Prophet Jesus in the Quran PDF english islamic book

Prophet Jesus in the Quran PDF english islamic book

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Prophet Jesus  in
the Quran
Written by: Dr. Abdul-Rahman al-Sheha
Translated by: Abdurrahmann Murad
Reviewed by:
Nadir Keval
Khadijah Davies
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بسم االله الرحمن الرحيم
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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction 5
  2. The First of Creation 9
  3. The Creation of the Heavens and the Earth 9
  4. The Wisdom Behind the Creation of Man 11
  5. The Need for Messengers 13
  6. The Great Prophets of God 16
  7. Peoples Need for Prophets and Messengers 17
  8. Wisdom of God in Choosing his Prophets 18
  9. The Creation of Prophet Adam 20
  10. Expulsion of Adam and his wife from Jannah 22
  11. Prophet Noah 25
  12. Prophet Abraham 28
  13. Prophet Moses 32
  14. Prophet Muahmmad 38
  15. Prophet Jesus 39
  16. Family of Imran 39
  17. Mary, the Mother of Jesus 40
  18. Prophet Jesus 42
  19. His Birth 43
  20. The Human Nature of Jesus 46
  21. Prophethood of Jesus 51
  22. Description of Jesus 54
  23. Physical Characteristics of Jesus 55
  24. Jesus and the Anti-Christ 57
  25. Miracles of Prophet Jesus 61
  26. Prophet Jesus and His Rejection of Shirk 64
  27. Ascension of Jesus into Heaven 82
  28. Descent of Prophet Jesus 85
  29. Conclusion 86
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    Dear Reader,
    Islam is a complete and integral Divine religion and
    way of life. It has a complete code of ethics for a happy
    life and peaceful and tranquil life after death.
    Islam is pure from all imperfections, defects and
    blemishing effects. It is a perfect way of life.
    Any deviant or abnormal behavior observed on a
    Muslim should have no bearing on Islam, non-what-soever. The reason for such a deviation or bad behavior is
    due to ill knowledge of the faith itself, or due a weak
    faith that led to such deviant acts.
    Islam, by no mean, should be assessed or evaluated
    based on the individuals’ behavior and attitudes.
    5
    Introduction
    What are the beliefs of a Muslim in relation to
    Prophet Jesus 1
    ? Does a Muslim actually revere and
    respect him? Today, the media is responsible for
    spreading a negative image about Islam, and due to that,
    Islam would appear to be a religion of hate and
    intolerance to the average person. In reality, anyone who
    has met a practicing Muslim will know that they are a
    very peaceful and tolerant people.
    The belief system of Islam clearly indicates that it is
    a religion of tolerance. A key belief a Muslim adheres to
    is a belief in all of the Prophets and Messengers sent by
    God; accounts of each of them are detailed in the Quran
    and in Prophetic Traditions. Before delving into the
    details of the life story of Jesus , I believe it is
    important that this topic be preceded by a brief
    introduction to the purpose behind the creation of
    humankind and the important role spiritual guidance
    plays in our lives.
    In general, spiritual guidance is essential in keeping
    us balanced in all aspects of our lives. The Quran is the
    divine scripture of God revealed to Prophet Muhammad
    1 This symbol means: May God exalt his mention.
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    2 who is the last of all Prophets and Messengers. Due
    to this fact, certain intrinsic qualities are found in Islam.
    It is an all-encompassing faith, applicable to people of all
    times and places. It is applicable to all humankinds’
    problems. Islam is not simply a religion; rather, it is a
    complete way of life.
    Another intrinsic quality of Islam is that it is a
    religion of common sense and is very logical. Take into
    consideration some of the following examples of Islamic
    beliefs to clarify this point. As Muslims we believe that
    God is the Creator of all and He has no partner. The
    Messenger of Islam, Muhammad  mentioned the stages
    of creation, as narrated by his companion, Imran bin
    Husain . He said:
    “People came from Yemen and they said: ‘O
    Messenger of Allah, we have come to you to learn
    the Deen3
    , so inform us of the first thing created!’
    He said: ‘Allah was always there and nothing was
    with Him. His Throne was above water and all
    things that would come to pass were recorded and
    then the heavens and the earth were created.’”
    2 Ibid.
    3 In Arabic the term ‘Deen’ commonly refers to a way of life, which
    is both private and public. It is an inclusive term meaning: acts of
    worship, political practice, and a detailed code of conduct, including
    hygiene or etiquette matters.
    7
    God was always there, unlike His creation, who have
    a sure beginning. God, the Exalted, says:
    “He is the First and the Last, the Ascendant and
    the One Who has infinite knowledge, and He is, of
    all things, Knowing.” (Quran 57:3)
    God was the First. Nothing was before Him. He
    brought all creation into existence. He is unlike any of
    His creation. There are no similarities between Him and
    us. God, the Exalted, says:
    “There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the
    Hearing, the Seeing.” (Quran 42:11)
    God has clarified to us that it is impossible for
    anyone to describe Him, and that no one can encompass
    His greatness. This alone puts us in awe of God, and
    affirms our belief in His uniqueness and our need to
    worship Him alone. God, the Exalted, says:
    “Allah knows what is [presently] before them
    and what will be after them, but they do not
    encompass it in knowledge.”(Qur’an 20:110)
    Everything besides God is a created being, brought
    into existence by God, Himself. He brought forth these
    creations into existence from mere nothingness. God, the
    Exalted, says:
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    “That is Allah, your God, Creator of all things;
    there is no deity except Him, so how are you
    deluded?” (Qur’an 40:62)
    One of the key beliefs a Muslim adheres to is that
    Allah creates whatever He wills and does as He pleases.
