the greatest objective of hajj english islamic book pdf

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Introduction:
Worshipping Allaah The Almighty alone, making one’s heart Allaah-conscious,
having tongues oft-remembering of Allaah, having the body’s organs preoccupied
with fulfilling the rituals of Hajj and spending effort and wealth in every aspect
drawing the person nearer to Allaah are the greatest goals behind the great Hajj.
This is a novel arrangement of worship that affects the individual’s heart, soul,
mind, words and deeds as well as affecting the entire Ummah (Muslim nation)
during the process of performing these rituals and glorifying these holy sites. This
is an immense matter that is deserving of our attention because it is connected to
annulling the foul practices of the pre-Islamic era, refuting its falsities, and putting
an end to its discrimination and racism.
It is an amazing scene that deserves reflection and contemplation. It is the very
process of remolding the Muslim during Hajj – remolding him within the Islamic
Sharee‘ah and the guidance of the Prophet Muhammad .
Tawheed through the ages:
Tawheed (monotheism) dates back to the start of creation on the day when Aadam
(Adam) obeyed his Lord whereas Satan refused to obey Allaah The
Almighty. Hence, the believing person was distinguished by his worshipping
Allaah alone and avoiding the way of Satan in terms of ungratefulness, arrogance
and haughtiness, and then in avoiding Satan’s whispers and seductions.
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When we look into our deep-rootedness in history that dates back to the father of
the Prophets, Ibraaheem (Abraham) we will find the first mark and sign of
Tawheed. Allaah The Almighty Says (what means):
 {And [mention, O Muhammad], when We designated for Ibraaheem the
site of the House, [saying], “Do not associate anything with Me and purify
My House for those who perform Tawaaf [circumambulation] and those
who stand [in prayer] and those who bow and prostrate.} [Quran 22:26]
This is so that it would be the foremost landmark of Tawheed since the
establishment of the House of Allaah. Also:
 {And We charged Ibraaheem and Ismaa‘eel (Ishmael), [saying], “Purify
My House for those who perform Tawaaf and those who are staying
[there] for worship and those who bow and prostrate [in prayer].} [Quran
2:125] Such purification is meant to eradicate any violation or infringement
of Tawheed or of attachment to anything other than Allaah The Almighty.
Hajj and Tawheed:
In light of this Tawheed, we reflect upon Hajj and the guidance of the Prophet
when he came to Makkah for ‘Umrat Al-Qadhaa’ (the compensatory lesser-Hajj)
following the Al-Hudaybiyah treaty. He headed for the House of Allaah, glorifying
it and without paying any attention to the idols and false gods erected around the
Ka‘bah that contradicted monotheism and worshipping Allaah alone. However,
when he entered Makkah as a conqueror, he struck the three-hundred and sixty
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idols around the Ka‘bah with his crook and stick, bringing them down to the
ground by the hand of Tawheed while reciting the verse (which means): {And say,
“Truth has come, and falsehood has departed. Indeed is falsehood, [by nature],
ever bound to depart.”} [Quran 17:81] The Prophet dismounted from his
riding animal and refused to enter the House. Ibn ‘Abbaas narrated, “When the
Prophet entered Makkah, he refused to enter the House with the idols therein.
He ordered them to be taken out. There was an image depicting Ibraaheem and
Ismaa‘eel holding divining arrows in their hands like the polytheists. The
Prophet said: ‘May Allaah kill them (the polytheists)! They know that they
(Ibraaheem and Ismaa‘eel) never used divining arrows.’ Then, he entered the
House declaring Takbeer (Allaah is the greatest) in its corners and went out
without praying.” [Al-Bukhaari]
The next year, when the Prophet was in total control of Makkah, he did not
leave for Hajj and sent Abu Bakr leading a small group of the Companions.
Abu Hurayrah said, “Abu Bakr sent me – in the ninth year when he led people
in Hajj – along with other announcers on the day of sacrifice to announce publicly
that, ‘No polytheist is allowed to perform Hajj after this year and no naked person
is allowed to perform the Tawaaf around the Ka‘bah…’” [Al-Bukhaari] This
abolished all the signs and foul customs of Shirk (polytheism). Polytheists claimed
that they made Tawaaf around the Ka‘bah naked in order not to wear the clothes
that they had committed sins and transgressed in. Allaah The Almighty Says (what
means): {And their prayer at the House was not except whistling and
handclapping. So taste the punishment for what you disbelieved.} [Quran 8:35]
The Prophet wanted to nullify all these practices. The Hadeeth of Abu
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Hurayrah continues, “…Then he (the Messenger of Allaah) sent ‘Ali to read
out Surat Baraa’ah (Chapter At-Tawbah) before people on the day of the greater
Hajj.” [Al-Bukhaari] This announced that Allaah The Almighty and His
Messenger are disassociated from the polytheists. It was a declaration of
Tawheed indicating disassociation from everything that contradicts it and annulling
the practices of Jaahiliyyah (pre-Islamic ignorance). All of this was confirmed in
every move made during the Hajj of Abu Bakr and the Prophet .
