The Purity
    35
    Description of Wiping over Boots
    Having put on clean boots or socks after performing ablution, a
    Muslim can wipe them with water, instead of taking them off
    and washing his feet. He should pass his wet right hand over
    his right foot from the toes to the leg, then his wet left hand
    over the left foot likewise. Al-Mughirah ibn Shu’bah, may Allah
    be pleased with him, described the Prophet’s wudu’ saying:
    “Then he performed wudu’ and wiped over the boots placing his
    right hand on his right boot and his left hand on his left boot,
    then wiped their top surface once as if I am looking at the traces
    of his fingers on the boots now.”
    Time Limit
     Three days and nights for a traveller, and one day and night
    for a resident based on Ali’s tradition mentioned earlier.
     The period starts as from the first wiping after minor ritual
    impurity (hadath) (based on the strongest verdict of scholars)
    and ends after the elapse of 24 hours for the resident and 72
    hours for the traveller.
    Things that Terminate the Validity of Wiping
     Major ritual impurity (janabah), based on the fore mentioned
    tradition narrated by Safwan.
     Expiry of the prescribed wiping duration (That is, one day
    and night for residents, and three days and nights for
    travellers), as stated in the tradition narrated by Ali ibn Abi
    Talib ( may Allah be pleased with him).
     Taking off both or either of the boots.
    The Purity
    36
    Major Ritual Purification) Ghusl)
    It means washing the whole body with water. It is necessitated
    by one of the following:
     Ejaculation (of semen) because of coitus, masturbation,
    reflection, wet dream, or other reasons. This is based on the
    Qur’anic guidance which meaning is translated as:
    “If you are in a state of Janabah (i.e. after sexual discharge),
    purify yourselves (bathe your whole body).” (Al-Maidah: 6)
    The Prophet  said:
    “Ghusl (major ritual bath) is a must after ejaculation of semen ”.
    (Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ahmad)
     Sexual intercourse by inserting the glans completely into the
    vulva, even if no ejaculation takes place, in which case both
    spouses are required to take a bath (ghusl). The Prophet  said:
    “If he (the husband) sits between her legs and penetrates her, ghusl
    (bath) is obligatory, whether he ejaculates or not ”.(Muslim)
     The stopping of bleeding resulting from menstruation or
    postpartum (confinement) period. The Qur’an says of which the
    meaning is translated as:
    “They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: It is a harm, so
    keep away from women at such times and go not in unto them
    till they are purified. And when they have purified themselves,
    then go in unto them as Allah enjoined upon you. Truly Allah
    loves those who turn unto Him, and loves those who have
    purified themselves.” (Al-Baqarah:222)
    Allah’s Messenger  said to Fatimah Bint Abi Hubaish:
    “Leave prayer throughout the days of menstruation, then
    perform ghusl and do prayer ”.(Agreed upon)
    The Purity
    37
     Death. Thus if a Muslim dies, living Muslims are required to
    bathe him/her. Umm ‘Atiyyah, may Allah be pleased with her,
    narrated:
    “Allah’s Messenger  came to us when his daughter died and
    said: ‘Wash her three, five or more times with water and sidr
    (lote-tree leaves) if you think it is required and sprinkle
    camphor or something of it on her at the end.’ When we
    finished, we informed him and he gave us his waist-sheet and
    told us to shroud her in it.” (Agreed upon)
     If a disbeliever embraces Islam, he should take a ritual bath.
    This is base on the tradition reported by Qais ibn Assem:
    “I came to the Prophet  to embrace Islam, so he ordered me to
    bathe with water and sidr.” (Abu Daud & Nasai)
    Abu Hurairah narrated that :
    “When Thumamah Al-Hanafi embraced Islam the Prophet 
    sent him to Abu Talha’s farm and required him to perform a
    ritual bath. There, he took a bath and performed two rak’at,
    upon which Allah’s Messenger said: ‘The faith of your brother
    has improved.” (Ahmad)
    Description of Complete Ritual Bath) Ghusl)
     He intends (in his heart) to perform ghusl to remove major
    ritual impurity (Janabah, menstruation or postpartum period)
    without uttering such intention, because nothing has been
    reported that proves that the Prophet  uttered the intention to
    perform ghusl, wudu’, prayer or any other act of worship.