    Nothing can withstand the decrees of God. God, the
    Almighty, says:
    “And your Rubb4 creates what He wills and
    chooses; not for them was the choice. Exalted is
    Allah and high above what they associate with
    Him.” (Qur’an 28:68)
    Allah does not create without purpose; neither would
    He leave His creation without guidance. No creature has
    been created in this universe except that behind its
    creation is a divine wisdom and purpose. At times we
    know this wisdom, and at times we do not. Modern
    science in many situations has been successful in
    deciphering the wisdom behind certain things that may
    seem to have no purpose.
    The First of Creation
    4 There is no proper equivalent for Rubb in the English language. It
    means the Creator, the Fashioner, the Provider, the One upon Whom
    all creatures depend for their means of subsistence, and the One
    Who gives life and causes death.
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    The Qur’an, which is the word of God, clarifies to us
    that this world came into existence from mere
    nothingness. God, the Exalted, says:
    “Originator of the heavens and the earth; when
    He decrees a matter, He only says to it, “Be,”
    and it is.”(Qur’an 2:117)
    The Messenger of God  clarified to us that the
    first thing created was water; water is found in all
    creation. Allah created this with His power. In the
    Prophetic Tradition it states:
    “Everything is created from water.”(Ibn Hibban)
    The Creation of the Heavens and the Earth
    Allah informs us in the Quran that He created the
    Heavens and the earth in six days. God was not
    exhausted nor did He face any difficulty in creating this.
    He, the Exalted, says:
    “And We did certainly create the heavens and
    earth and what is between them in six days, and
    there touched Us no weariness.”(Qur’an 50:38)
    God could easily have created all of this within a
    mere moment. God, the Exalted, says:
    “And to Allah belongs the unseen [aspects] of the
    heavens and the earth. And the command for the
    Hour is not but as a glance of the eye or even
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    nearer. Indeed, Allah is over all things
    competent.”(Qur’an 16:77)
    If God could have created this in the flicker of an
    eye, why didn’t He? Imam Ibn al-Jozi, may God have
    mercy on him, gave insight into this issue. He said:
  30. God wanted to show his infinite wisdom behind
    creation. Creating all existence quickly would be
    evident of His power; whereas, creation in a slow
    manner would be evident of His wisdom.
  31. God wanted to show His slaves the importance of
    being patient.
    Another scholar, Al-Qurtubi, mentioned another
    reason in relation to this. He said: “God created the
    heavens and earth in six days to show that everything has
    a set term in life.”
    God, the Exalted, says:
    “Say, “Do you indeed disbelieve in He who
    created the earth in two days and attribute to
    Him equals? That is the Lord of the worlds.” And
    He placed on the earth firmly set mountains over
    its surface, and He blessed it and determined
    therein its [creatures’] sustenance in four days
    without distinction – for [the information] of those
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    who ask. Then He directed Himself to the heaven
    while it was smoke and said to it and to the earth,
    “Come [into being], willingly or by compulsion.”
    They said, “We have come willingly.” And He
    completed them as seven heavens within two days
    and inspired in each heaven its command. And
    We adorned the nearest heaven with lamps and as
    protection. That is the determination of the
    Exalted in Might, the Knowing.” (Qur’an 41:9-12)
    Sayyid Qutub, may God have mercy on him, said:
    “The two days in which God created the earth and the
    two in which He created the mountains and ordained His
    ordainments for each are indeed of His days. Their
    length is unknown to us; they are not simple 24 hour
    intervals as we are accustomed to today. These days
    maybe the periods in which the earth is known to have
    formed and come into existence. Allah knows best.”