Jaabir narrated that, “When the Prophet assumed Ihraam (ritual
consecration for Hajj), he pronounced the Talbiyyah that confirms the Oneness of
Allaah (saying): ‘Labbayka Allaahumma labbayk; labbayk la shareeka laka
labbayk; inna al-Hamda wa-n-i‘mata laka wal-mulk; la shareeka lak (Here I am
at Your service, O Allaah! You have no partner. Here I am at Your service, O
Allaah. Indeed, all the praise, grace and sovereignty belong to You. You have no
partner.)’” By doing so, the Prophet abolished what the polytheists would do
during the days of Jaahiliyyah. They would associate a partner with Allaah saying,
“You have no partners except a partner whom You own and whatever he owns.”
Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {And most of them believe not in Allaah
except while they associate others with Him.} [Quran 12:106]
The Prophet nullified this foul practice of Jaahiliyyah and said upon intending
Hajj: “O Allaah, I intend to perform Hajj free from ostentation and seeking
fame.” [Ibn Maajah] He intended to make Hajj free from ostentation and free from
seeking fame or privileges as the people of Quraysh in the pre-Islamic era would
have distinct privileges over all other Arabs therein.
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According to the Hadeeth of Jaabir when the Prophet wanted to make
Tawaaf, “He first mounted (Mount) As-Safa until he saw the House, and facing the
Qiblah (prayer direction), he declared the Oneness of Allaah and glorified Him,
and said: ‘Laa ilaaha illa Allaahu wahdahu la shareeka lahu, lahul mulku wa
lahul hamdu, wa huwa ‘alaa qulli shay’in qadeer. Laa ilaaha illa Allaahu
wahdahu, anjaza wa‘dahu, wa nasara ‘abdahu, wa hazamal ahzaaba wahdahu
(None is truly worthy of worship but Allaah alone, who has no partner. To Him
belongs the dominion, to Him belongs all praise, and He has power over
everything. He fulfilled His promise, gave victory to His servant, and defeated
the confederates Alone.)’” [Al-Bukhaari]
The Prophet declared and confirmed Tawheed because there were symbols of
polytheism in these places. Allaah The Almighty revealed (what means): {Indeed,
As-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allaah. So whoever makes
Hajj to the House or performs ‘Umrah – there is no blame upon him for walking
between them.} [Quran 2:158] ‘Urwah asked his maternal aunt ‘Aa’ishah
“There is no blame upon a person for not walking between them (as if he
understood from this verse that there is no blame if one does not perform Tawaaf
between Safa and Marwah).” ‘Aa’ishah said, “O my nephew, it is not that!
The Ansaar (Madeenan helpers) would intend Tawaaf for an idol called Manaat
which they used to glorify (before they embraced Islam), so when they were about
to perform Tawaaf with the Messenger of Allaah they were embarrassed lest
they would be glorifying what they used to glorify before Islam. Therefore, Allaah
The Almighty lifted the blame and the Prophet declared that their Tawaaf and
Sa‘y were for the sake of Allaah alone and a nullification of all aspects of
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polytheism and attachment to other than Allaah. Hence, the Prophet said:
‘Indeed, Tawaaf around the House and (Sa‘y) between As-Safa and Al-Marwah
and casting the pebbles were all established for the remembrance of Allaah The
Almighty.’”
These are apparent matters that are done jointly by the heart, tongue and acts of all
other bodily organs. Takbeer (saying, ‘Allaahu akbar’) is evident in Hajj because
the Prophet said so and did so often. Upon casting the pebbles, he would say:
“Bismillaah wa Allaahu akbar (In the Name of Allaah, and Allaah is the
Greatest).” He would pronounce Takbeer upon slaughtering the sacrificial animal
saying: “Bismillaah wa Allaahu Akbar. Allaahumma hatha minka wa ilayak (In
the name of Allaah, and Allaah is the Greatest. O Allaah, this is from You (Your
bounty) and for Your sake.)” Also, it is a well-known Sunnah to declare Takbeer
during ‘Eed and the Days of Tashreeq (the three days that follow ‘Eed).