    Besides, Allah is Best Aware of what is in the minds of men.
    This is based on the Prophet’s tradition narrated by Omar, may
    Allah be pleased with him:
    The Purity
    38
    “Acts are based on intention. Each one shall have (the harvest
    of) what he intends ”.(Agreed upon)
     He says: ‘Bismillah!’ (i.e. By the name of Allah). Then he
    washes his hands, then his private parts and removes the filth.
    A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, reported:
    “When Allah’s Messenger  bathed because of sexual
    intercourse, he first washed his hands, he then poured water
    with his right hand on his left hand and washed his private
    parts. He then performed ablution as is done for prayer. He then
    took some water (in his hand and put it on his head) and put his
    fingers and moved them through the roots of his hair. And
    when he found that these had been properly moistened, then
    poured three handfuls on his head and then poured water over
    his body and subsequently washed his feet.” (Muslim)
     Next, he performs complete wudu’ (like that for prayer),
    except for his feet, which he can delay until he finishes his bath.
    This is based on the above-mentioned tradition reported by
    A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, in which she says:
    “He then performs ablution as is done for prayer”.
     He pours three handfuls on his head and runs his fingers
    through his hair and beard so that water should reach his scalp.
    Maimounah, may Allah be pleased with her, reported:
    “I placed water for the Prophet  to take a bath. He poured
    water over his hands, and washed them once or twice. Then he
    poured water with his right hand over his left one and washed
    his private parts. He rubbed his hand over the earth (and
    washed it). He rinsed his mouth and washed his nose by putting
    water in it and blowing it out. He washed his face and forearms,
    then his head three times. He poured water over his body and
    then withdrew from that place and washed his feet. I brought
    The Purity
    39
    him a piece of cloth (towel), but he returned it. He (only) shook
    water off his hand.” (Agreed upon)
     A person should pour water over the whole of his body,
    rubbing whatever he could of his body, beginning with the
    right side, then left side. He should take care to make water
    reach the arm-pits, ears, the navel, and the recesses of skin, as in
    the case of fat people in whom the upper layers of flesh prevent
    water from reaching, those areas of the skin concealed beneath
    the fatty areas of the body. A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with
    her, reported:
    “When Allah’s Messenger  took a bath because of sexual
    intercourse, he called for a vessel and took a handful of water
    from it and first (washed) the right side of his head, the left, and
    then took a handful (of water) and poured it on his head.”
    (Agreed upon)
    Satisfactory Ghusl
     He should clean filth with water.
     He intends (in his heart, not tongue) to remove major ritual
    impurity (hadath).
     Pours water all over his body or plunges himself into water so
    that it should reach the armpits, ears, navel, and recesses of the
    skin (for fat people). The Prophet  said to Umm Salamah, may
    Allah be pleased with her, about ghusl:
    “It is enough for you to throw three handfuls of water on your
    head and then pour water over yourself, and you shall be
    purified ”.(Muslim)
    The Purity
    40
    Cases in which Ghusl is Recommended
     Friday Prayer: Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him,
    reported:
    “The Prophet  said, He who takes a bath and then comes to
    Al-Jumu’a (Friday) prayer and then prays what was fixed for
    him, then keeps silent till the Imam finishes the sermon, and
    then prays along with him, his sins (committed) between that
    time and the next Friday will be forgiven and with an addition
    of three days more.” (Muslim)
     Prayer of the two Festivals, based on the tradition narrated by
    Al-Fakeh ibn Saad that:
    “The Prophet  used to perform ghusl on Friday, and for Fitr
    and Adha festivals.” (Ahmad Ibn Majah and Bazzar)
     Entering the state of Ihram for Hajj or Umrah.