    The Wisdom Behind the Creation of Man
    Now that we have spoken on the creation of the
    earth, a few important questions arise: What is the
    significance of the creation of man? What is the goal
    behind this creation? God clarifies this in His words:
    “And I did not create the jinn and mankind
    except to worship Me. I do not want from them
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    any provision, nor do I want them to feed
    Me. Indeed, it is Allah who is the [continual]
    Provider, the firm possessor of strength.”(Qur’an
    51:56-8)
    This life is not as the atheists assert, without
    resurrection, accountability or requital. It is not
    everlasting; it is only a temporary stage. God, the
    Exalted, says:
    “And they say, “There is not but our worldly life;
    we die and live, and nothing destroys us except
    time.” And they have of that no knowledge; they
    are only assuming.” (Qur’an 45:24)
    How difficult would it be for a person to live his life
    with no purpose! As any individual is in need of
    satisfying natural, human desires, they are in need of
    spiritual satisfaction as well. This cannot be achieved
    except if one educates himself about God. Knowledge of
    God cannot be gathered solely from one’s mind or
    surroundings; one must turn to Divine Scripture. It is
    important that one understands that the atheistic
    approach to life is not the result of today’s technological
    advancements. It is a very old belief upheld from time
    immemorial. It has been handed down throughout the
    ages by those who have no belief. God, the Exalted,
    says:
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    “And We sent among them a messenger from
    themselves [saying], “Worship Allah; you have no
    deity other than Him; then will you not fear
    Him?” And the eminent among his people who
    disbelieved and denied the meeting of the
    Hereafter while We had given them luxury in the
    worldly life said, “This is not but a man like
    yourselves. He eats of that from which you eat
    and drinks of what you drink. And if you should
    obey a man like yourselves, indeed, you would
    then be losers. Does he promise you that when you
    have died and become dust and bones that you
    will be brought forth [once more]? Far-fetched,
    far-fetched indeed is what you are promised! Life
    is not but our worldly life – we die and live, but we
    will not be resurrected.” (Qur’an 23:32-7)
    The Need for Messengers
    Through historical evidence, we know that all of
    humankind began as one nation, living in one area. But
    as our numbers increased, we began spreading into
    different areas. God, the Exalted, says:
    “And mankind was not but one community
    [united in religion], but [then] they differed. And if
    not for a word that preceded from your Rubb, it
    would have been judged between them
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    [immediately] concerning that over which they
    differ.” (Qur’an 10:19)
    The result of moving to different regions of the
    world led to the formation of traditions and languages
    that differentiate us from one another today. As creation
    spread out, God sent to each group of people a prophet to
    remind them of the message of the belief in the Oneness
    of God.
    Indeed, God is merciful. He would never punish a
    people, except after sending a prophet to clarify the
    message to them. The Prophets and Messengers warned
    their people from going astray. No nation of the past was
    ever left without a warner. God, the Exalted, says:
    “Indeed, We have sent you with the truth as a
    bringer of good tidings and a warner. And there
    was no nation but that there had passed within it
    a warner.” (Qur’an 35:24)
    Allah would send Prophets and Messengers to bring
    people back to the message of Tawheed (i.e. the belief in
    the Oneness of God). God, the Exalted, says:
    “And We certainly sent into every nation a
    messenger, [saying], “Worship Allah and avoid
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    Taghut.
    5
    ” And among them were those whom
    Allah guided, and among them were those upon
    whom error was [deservedly] decreed. So proceed
    through the earth and observe how was the end of
    the deniers.” (Qur’an 16:36)
    Allah sent these Prophets and Messengers so that no
    nation would have any plea against what God ordains on
    them in the Hereafter. God, the Exalted, says:
    “[We sent] messengers as bringers of good tidings
    and warners so that mankind will have no
    argument against Allah after the messengers. And
    ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.” (Qur’an
    4:165)
    All Prophets and Messengers were human beings.
    They did not hold any god-like characteristics or
    superhuman abilities. God aided them with miracles.
    God, the Exalted, says:
    “And We did not send before you, [O
    Muhammad], any of the messengers except that
    they ate food and walked in the markets. And We
    have made some of you [people] as trial for others
    5 The Arabic word taghut refers to idolatry, associating partners with
    God. This can be anything worshipped other than the one true God
    (Allah).
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  • will you have patience? And ever is your Lord,
    Seeing.” (Qur’an 25:20)
    Allah clarifies this to ensure that no one would have
    a doubt about their nature. God, the Almighty, says:
    “And We have already sent messengers before
    you and assigned to them wives and descendants.
    And it was not for a messenger to come with a
    sign except by permission of Allah. For every
    term is a decree.” (Qur’an 13:38)
    The Prophets and Messengers had no power to
    control the affairs of the universe. They had no power
    over their own protection. God, the Exalted, says,
    regarding the Prophets and Messengers:
    “Say, “I hold not for myself [the power of] benefit
    or harm, except what Allah has willed. And if I
    knew the unseen, I could have acquired much
    wealth, and no harm would have touched me. I
    am not except a warner and a bringer of good
    tidings to a people who believe.”” (Qur’an 7:188)
    The Great Prophets of God
    All Prophets and Messengers were sent with one
    Message. God says:
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    Or have they taken gods besides Him? Say, [O
    Muhammad to them], “Produce your proof. This
    [Qur’an] is the message for those with me and the
    message of those before me.” But most of them do
    not know the truth, so they are turning away. And
    We sent not before you any messenger except that
    We revealed to him that, “There is no deity except
    Me, so worship Me.” (Qur’an 21:24-5)
    The belief in the Oneness of God was the central
    message delivered by all Prophets and Messengers to
    their respective peoples. God, the Exalted, says:
    He has ordained for you of religion what He
    enjoined upon Noah and that which We have
    revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what We
    enjoined upon Abraham and Moses and Jesus – to
    establish the religion and not be divided therein.