Opposing the polytheists during the Hajj rituals:
The Prophet very obviously did not follow the way of the polytheists. His
actions were a proclamation that establishing Tawheed is the sought way of life,
the essence of Islam and the salvation of Muslims in this worldly life and in the
Hereafter.
The Prophet wanted to implant and establish this principle. At that time the
polytheists and those new to Islam were keen to closely watch and follow the acts
of the Prophet . When the Prophet proceeded to Mount ‘Arafah, they
wanted him to stay where the tribe of Quraysh would do as he descended from the
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noblest family of Quraysh. However, he moved on and stayed in another place
where a tent was pitched for him at Namirah. People of Quraysh used to proceed
from ‘Arafah before sunset; but the Prophet refused to proceed until the sun
had set. The Prophet would state and stipulate his own guidance and Sunnah
in every ritual of Hajj. He said: “Learn your Hajj rituals from me.” His
guidance clearly opposed the way of Jaahiliyyah. For example, he speeded up his
pace at Waadi Muhassir and ordered others to do so as well because it was a place
where disobedience to Allaah was once committed and where collective
punishment struck the disobeyers. The Prophet emphasized this in many
places and situations, and even when he offered two Rak‘ahs (units of prayer) at
Al-Maqaam (the Station of Ibraaheem), he recited Chapter Al-Kaafiroon and
Chapter Al-Ikhlaas in the first and the second Rak‘ah after Chapter Al-Faatihah
respectively. He chose those two chapters in particular because the first clearly
affirms Tawheed and the second affirms disassociation from the disbelievers.
Hence, our faith and Tawheed must be purely for Allaah in compliance with the
guidance and Sunnah of the Prophet ; we must not accept or approve of
anything that contradicts this. A violation of Tawheed is not necessarily committed
by worshipping entities, but rather, by any inclination of the heart to other than
Allaah. Tawheed is not necessarily achieved by prostrating and submitting, but,
rather, with every action that we perform to draw closer to Allaah. Many are the
attachments of the heart and the perceptions of the mind that are not based on
Tawheed and not connected with the remembrance of Allaah. The remembrance of
Allaah is the motto of Hajj in every motion and every rite, not only for the
individual but for all those large crowds; not spoken in secret, but rather in an
explicit declaration. It is a motto that links the Ummah of Islam to Allaah. Thus, it
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fears none but Allaah, hopes in none but Allaah, relies on none but Allaah, returns
to none but Allaah and seeks none but Allaah The Almighty. It worships Him
alone, following the steps of the Messenger of Allaah .
The Purpose of Hajj:
In this light, we recognize the significance of the command to mention Allaah’s
name in Hajj. Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {That they may witness
benefits for themselves and mention the name of Allaah on known days.} [Quran
22:28] Allaah The Almighty orders us to mention His name on known days.
Indeed, the purpose of all the rituals and rites of Hajj is to mention the name of
Allaah and glorify Him.
The Prophet very evidently stressed this great meaning in the Khutbah
(sermon) of the Farewell Hajj as well as all his other Khutbahs. He said:
“Everything pertaining to Jaahiliyyah is under my feet, completely
abolished. Abolished also are the blood-revenges of Jaahiliyyah. The first
claim of ours on blood-revenge which I abolish is that of the son of
Rabee‘ah Ibn Al-Haarith. The Ribaa (usury/interest) of Jaahiliyyah is
(also) abolished, and the first of our Ribaa I abolish is that of Al-‘Abbaas
Ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib, for it is all abolished. Fear Allaah concerning
women! Indeed, you have taken them under Allaah’s trust, and
intercourse with them has been made lawful to you by the words of
Allaah.”
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He ascertained in public before an audience made up of his great companions and
all the pilgrims who came to perform Hajj with them from every distance that
every act of Jaahiliyyah that contradicts Islamic teachings was under his feet. He
settled this rule starting with his own family to confirm that faith does not
recognize courtesies, and to emphasize that the way of Islam is clear and totally
opposite to the deviant practices of Jaahiliyyah. Islam does not adopt rulings from
here or there, and when it approves the guidance of Ibraaheem it is simply
because Ibraaheem is the father of Islam and Muslims and the leader of the upright
religion. This is confirmed in the crystal clear words of the Prophet : “Allaah
has removed from you haughtiness and boasting (over one another) because of
ancestry that prevailed during the pre-Islamic days: (the people are divided into)
pious believers and wretched disbelievers. All people belong to ‘Aadam and
‘Aadam was created from dust.” [Abu Daawood & At-Tirmithi: Hasan (Sound)]
Abolished aspects of Jaahiliyyah:
The Prophet did not only abolish all the acts and deeds relevant to polytheism
and customs, but he also abolished racism and boasting over one another because
all people are equal slaves before Allaah. This great meaning was expressed by the
best and noblest human when he said: “I am among you the one who worships
Allaah the most and the most fearing of Him among you.” The great honor of the
Prophet lies in his servitude to Allaah. By servitude to Allaah, the Prophet
reached the most sublime and highest rank in the night of Al-Israa’ and Al-Mi‘raaj
(The Prophet’s night journey to Al-Aqsa mosque and ascent to the upper heavens).