    “Zaid ibn Thabit saw the Prophet take off his clothes and take a
    bath for Ihram.” (Tirmidhi, Darqutni, Baihaqi and Tabrani)
     Entering Makkah.
    “Whenever Ibn Omar wanted to enter Makkah, he slept at Dhu
    Tuwa till the morning, performed bath and then went to
    Makkah in the daytime. He mentioned that the Prophet  did
    it.” (Muslim)
    Acts of Worship that Cannot be Done When One is
    in a State of Janabah
     Prayer (Salat): The Qur’an says which meaning is translated
    as:
    “O you who have believed! Approach not the prayer (salat)
    when you are in a drunken state, till you know (the meaning of)
    what you utter, nor when you are in a state of sexual impurity
    The Purity
    41
    (Janabah), save when passing through(a place of prayer), till
    you wash your whole body.” (Al-Nisa: 43)
     Circumambulation of the Sacred House (Ka’bah). A’ishah,
    may Allah be pleased with her, said:
    “I came to Makkah while in my monthly period, so I could not
    circuit the Sacred House or between Safa and Marwah. I
    complained to Allah’s Messenger . He said to me: ‘Do what a
    pilgrim does except for circumambulation of the Sacred House
    until your period is over.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
     Touching or carrying the Holy Book (the Qur’an), as stated in
    Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Amr’s (earlier) tradition:
    “That the Prophet  wrote to the Yemenites a letter which
    included this rule : ‘Nobody should touch the Qur’an unless he
    is pure.” (Nasai, Darqutni and Baihaqi)
     Recitation of the Holy Qur’an. Ali, may Allah be pleased with
    him, said:
    “I saw Allah’s Messenger  perform wudu’, then read some
    passages from the Qur’an. He said: “This is for those who are
    not in a state of Janabah. Those who are in a state of Janabah are
    not allowed to recite even a verse.” (Ahmad and Abu Ya’la)2F
    3
     Staying in the mosque. Allah’s messenger  said :
    “A mosque is forbidden for a woman during her monthly period
    and (both man and woman) in a state of Janabah.” (Ibn Majah
    & Tabrani)
    3 This is a weak narration.
    The Purity
    42
    Some Offences and Errors in the Ritual Bath) Ghusl)
     A man may neglect taking a bath after sexual intercourse, and
    even does not tell his wife to take a bath, unless he ejaculates. In
    fact, both must perform the ritual bath (ghusl). This is clear from
    the tradition quoted above:
    “If he (the husband) sits between her legs and penetrates her, ghusl
    (bath) is obligatory, whether he ejaculates or not) ”.Muslim (
     A man may have intercourse with his wife then delays ghusl
    till before dawn, thus he is sleeping without wudu’. This is in
    conflict with the Prophet’s Sunnah. Ammar ibn Yasser, may
    Allah be pleased with him, said:
    “Allah’s Messenger  has recommended the person who is in a
    state of Janabah to perform wudu’ (the same as that for prayer) in
    case he wants to eat, drink or sleep.” (Ahmad & Tirmidhi)
     Some people may sleep in a state of major ritual impurity
    (janabah), then if he wakes up a little before sunrise he performs
    tayammum instead of ghusl, which is not proper or permissible
    for him. Sheikh Abdul Aziz ibn Baz, may Allah’s mercy be
    upon him, delineated the right practice in such a case by saying
    to the one who asked him about this matter: ‘You must perform
    ghusl and complete your purification, then perform prayer;
    tayammum is not permissible in your case. That is because a
    person who is asleep or forgets a prayer is required to hasten to
    perform it along with all its requisites as soon as he wakes up
    or remembers it. Allah’s Messenger  said:
    “If someone sleeps (without performing prayer) or forgets to
    perform it, he must perform it when he remembers it. This is the
    only expiation for it”.
    It is well-known that prayer cannot be accepted without
    purification, based on the Prophet’s tradition:
    The Purity
    43
    “A prayer is not acceptable without purification ”.