    Difficult for those who associate others with Allah
    is that to which you invite them. Allah chooses for
    Himself whom He wills and guides to Himself
    whoever turns back [to Him]. (Qur’an 42:13)
    Peoples Need for Prophets and Messengers
    As we mentioned previously, people are in need of
    Prophets and Messengers as they are in need of food and
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    drink to sustain themselves. The Scholar Ibn al-Qayyim,
    may God have mercy on him, said:
    There is no path to happiness and success except
    through what the Messengers have given us. One
    would only be able to discern between good and
    bad through what the Messengers have conveyed
    us (in terms of revelation) from God. People of
    guidance are distinguished by their obedience to
    the Message. The necessity of knowing the
    Message is a more pressing need (for man) than
    finding food and beverages. The example of the
    importance of guidance to mankind is similar to
    the importance of water to a whale. If taken out of
    water, it would die; similarly, no one will truly
    realize the explicit need of spiritual guidance
    except one who has a living heart.”
    The Wisdom of God in Choosing His Prophets
    and Messengers
    The Message and prophethood is a divine gift, which
    God gives to whomever He pleases. It is not given to one
    on account of their lineage, authority or position in
    society. God, the Exalted, says:
    Allah chooses from the angels messengers and
    from the people. Indeed, Allah is Hearing and
    Seeing.(Qur’an 22:75)
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    No one should show any jealousy towards Prophet
    Muhammad  for the message he was given. God, the
    Exalted, says:
    Or do they envy people for what Allah has given
    them of His bounty? But we had already given the
    family of Abraham the Scripture and wisdom and
    conferred upon them a great kingdom. (Qur’an
    4:54)
    The Prophets of God differ in terms of rank and
    superiority. They are not equal in terms of merit. God,
    the Exalted, says:
    Those messengers – some of them We caused to
    exceed others. Among them were those to whom
    Allah spoke, and He raised some of them in
    degree. And We gave Jesus, the Son of Mary,
    clear proofs, and We supported him with the Pure
    Spirit. If Allah had willed, those [generations]
    succeeding them would not have fought each
    other after the clear proofs had come to them. But
    they differed, and some of them believed and
    some of them disbelieved. And if Allah had willed,
    they would not have fought each other, but Allah
    does what He intends. (Qur’an 2:253)
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    The Creation of Adam, the Father of Humankind
    Allah has ordained that the ones chosen by Him will
    inhabit earth. They would work the lands and build
    thereon. They would be tested in the material realm so it
    would be established who is obedient and pious and who
    is ignoble. God, the Exalted, says:
    “And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord
    said to the angels, “Indeed, I will make upon the
    earth a successive authority.” They said, “Will
    You place upon it one who causes corruption
    therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your
    praise and sanctify You?” Allah said, “Indeed, I
    know that which you do not know.”” (Qur’an 2:30)
    The authority God first placed on earth was Prophet
    Adam, the father of humankind. God created Adam on a
    Friday, as is mentioned in the Prophetic Tradition:
    “The best day on which the sun has risen is
    Friday. In it God created Adam, and on it he was
    admitted into Heaven and on it he was expelled
    from it, and the Final Hour will be established on
    a Friday.” (Muslim)
    For this reason, God chose Friday as the weekly
    holiday for the Muslims. Due to the lofty status Adam
    held, Allah ordered the angels to bow down to him out of
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    respect and honor; all the angels immediately did this.
    Satan, who was in the company of the angels refused to
    bow down to him. Arrogance and pride prevented him
    from obeying the command of God. God, the Exalted,
    says about this:
    “[So mention] when your Lord said to the angels,
    “Indeed, I am going to create a human being from
    clay. So when I have proportioned him and
    breathed into him of My [created] soul, then fall
    down to him in prostration.”So the angels
    prostrated – all of them entirely. Except Iblees; he
    was arrogant and became among the
    disbelievers. [Allah] said, “O Iblees, what
    prevented you from prostrating to that which I
    created with My hands? Were you arrogant
    [then], or were you [already] among the
    haughty?” He said, “I am better than him. You
    created me from fire and created him from
    clay.”[Allah] said, “Then get out of Paradise, for
    indeed, you are expelled. And indeed, upon you is
    My curse until the Day of Recompense.” He said,
    “My Lord, then reprieve me until the Day they
    are resurrected.” [Allah] said, “So indeed, you
    are of those reprieved Until the Day of the time
    well-known.” [Iblees] said, “By your might, I will
    surely mislead them all except, among them, Your
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    chosen servants. [Allah] said, “The truth [is My
    oath], and the truth I say -[That] I will surely fill
    Hell with you and those of them that follow you
    all together.”(Qur’an 38:71-85)
    God, through His wisdom, ordained that Adam and
    his offspring would inhabit the earth. God then created
    Eve, the wife of Adam.