This rank was not reached by any other sent prophet or close angel.
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Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {Exalted is He who took His Servant by
night from Al-Masjid Al-Haraam [in Makkah] to Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa, whose
surroundings We have blessed, to show him of Our signs. Indeed, He is the
Hearing, the Seeing.} [Quran 17:1] Allaah The Almighty referred to the Prophet
in this verse as His servant and not His prophet or His Messenger because the
greatest honor of the Prophet is that he was the most worshipping servant of
Allaah there was. We can see him in the Hadeeth of Jaabir while he was
beseeching and supplicating to Allaah, humbly prostrating to him, casting the
pebbles while declaring the glorification of Allaah, making Tawaaf around the
Ka‘bah, glorifying Allaah and walking fast between Mounts As-Safa and AlMarwah. He is the slave and Messenger of Allaah who represented the ultimate
Tawheed that annuls anything else. When he was asked about the supplication of
Day of ‘Arafah, he answered: “The best words that I and the prophets before me
said are: ‘Laa ilaaha illa Allaahu wadahu la shareeka lahu, lahul mulku wa
lahul hamdu, yuhyee wa yumeet wa huwa ‘ala qulli shay’in qadeer.’ (None is
truly worthy of worship but Allaah alone, who has no partner. To Him belongs
the dominion, to Him belongs all praise, He gives life and causes death and He
has power over everything.)” Such Tawheed that abolishes every aspect of
Jaahiliyyah is a great matter and the main goal of Hajj. It is the foremost and
greatest goal of the Islamic Sharee‘ah that is manifested in this ritual. It should be
noted that this is a radical comprehensive change, not a superficial partial one. It
starts with the first throb of the heart towards the intention of performing Hajj.
Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {And [due] to Allaah from the people is
a pilgrimage to the House – for whoever is able to find thereto a way.} [Quran
3:97] In this verse the dedication of this worship solely to Allaah is clear by
starting the sentence with “And [due] to Allaah.” Hence, the intention must be for
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Allaah alone from the first move or thought about performing Hajj. Hearts full of
hoping for Allaah, worshipping Him alone and devotion to Him; tongues repeat
Talbiyah and Takbeer and feet walk in the places where Allaah commands His
slaves to go.
The Impact of Hajj:
Therefore, this is a real alteration in formatting and molding the human in every
aspect relevant to thought, mind, heart, soul, words and deeds. Then, this change
will be reflected upon the entire Ummah, as Allaah The Almighty Says about us
and as the Prophet taught us that we are the Ummah of Tawheed whose hearts
are attached only to Allaah, who spend their wealth only in the cause of Allaah,
who earn their money through lawful means and who lead their lives and have
customs in conformity with the religion of Allaah. Are we like this? We are in dire
need nowadays to think deeply about the answer to this question. Yes, we do not
worship idols as we have been spared that form of polytheism. However, we need
to think about other forms that may occupy our hearts and minds and compete with
such absolute sincerity and devotion to Allaah The Almighty and disassociation
from whatever contradicts the religion of Allaah.
Without doubt, the Prophet taught us in many situations that an act of
Jaahiliyyah is whatever contradicts the creed, worship, laws, customs and social
etiquettes of Islam. When Abu Tharr said to someone – and it was narrated
in a collection of Hadeeth other than Al-Bukhaari that this person was Bilaal –
“O son of a black woman”; the Prophet said to Abu Tharr: “You are a person
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who (still) has a bad trait of Jaahiliyyah.” In his commentary on this Hadeeth,
Ibn Hajar said, “It indicates that sins pertain to Jaahiliyyah.”