    If one has or finds water, he must use it for purification;
    otherwise, he can perform tayammum for prayer. Allah says
    which meaning is translated as:
    “And (if) you find no water, perform tayammum with clean
    earth and wipe over your faces and hands. Truly, Allah is ever
    Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving) ”.Al-Nisa:43) (Islamic verdict
    by a group of scholars. p1/199)
     Some women who become pure of puerperium (postpartum
    period) before the elapse of forty days do not take a bath (ghusl)
    and observe prayer or fast (in Ramadan). In this regard, Sheikh
    Abdul Aziz ibn Baz, may Allah’s mercy be upon him, said: If a
    woman who is in a childbirth (confinement) period becomes
    pure before the elapse of forty days, she must take a bath (ghusl)
    and perform prayer, as well as observe the fast in Ramadan. It
    is also permissible for her husband to go to bed with her, as this
    is unanimously agreed upon among Muslim Scholars. There is
    no limit to the minimum of postpartum period. (Islamic verdict
    by a group of scholars. p1/225)
     Some men go to bed with their wives after the elapse of their
    confinement, but before ghusl. Sheikh Abdul Aziz ibn Baz said
    about this: Practising sexual intercourse with a wife during her
    monthly period is forbidden. Allah, glory be to Him, says
    which meaning is translated as:
    “ They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: That is a harmful
    thing, therefore, keep away from women during menses and go not
    unto them till they are purified (from menses) ”.(Al-Baqarah: 222)
    If one commits such an act, he will have to ask Allah for
    forgiveness and give one or a half dinar out of charity in
    atonement for (this offence). Ahmad and other compilers of
    Sunan books narrated, on the authority of Ibn Abbas that the
    The Purity
    44
    Prophet  said (about the person who goes to bed with his wife
    during her monthly period):
    “Let him donate one or a half dinar ’.He may donate either of
    the two values”.
    However, he must not have sex with her before she stops
    bleeding and has a bath. This is based on the Qur’anic verse
    which meaning is translated as:
    “And go not unto them until they are purified (from menses).
    And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them
    as Allah has ordained for you ”.(Al-Baqarah:222)
    Thus Allah has not permitted sex with a wife until the blood of
    menses stops flowing and she takes a bath. If sexual intercourse
    is practiced before she takes a bath her husband would thereby
    commit a sin and should pay the atonement value. If she
    conceives a child after having sex during her monthly period
    and prior to taking a bath, her child cannot be said to be a
    bastard; it is a legitimate child. (Islamic verdict by a group of
    scholars. p1/218)
     Some people think that a woman should not go out of her
    house before her postpartum period is over . The truth is that
    she like any other woman, may go out if she needs to. If she
    does not need to go out, it would be more appropriate not to go
    out if she does not need to. The Qur’an says which meaning is
    translated as:
    “And stay in your houses, and do not display your selves like
    that of the times of ignorance ”.(Al-Ahzab:33) (Islamic verdict
    by a group of scholars. p1/223)
     Some women think that reading books on Hadith and
    commentaries on the Holy Qur’an is a sin at this time. Sheikh
    Ibn Baz said in his reply to a question about this: It is no sin for
    The Purity
    45
    a woman in her menses or after childbirth to read
    commentaries or the Holy Qur’an without touching it. That is in
    accordance with the more correct verdict of Muslim scholars.
    As for the person who is in the state of janabah, he must not
    recite the Qur’an at all until he has had a bath. He can read the
    books on Hadith and commentary books etc, without reciting
    the verses included therein. It was narrated that nothing
    prevented the Prophet  from reciting the Qur’an, except
    janabah. In another tradition narrated by Imam Ahmed (with a
    good chain of transmitters) the Prophet  said :
    “As for one in a state of janabah, he cannot recite even one
    verse ”.Islamic verdict by a group of scholars. p1/223
     Some women whose monthly period is over would postpone
    taking a bath until the end of the time allotted for a prayer. Sheikh
    Muhammad Ibn Uthaimeen said: A woman may get purified of
    her menses during the time of one of the daily (five) prayers, but
    she postpones bathing to a later time on the plea that the
    remaining time would not allow complete purification. Such a
    plea is not acceptable, for she can perform the minimum
    requirement of purification and perform the prayer on time. Later,
    she can have sufficient time for complete or longer purification.