    The Expulsion of Adam and His Wife from Jannah
    When the Devil refused to bow down before Adam,
    he sealed his own fate. He informed God that he would
    mislead the children of Adam and take them with him to
    the evil abode of Hell. God tells us about this:
    “And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord
    said to the angels, “I will create a human being
    out of clay from an altered black mud. And when
    I have proportioned him and breathed into him of
    My [created] soul, then fall down to him in
    prostration.” So the angels prostrated – all of
    them entirely, Except Iblees, he refused to be with
    those who prostrated. [Allah] said, O Iblees, what
    is [the matter] with you that you are not with
    those who prostrate?” He said, “Never would I
    prostrate to a human whom You created out of
    clay from an altered black mud.” [Allah] said,
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    “Then get out of it, for indeed, you are
    expelled. And indeed, upon you is the curse until
    the Day of Recompense.” He said, “My Lord,
    then reprieve me until the Day they are
    resurrected.” [Allah] said, “So indeed, you are of
    those reprieved. Until the Day of the time wellknown.” [Iblees] said, “My Lord, because You
    have put me in error, I will surely make
    [disobedience] attractive to them on earth, and I
    will mislead them all. Except, among them, Your
    chosen servants.”” (Qur’an 15:28-40)
    The enmity between Adam and Iblis began from the
    beginning of Adam’s creation. Iblis lay in wait for him,
    and tried in every way to make him disobey the
    commands of Allah. When Iblis realized that God
    prevented Adam from eating from a certain tree, he
    convinced both Adam and his wife to eat from it. Adam
    and Eve were then expelled from Heaven. They both
    repented and were sorrowful for what they did and God
    accepted their repentance. God, the Exalted, says:
    And [mention] when We said to the angels,
    “Prostrate to Adam,” and they prostrated, except
    Iblees; he refused. So We said, “O Adam, indeed
    this is an enemy to you and to your wife. Then let
    him not remove you from Paradise so you would
    24
    suffer. Indeed, it is [promised] for you not to be
    hungry therein or be unclothed. And indeed, you
    will not be thirsty therein or be hot from the
    sun.” Then Satan whispered to him; he said, “O
    Adam, shall I direct you to the tree of eternity and
    possession that will not deteriorate?” And Adam
    and his wife ate of it, and their private parts
    became apparent to them, and they began to
    fasten over themselves from the leaves of Heaven.
    And Adam disobeyed his Lord and erred. Then
    his Lord chose him and turned to him in
    forgiveness and guided [him]. [Allah] said,
    “Descend from Heaven – all, [your descendants]
    being enemies to one another. And if there should
    come to you guidance from Me – then whoever
    follows My guidance will neither go astray [in the
    world] nor suffer [in the Hereafter]. And whoever
    turns away from My remembrance – indeed, he
    will have a depressed life, and We will gather him
    on the Day of Resurrection blind.”” (Qur’an 20:116-
    124)
    Once the Devil (Iblis) was cast out of the Heavenly
    abode, and Adam was expelled on account of his
    disobedience, the progeny of Adam remained obedient to
    Allah and worshipped Him alone. After ten generations,
    people faltered in this regard and went astray. God then
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    sent Prophets and Messengers to guide humankind to the
    path of God. The first Messenger God sent after Adam
    was Prophet Noah . During his time as a prophet
    polytheism became a norm of life. God, the Exalted,
    says:
    “Noah said, “My Lord, indeed they have
    disobeyed me and followed him whose wealth and
    children will not increase him except in loss. And
    they conspired an immense conspiracy. And said,
    ‘Never leave your gods and never leave Wadd or
    Suwa’ or Yaghuth and Ya’uq and Nasr. And
    already they have misled many. And, [my Lord],
    do not increase the wrongdoers except in
    error.””(Qur’an 71:21-4)
    The best of the Prophets and Messenger are the five
    known as Ulul’Azm6
    , they are:
  1. Prophet Noah :
    He is the first Messenger sent by God. He was sent
    after his people began practicing Shirk (polytheism).
    Their condition deteriorated steadily and they forgot the
    fundamentals of their faith that were passed down to
    6 They are the Messengers of God who exerted great efforts in
    conveying the Message of God to their peoples.
    26
    them by their forefathers who upheld the creed of Islam.
    God, the Exalted, says:
    Indeed, We sent Noah to his people, [saying],
    “Warn your people before there comes to them a
    painful punishment.”(Qur’an 71:1)
    They worshipped five idols named, Wudd, Suwa,
    Yaghooth, Ya’ooq and Nasr. Allah, the Exalted, clarifies
    their names in the Quran saying:
    And said, ‘Never leave your gods and never leave
    Wadd or Suwa’ or Yaghuth and Ya’uq and Nasr.