We notice this, when the Prophet warned us against a mistake that we have
already made. He said: “Do not return disbelievers (in actions) after my death by
killing each other.” He also warned us during the incident when the Jews and
other enemies of Islam stirred up the grudges and hatred among the tribes of AlAws and Al-Khazraj who were tribes that had fought one another before they
embraced Islam. The Prophet vehemently stated: “Quit it (that call)! It is a
detestable thing. Quit it! It is a detestable thing! Do not return disbelievers (in
actions) after me by killing each other.” Such bigotry and conflict have emerged
and are still fueled either by our enemies, or we may fuel it ourselves
unconsciously resulting in disagreement and disunity among us. The Prophet
warned us against disagreement and disunity even in understanding the Quran. The
Messenger of Allaah said: “Recite the Quran as long as your hearts agree
about its interpretation, but if you have any difference of opinion (as regards to
its interpretation and meaning) then get up! (stop reciting it (for the time
being.))” So, how about in other affairs of life? When the Prophet heard
disagreement and dispute among his companions, he angrily went out to them and
his face turned so red that it was as if pomegranate seeds had burst on his face, and
he then said to them the aforementioned Hadeeth.
Establishing Tawheed attaches the hearts to Allaah. Such an establishment is
represented in following and adhering to the Sunnah of the Prophet . Tawheed is
a nullification of any form of polytheism and a acknowledgement that all people
should partake in the worship of Allaah. It also indicates that there is no difference
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or discrimination among people. At the mosques, the houses of Allaah, all
differences and privileges are eradicated where all people modestly worship
Allaah. On the Day of ‘Arafah, you can see the ruler and the ruled, the rich and the
poor, and the strong and the weak discard their usual clothes, leave the worldly life
behind their backs, their eyes tearful and their hearts humble, raising their hands
supplicating to Allaah. All of them there are servants who seek the mercy and
forgiveness of Allaah. Tawheed is the greatest declaration of equality and the
strongest pickaxe to demolish all types of racism, prejudices and disputes that cut
off ties, disperse the rows and divide the Ummah into disagreeing parties.
When we have the chance to perform these acts of worship and rituals, they reform
us and take us back to the fundamentals of the true and pure Islam which are
embedded in the Quran and Sunnah. The Prophet confirmed this by
pronouncing the slogan of Tawheed in every scene. He greatly emphasized this
when he said that these rituals are meant for remembering Allaah The Almighty.
He stated this meaning in every place. He proclaimed that all practices of
Jaahiliyyah were under his feet; meaning, abolished. He never said that in any
previous situation. He declared this in the Farewell Hajj after he purified hearts
from Jaahiliyyah and washed off their foul customs. This was so deeply- rooted to
the extent that it was the Abyssinian Bilaal who ascended the Ka‘bah on the
day of the conquest of Makkah to raise the Athaan (call to prayer). This situation
stunned the masters of Quraysh as they could not imagine how a lowly Abyssinian
slave could ascend the roof of the Ka‘bah simply because he was a Muslim
following the Prophet . In this way, Islam abolished the pre-Islamic foul
practices by the clear signs during the season of Hajj that preceded the Farewell
Hajj when Allaah The Almighty Revealed (what means): {O you who have
believed, indeed the polytheists are unclean, so let them not approach Al-Masjid
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Al-Haraam after this, their [final] year.} [Quran 9:28] The Prophet decided
to form the Ummah in a way making it connected to Allaah and following its
Messenger and not attached to anything that would contradict this in terms of
economics, politics, and society. It accepts and follows the Quran, the authentic
Sunnah and the great mental treasures of our scholars who exerted their utmost in
extracting rules from the Quran and Sunnah. This is a radical comprehensive
formation for the Ummah on the individual as well as the group level. Allaah The
Almighty Says (what means): {Indeed this, your religion, is one religion, and I
am your Lord, so worship Me.} [Quran 21:92] This is a vital arrangement and
molding.
Conclusion:
Nowadays, we must scrutinize our customs and traditions, and the means that we
have invented to discriminate between people and races. We have forgotten that
the Abyssinian Bilaal, the Roman Suhayb, the Persian Salmaan, the ‘Adawian
‘Umar and the Taymian Abu Bakr all gathered under the flag of the Prophet
during the Farewell Hajj. They put on their Ihraam, repeated the Talbiyah,
and declared the testimony of faith and the glorification of Allaah together. They
sent a message to humanity that the religion of Allaah and the greatness of Islam
and the bond of Tawheed are the best means to remove differences and reconcile
disagreements.
We should rejoice due to this favor. We should do our best to achieve it in our
hearts, words, and deeds whether during Hajj or during any other times and in all
our behaviors and all the traditions of our societies.