    (The book “The Natural Blood of Women” p, 41.)
     Some women, after their menses are over and they have a
    bath, do not perform the prayer they missed when their menses
    started. Sheikh Muhammad ibn Uthaimeen said: If the monthly
    period commences after the time of a prayer has begun (e.g.
    half an hour after the beginning of Noon prayer), she can make
    up for the missed prayer after her period is over. The Qur’an
    states which meaning is translated as
    “Indeed prayer has been decreed upon the believers a decree of
    specified times ”.(Al-Nisa: 103) (Fatawa about women: p25)
    The Purity
    46
     A woman who is purified of her menses may not perform the
    prayer incumbent on her at that time; she performs the next
    prayer. Sheikh Ibn Uthaimeen says: If she is purified (of the
    menses) and there is still enough time for one rak’ah before the
    time of the next prayer begins, she must perform the prayer
    during whose time she was purified The Prophet  said:
    “Whoever completes one rak’a of the afternoon (Al-Asr) prayer
    before sunset, he has the whole prayer within its time.”
    (Bukhari & Muslim)
    Thus if her period is over during the afternoon prayer or before
    sunrise and there was time enough for one rak’a before the
    afternoon prayer time expires or the sun rises, she performs the
    afternoon prayer in the first case and dawn prayer in the
    second. (Fatawa about Women: p, 25.)
    The Purity
    47
    Tayammum
    It is a form of purification that replaces and substitutes wudu’
    and ghusl in case water is lacking or inaccessible. It enables us to
    do whatever wudu and ghusl allow us to do, including prayer,
    touching the Qur’an and the like. The Qur’an says which
    meaning is translated as:
    “And if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes after
    answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with
    women and you find no water, perform Tayammum with clean
    earth and wipe over your faces and hands. Truly, Allah is Ever
    Oft-pardoning, Oft-forgiving.” (Al-Nisa: 43)
    Factors that Make Tayammum Permissible
     Lack of water. Umran ibn Al-Hussain narrated that:
    “Allah’s Messenger  saw a man sitting alone and that he did not
    perform prayer in congregation. He asked him what prevented him
    from joining prayer. The man told him that he had major ritual
    impurity (Janabah) in absence of water. The Prophet said: Make
    use of earth, for it suffices you.” (Agreed upon)
     In case water is harmful to the body if the latter is wounded
    or sick and the use of water is likely to delay healing or increase
    sickness. Jabir said:
    “We set out on a journey. One of us was hit with a stone that
    wounded his head, then he had a wet dream He asked his
    companions if it was permissible for him to perform
    Tayammum. They said: We do not think that you can use earth
    while water is accessible, so he took a bath and died. When we
    came back to Allah’s Messenger , he was told of the story. He
    The Purity
    48
    said: ‘They killed him! May Allah kill them! Why didn’t they
    ask if they didn’t know? Inquiry is the cure of ignorance. It
    would have been enough for him to perform Tayammum, or
    bandage his wound, wipe over the bandage and bathe the rest of
    his body.” (Abu Daud ,Ibn Majah & Darqutni)
     If a person has water, but he needs it now or later for drinking
    and cooking, in such a case he may perform Tayammum and
    keep water for drinking. Abu Dhar heard Allah’s Messenger 
    say:
    “Clean earth is a means of purification for Muslims even if they
    stayed without water for ten years. When they find water it will
    be good for them to use it ”.(Tirmidh,Nasai, Abu Daud etc ).