    (Qur’an 71:23)
    Prophet Noah was very pious and truthful. He
    patiently called his people to righteousness. He called on
    them using a variety of different methods. God, the
    Exalted, says:
    He said, “My Lord, indeed I invited my people [to
    truth] night and day. But my invitation increased
    them not except in flight. And indeed, every time I
    invited them that You may forgive them, they put
    their fingers in their ears, covered themselves
    with their garments, persisted, and were arrogant
    with [great] arrogance. Then I invited them
    publicly. Then I announced to them and [also]
    confided to them secretly. And said, ‘Ask
    27
    forgiveness of your Lord. Indeed, He is ever a
    Perpetual Forgiver. (Qur’an 71:5-10)
    In spite of all of his efforts, many of his people
    turned away and rejected the Message. Only a few
    followed him and the disbelievers amongst his people
    continued in their disbelief and evil ways. So Allah
    prevented them from receiving any rain. Noah informed
    them that if they were to believe they would receive rain
    and so they believed, but soon afterwards they returned
    to their disbelief. After spending long years in calling
    them to the path of Allah but seeing no answer, he
    eventually beseeched God, the Exalted, saying:
    And Noah said, “My Lord, do not leave upon the
    earth from among the disbelievers an
    inhabitant. Indeed, if You leave them, they will
    mislead Your servants and not beget except
    [every] wicked one and [confirmed] disbeliever.
    (Qur’an 71:26-7)
    Allah answered his supplications and He ordered him
    to build an ark. Noah was a skillful carpenter and those
    who believed in the Message helped him. Once the ark
    was complete, God ordered Prophet Noah to gather a
    pair of each animal (a male and female). God then
    ordered the heavens to pour rain and the earth to release
    the water within it. God, the Exalted, says:
    28
    The people of Noah denied before them, and they
    denied Our slave and said, “A madman,” and he
    was repelled. So he invoked his Lord, “Indeed, I
    am overpowered, so help.” Then We opened the
    gates of the heaven with rain pouring down. And
    caused the earth to burst with springs, and the
    waters met for a matter already predestined. And
    We carried him on a [construction of] planks and
    nails. Sailing under Our observation as reward
    for he who had been denied. And We left it as a
    sign, so is there any who will remember?(Qur’an
    54:9-15)
    Prophet Noah  had three offspring, Saam, the
    father of the Arabs and Persians, Haam, the father of the
    African races and European races and Yaafith, the father
    of the Asian races.
  2. Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim) 
    He is known as Khalil ar-Rahman (The one whom
    God chose for His love). His eldest son was Prophet
    Ismail and his second son was Ishaq (Isaac). From their
    descendants came the majority of Prophets and
    Messengers. Allah, the Exalted, says:
    29
    Praise to Allah, who has granted to me in old age
    Ishmael and Isaac. Indeed, my Lord is the Hearer
    of supplication. (Qur’an 14:39)
    Allah chose him to deliver His message. Prophet
    Abraham was living in a community of polytheists.
    They were idolaters and worshipped the stars. Allah, the
    Exalted, says:
    And [mention, O Muhammad], when Abraham
    said to his father Azar, “Do you take idols as
    deities? Indeed, I see you and your people to be in
    manifest error.” And thus did We show Abraham
    the realm of the heavens and the earth that he
    would be among the certain [in faith]. So when
    the night covered him [with darkness], he saw a
    star. He said, “This is my lord.” But when it set,
    he said, “I like not those that disappear.” And
    when he saw the moon rising, he said, “This is my
    lord.” But when it set, he said, “Unless my Lord
    guides me, I will surely be among the people gone
    astray.” And when he saw the sun rising, he said,
    “This is my lord; this is greater.” But when it set,
    he said, “O my people, indeed I am free from
    what you associate with Allah. Indeed, I have
    turned my face toward He who created the
    heavens and the earth, inclining toward truth,
    30
    and I am not of those who associate others with
    Allah.” (Qur’an 6:74-9)
    He was not happy with what he witnessed from his
    people. He sensed that there had to be a God who was
    greater than what his people worshipped. He knew that
    these idols did not have the power to offer any benefit or
    harm! Abraham would frequently argue with his people
    using logical arguments as to why these idols did not
    deserve any reverence. He said, as God tells us:
    And recite to them the news of Abraham, When
    he said to his father and his people, “What do you
    worship?”They said, “We worship idols and
    remain to them devoted.”He said, “Do they hear
    you when you supplicate? Or do they benefit you,
    or do they harm?” They said, “But we found our
    fathers doing thus.”He said, “Then do you see
    what you have been worshipping, You and your
    ancient forefathers? Indeed, they are enemies to
    me, except the Lord of the worlds, Who created
    me, and He [it is who] guides me. And it is He who
    feeds me and gives me drink. And when I am ill, it
    is He who cures me. And who will cause me to die
    and then bring me to life. And who I aspire that
    He will forgive me my sin on the Day of
    Recompense.” [And he said], “My Lord, grant me
    31
    authority and join me with the righteous. (Qur’an
    26:69-83)
    Prophet Abraham continued calling his people to the
    path of Allah, to believe in the Oneness of God and to
    leave aside all that they worshipped. But they rejected
    his message and even tried to kill him, but Allah saved
    him. Allah tells us about this, saying:
    He said, “Then do you worship instead of Allah
    that which does not benefit you at all or harm
    you? Uff7 to you and to what you worship instead
    of Allah. Then will you not use reason?” They
    said, “Burn him and support your gods – if you
    are to act.” Allah said, “O fire, be coolness and
    safety upon Abraham.” And they intended for
    him harm, but We made them the greatest losers.