    Ali ibn Abi Talib, answering a question about a passenger who
    has“ Janabah” while he has little water and he is afraid of thirst,
    said:
    “He should resort to Tayammum and should not wash with
    water.” (Daraqutni)
     If the search for water will risk his life, honor or wealth, such
    as: if there was an enemy or there was a distance from water
    that would expose him to the danger of wild animals.
     In case it is too cold and he cannot heat water, being almost
    sure that the use of cold water will cause him harm. Amr ibn
    Al-As said:
    “At a very cold night during Dhat Al-salasel expedition, I had a
    wet dream. I was afraid to risk my life if I took a bath, therefore, I
    performed Tayammum and lead my companions in prayer. They
    told the Prophet  about the incident, upon which he called me
    and asked me: ‘O Amr! Did you led your companions in prayer
    while you were in state of Janabah? I told him the reason that
    prevented me from taking a bath, and said to him: I heard Allah,
    The Purity
    49
    glory be to Him, say which meaning is translated as: “Do not kill
    yourselves.” Verily Allah is All-Merciful towards you. Allah’s
    Messenger  laughed and said nothing. The Prophet’s silence is a
    sign of an approval because he never accepts or keeps silent if he
    sees a wrongful act.” (Abu Daud)
    Description of Tayammum
    A person who wants to perform Tayammum should intend
    purification or the removal of ritual impurity. Then he says
    ‘Bismillah’ and touches or strikes the clean earth once with the
    palm of his hand while his fingers are spaced. Then he should
    wipe his face using the inner side of his fingers and wipe his
    hands with his palms up to the wrists. As in the narration of
    Ammar (may Allah be pleased with him) ‘I had a seminal
    emission and did not find water (for taking bath), I rolled in dust
    and did prayer. I mentioned that to the Prophet of Allah , he
    said:
    “It was enough for you to do like this” the prophet  struck the
    ground with his palms and then blew (the dust) and then wiped
    his face and palms.” (Agreed upon)
    In another narration by al Darqutnee‘ It was enough for you to
    strike your palms on the ground, then blow and then wipe your
    face and palms’.
    Things That Invalidate Tayammum
     Every thing that invalidates wudu’ similarly invalidate
    Tayammum.
     Finding water (for those who have no water for wudu).
    The Purity
    50
     When the excuses or constraints that prevent from using
    water one over.
    Notes:
     If a person performs Tayammum and prayer, then finds water
    or constraints are over after completion of prayer, he is not
    required to repeat that prayer, even if there is still time. Abu sa’id
    Al-Khudri said:
    “Two men set out on a journey. When time for prayer came
    they had no water, so they performed Tayammum and prayed.
    Later they found water, one of them re-performed that prayer,
    but the other did not. When they met Allah’s Messenger  and
    told him what happened to them, the Messenger  said to the
    latter: ‘you have done the sunnah’ and said to the former: ‘You
    have double reward.’” (Abu Daud & Nasai)
     However if he finds water or restraints are over during his
    prayer, his prayer becomes invalid and he is required to
    perform wudu’ and repeat the prayer. Abu Dhar said: I heard
    Allah’s Messenger  say:
    “Clean earth is a means of purification for a Muslim if he does not
    find water, even for ten years. When he finds it he must use it, for
    that would be better for him.” (Tirmidh, Abu Daud, Nasai etc)
     A person who performs Tayammum in case of major ritual
    impurity (Janabah, for instance) for some acceptable reason that
    justifies Tayammum, is not required to repeat his prayer. On
    finding water or when reasons for one’s Tayammum are over, he
    must take a bath to remove ritual impurity. Omran ibn AlHussain narrated that:
    “Allah’s Messenger  saw a man sitting alone and that he did
    not perform prayer in congregation. He asked him what
    prevented him from joining prayer. The man told him that he
    The Purity
    51
    had major ritual impurity (Janabah) in absence of water. The
    Prophet  said: “Make use of earth, for it suffices you.” Omran
    added that after they had found water, Allah’s Messenger 
    gave a container of water to the man who was in a state of
    Janabah and said to him: Go and pour it on yourself.” (Agreed
    upon)
    The Purity
    52
    Some Verdicts on Tayammum
    A person in hospital is unable to use water for wudu, so he
    performs tayammum by striking the carpet with his hands. Is
    his prayer valid?
    A patient is required to perform wudu’ for prayer in case of
    ability; but in case of inability to use water he should use
    dusty earth for tayammum if it is available; other wise, he can
    use his bed, the floor or anything else if it is covered in some
    dust. The Qur’an says which meaning is translated as:
    “So keep your duty to Allah and fear Him as much as you can ”.
    “Allah does not charge a soul except its capacity ”.(Islamic
    verdict by a group of scholars. p1/197)
    A person whose hand is wounded and cannot let water
    touch the wound, performs tayammum on account of his
    wound. Once he forgot and performed prayer without
    tayammum. During his prayer, he remembered, so he performed
    tayammum without interrupting his prayer. What is the status of
    that prayer, is it valid or invalid?
    If one of the wudu’ parts is wounded, and the wound
    cannot be washed or wiped with water (for water will
    worsen the wound or delay its cure), then tayammum is
    required. If he performs wudu’ without washing the wounded
    area or performing tayammum instead, and enters into prayer,
    then remembers during that prayer that he has not performed
    tayammum he is required to perform tayammum and repeat the
    prayer because the portion of the prayer he performed before
    tayammum was not valid. Purification is prerequisite to prayer
    and leaving an organ or part of the parts that are be washed in
    wudu’ makes the whole wudu’ invalid. “The evidence of that is
    instruction of the Prophet of Allah  to the man who made his
    Q
    A
    Q
    A
    The Purity
    53
    wudu and left an area that equal to a “dirham” untouched by
    water. The Prophet  ordered him to repeat his wudu
    (ablution).”
    Since it was impossible to wash or wipe with water that area, it
    would be required to make use of its replacement, which is
    tayammum. The Qur’an says which meaning is translated as:
    “And if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes after
    answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with
    women and you find no water, perform Tayammum with clean
    earth and wipe over your faces and hands. Truly, Allah is Ever
    Oft-pardoning, Oft-forgiving.” (Al-Nisa: 43)
    Ibn Abbas narrated that :
    “The Prophet  said about the man whose head had been badly
    wounded: he could have washed his body except his head, which
    was wounded. In Abu Daud’s narration, which he referred to
    Jaber that the Prophet of Allah  said: It would have been enough
    for him to perform tayammum. Thus, he is required to do it
    again.” (Islamic verdict by a group of scholars. p1/197)
    Wiping over Splints and Bandages
    Splints, bandages and the like should be wiped with water.
    Jabir said :
    “We set out on a journey. One of us was hit with a stone that
    wounded his head, then he had a wet dream. He asked his
    companions if it was permissible for him to perform
    Tayammum. They said: we do not think that you can use earth
    while water is accessible, so he took a bath and died. When we
    came back to Allah’s Messenger  he was told of the story. He
    said: ‘They killed him! May Allah kill them! Why didn’t they
    ask if they didn’t know? Inquiry is the cure of ignorance. It
    The Purity
    54
    would have been enough for him to perform Tayammum, or
    bandage his wound, wipe over the bandage and bathe the rest of
    his body.” (Abu Daud Ibn Majah and Darqutni)
    Wiping over splints or bandages is obligatory on performing
    wudu’ or ghusl instead of washing or wiping the infected part. If
    a person has a fracture and wants to perform wudu’ or ghusl, he
    must wash all his wudu’ parts or body respectively. If he fears
    harm on washing the damaged part, such as the aggravation of
    illness or pain or delay of healing, he shall move to the phase of
    wiping over that part or area with water. If the wiping is going
    to cause harm, he moves to the next phase by bandaging the
    damaged part and wiping over the bandage. It is not required
    to perform ablution or ghusl prior to applying the splints or
    bandages. He continues to wipe over them so long as the
    damage is there. However, if the damage ceases to exist that
    area or part must be washed with water.