    After continuous preaching, God ordained that
    Prophet Abraham take his wife, Hajar and their son,
    Ismail to Makkah. There, God ordained that he build the
    Kabah. From Prophet Ismail’s progeny came the final
    prophet of God, Prophet Muhammad, who was sent to
    all of mankind. Allah, the Exalted, says:
    And [mention] when Abraham said, “My Lord,
    make this a secure city and provide its people
    7 A word used to express displeasure.
    32
    with fruits – whoever of them believes in Allah
    and the Last Day.” [Allah] said. “And whoever
    disbelieves – I will grant him enjoyment for a
    little; then I will force him to the punishment of
    the Fire, and wretched is the destination.” And
    [mention] when Abraham was raising the
    foundations of the House and [with him] Ishmael,
    [saying], “Our Lord, accept [this] from us. Indeed
    You are the Hearing, the Knowing. Our Lord,
    and make us Muslims [in submission] to You and
    from our descendants a Muslim nation [in
    submission] to You. And show us our rites and
    accept our repentance. Indeed, You are the
    Accepting of repentance, the Merciful. Our Lord,
    and send among them a messenger from
    themselves who will recite to them Your verses
    and teach them the Book and wisdom and purify
    them. Indeed, You are the Exalted in Might, the
    Wise.”(Qur’an 2:126-9)
  3. Prophet Moses (Musa) 
    He is the one whom God spoke to. Allah, the
    Exalted, says:
    And when Moses arrived at Our appointed time
    and his Lord spoke to him, he said, “My Lord,
    show me [Yourself] that I may look at You.”
    33
    [Allah] said, “You will not see Me, but look at the
    mountain; if it should remain in place, then you
    will see Me.” But when his Lord appeared to the
    mountain, He rendered it level, and Moses fell
    unconscious. And when he awoke, he said,
    “Exalted are You! I have repented to You, and I
    am the first of the believers.”(Qur’an 7:143)
    Prophet Moses has been mentioned in the Quran 129
    times, making him the most mentioned prophet in the
    Quran. God provided him with two miracles; the first
    was when his staff was transformed into a serpent, by the
    will of Allah. The second miracle was when his hand,
    which was discolored transformed into a beautifully
    toned color. These signs were granted to Moses so that
    he could convince the Pharaoh of the fallacies of his
    ways and so that he would accept Islam. Allah, the
    Exalted, says:
    And Moses said, “O Pharaoh, I am a messenger
    from the Lord of the worlds. Who is] obligated
    not to say about Allah except the truth. I have
    come to you with clear evidence from your Lord,
    so send with me the Children of Israel.”[Pharaoh]
    said, “If you have come with a sign, then bring it
    forth, if you should be of the truthful.” So Moses
    threw his staff, and suddenly it was a serpent,
    34
    manifest. And he drew out his hand; thereupon it
    was white [with radiance] for the
    observers. (Qur’an 7:104-8)
    Allah sent him to the Pharaoh of Egypt and his
    people to call them to the belief in the Oneness of Allah
    and to cast aside all of their falsely worshipped gods.
    God, the Exalted, says:
    And Pharaoh said, “O eminent ones, I have not
    known you to have a god other than me. Then
    ignite for me, O Haman, [a fire] upon the clay and
    make for me a tower that I may look at the God of
    Moses. And indeed, I do think he is among the
    liars.”(Qur’an 28:38)
    Prophet Moses called the Pharaoh with wisdom and
    beautiful words to believe in the Oneness of Allah. But
    the Pharaoh opposed him and gathered together all of the
    sorcerers of that time to defeat Moses. Moses, however,
    was victorious, as his staff transformed, by the will of
    Allah, into a snake and swallowed the sticks and staffs
    thrown by the sorcerers. Allah mentions this story to us:
    Said the eminent among the people of Pharaoh,
    “Indeed, this is a learned magician Who wants to
    expel you from your land [through magic], so
    what do you instruct?” They said, “Postpone [the
    matter of] him and his brother and send among
    35
    the cities gatherers. Who will bring you every
    learned magician.” And the magicians came to
    Pharaoh. They said, “Indeed for us is a reward if
    we are the predominant.” He said, “Yes, and,
    [moreover], you will be among those made near
    [to me].”They said, “O Moses, either you throw
    [your staff], or we will be the ones to throw
    [first].” He said, “Throw,” and when they threw,
    they bewitched the eyes of the people and struck
    terror into them, and they presented a great [feat
    of] magic. And We inspired to Moses, “Throw
    your staff,” and at once it devoured what they
    were falsifying. So the truth was established, and
    abolished was what they were doing. And
    Pharaoh and his people were overcome right
    there and became debased. And the magicians fell
    down in prostration [to Allah]. (Qur’an 7:109-20)
    The Pharaoh and his people disbelieved in the
    Message of God, so Allah punished them with a number
    of trials. Allah sent upon them floods, locusts, lice, frogs,
    and blood as signs from Allah. Still, they refused and
    persisted in disbelief. Each punishment was lifted by the
    blessing of the supplication of Prophet Moses .