    The Purity
    55
    Some Verdicts on Wiping Over the Splints
    Are there conditions for wiping over splints, for example:
    in case they are in excess requirements?
    Wiping over splints should be in accordance with its
    respective requirements. The area of wudu or pain is not the
    only area to be covered with splints or bandages, but also the
    surrounding area needed for fixing the splints; adhesive tape.
    (Fatawa about wiping over Khuffain, p. 26)
    Do these splints and bandages include dressing material,
    such as gauze, etc ؟
    Yes, besides wiping over splints are not the same as wiping
    over boots, so it has no time limit and can be practiced as
    long as it is needed. Splints are different than boots and can be
    wiped in both wudu’ and ghusl. (Fatawa about wiping over
    Khuffain, p26)
    How are splints wiped? Should they be covered with
    wiping or only part of them?
    Yes, they should be covered since the substitute has the
    same status as that of the original. That is, such as the whole
    part should be washed the whole splints also should be wiped.
    As for wiping boots, it is just a concession, and the Sunnah has
    stated that it suffices to wipe over part of the boots. (Fatawa
    about wiping over Khuffain, p27)
    Q
    A
    Q
    A
    Q
    A
    The Purity
    56
    How to Purify a Sick Man
    (Based on Islamic verdicts by a group of scholars)
     A patient is required to use water for purification (both
    wudu’ and ghusl).
     In case a patient cannot use water due to his disability or
    for fear of aggravation of disease or pain. He should use
    tayammum as a substitute.
     If he cannot purify himself, another person can help him
    by washing the wudu’ organs or wiping his face and
    hands for him in case of tayammum.
     If one of the wudu or ghusl parts is wounded he should
    wash it with water. If water causes the wound any harm
    or damage he should wipe over it. If wiping affects the
    wound he can perform tayammum for the wounded area.
     If he has a broken bone or body part in plaster, splints or
    bandages, he should wipe over them with water. He need
    not perform ablution since wiping replaces washing.
     For tayammum, he can strike a clean wall or other dusty
    object with his hand. If the wall is covered with some
    material different from the ground substance, such as
    paint, he should not use it for tayammum unless it is
    dusty.
     If Tayammum is not performed by striking the ground,
    wall or other dusty object, earth can be placed in a
    container or tissue and used for tayammum.
     If he performs tayammum for a given prayer (Salat) and
    keeps his tayammum (commits nothing that invalidates it)
    till the time of the next prayer, he can perform it with the
    The Purity
    57
    same tayammum as he still has ritual purity and has done
    nothing that invalidates it.
     A patient must clean filth and impurities from his body. If
    he cannot, he performs prayer as he is, his prayer is valid
    and he is not required to do it again later.
     A patient must put on clean clothes for prayer. If his
    clothes become filthy or impure he is required to clean or
    replace them, otherwise, he should perform prayer in the
    same clothes without having to repeat (make up for) his
    prayer later on.
     A patient must perform prayer on a clean place. If the
    place becomes filthy or impure he must cleanse it or
    replace it (in case it is a rug, for example) or he may
    spread something clean over it. Otherwise, he can pray on
    that place, his prayer would be valid and he is not
    required to re-perform it.
     It is not permissible for a patient to delay a prayer beyond
    its prescribed time due to inability to purify himself.
    Nevertheless, he should purify himself as far as he can,
    then perform prayer on time even though he has on his
    body, clothes or place a filth which he is unable to
    cleanse.
     A person who is suffering from incontinence of urine
    (enuresis) and is not healed despite treatment is required
    to perform a new wudu’ for each prayer after the
    commencement of its time. He should wash any filthy
    matter on his body and assign a clean garment for prayer
    if it is not difficult; otherwise he will be absolved from
    that. He should also guard against the spread of urine
    over his clothes, body or prayer place. (Islamic verdict by
    a group of scholars, p. 1/1173 – Shaikh ibn Baz)
    The Purity
    58