    Shortly after each event, they returned and persisted on
    their disbelief. Allah says about this:
    36
    And they said, “No matter what sign you bring us
    with which to bewitch us, we will not be believers
    in you.”So We sent upon them the flood and
    locusts and lice and frogs and blood as distinct
    signs, but they were arrogant and were a criminal
    people. And when the punishment descended
    upon them, they said, “O Moses, invoke for us
    your Lord by what He has promised you. If you
    [can] remove the punishment from us, we will
    surely believe you, and we will send with you the
    Children of Israel.”But when We removed the
    punishment from them until a term which they
    were to reach, then at once they broke their
    word.(Qur’an 7:132-5)
    After all of this, Allah ordered Prophet Moses to take
    his people, under the cover of night, and leave Egypt, so
    that they could practice their faith freely. Once the
    Pharaoh realized that they had left, he chased after them
    with his troops. Moses and his people reached the edge
    of the sea, at which the Children of Israel exclaimed,
    “The Pharaoh will capture us!” Moses, who had
    complete trust in God, struck his staff on the ground and
    the ocean parted into pathways through which the people
    entered, by the will of Allah. Allah then saved Moses
    37
    and his people and destroyed the Pharaoh in the ocean.
    God, the Exalted, says:
    And when the two companies saw one another,
    the companions of Moses said, “Indeed, we are to
    be overtaken!”[Moses] said, “No! Indeed, with me
    is my Lord; He will guide me.” Then We inspired
    to Moses, “Strike with your staff the sea,” and it
    parted, and each portion was like a great
    towering mountain. And We advanced thereto the
    pursuers. And We saved Moses and those with
    him, all together. Then We drowned the others.
    (Qur’an 26:61-6)
    God, the Exalted, then says:
    And We took the Children of Israel across the sea,
    and Pharaoh and his soldiers pursued them in
    tyranny and enmity until, when drowning
    overtook him, he said, “I believe that there is no
    deity except that in whom the Children of Israel
    believe, and I am of the Muslims.” Now? And you
    had disobeyed [Him] before and were of the
    corrupters? So today We will save you in body
    that you may be to those who succeed you a sign.
    And indeed, many among the people, of Our
    signs, are heedless. (Qur’an 10:90-2)
    38
  4. Prophet Muhammad 
    Prophet Muhammad  is the last of Prophets and
    Messengers. He was sent by God to all of mankind. He
    is from the family of Prophet Ismail, the son of
    Abraham. He was born in Makkah, a few months after
    the death of his father. His mother later died while he
    was still young, and he was cared for by his Grandfather,
    Abdul-Muttalib, and later by his uncle Abu Talib.
    Prophet Muhammad  was a shepherd taking care of
    a flock of sheep in Makkah. He was very well-known for
    being trustworthy and having never told a lie in his life.
    The people of Makkah even called him ‘The Truthful’
    and ‘The Trustworthy’. Whenever people left for a trip,
    they would entrust him with their valuables.
    When he reached the age of forty, God sent Angel
    Gabriel to him and appointed Muhammad as a Prophet
    and Messenger to Mankind. He spent 13 years in
    Makkah calling people to the path of God and later on
    migrated to Madinah. The people of Madinah responded
    and accepted Islam in droves. He died when he was 63
    years old. His followers then spread the Message of
    Islam across the world, and until today people are
    accepting Islam in large numbers across the globe.
    8
    8 For more information on Prophet Muhammad  you can refer
    back to the book ‘Muhammad the Messenger of Allah ’.
    39
    Jesus the Messenger of God 
    Family of Imran
    Prophets and Messengers were sent by God
    continuously after Prophet Noah, may God praise him.
    God, the Exalted, says:
    Muhammad is not the father of [any] one of your
    men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah and last of
    the prophets. And ever is Allah, of all things,
    Knowing. (Qur’an 33:40)
    Prophet Jesus, the last Prophet from the Children of
    Israel, has a special place in the hearts of Muslims. He
    informed his people of the advent of Prophet
    Muhammad  and he is mentioned in the Quran 25
    times.
    God has conveyed to us in the Qur’an some of the
    original passages that He revealed to Jesus.God also
    mentions details about the life of Mary, the mother of
    Jesus. She is spoken of highly and is known for being
    pure and chaste. Allah, the Exalted, says:
    Indeed, Allah chose Adam and Noah and the
    family of Abraham and the family of ‘Imran over
    the worlds. Descendants, some of them from
    others. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing.(Qur’an
    3:33-4)
    40
    Maryam, may Allah praise her.
    Allah has praised Maryam, the daughter of Imran,
    the mother of Prophet Jesus. Allah describes Maryam
    as pure, chaste and pious. He, the Exalted, says:
    And [the example of] Mary, the daughter of
    ‘Imran, who guarded her chastity, so We blew
    into [her garment] through Our angel, and she
    believed in the words of her Lord and His
    scriptures and was of the devoutly obedient.
    (Qur’an 66:12)
    The Qur’an clarifies that Maryam was the result of a
    supplication that her own mother made. Allah, the
    Exalted, says:
    [Mention, O Muhammad], when the wife of
    ‘Imran said, “My Lord, indeed I have pledged to
    You what is in my womb, consecrated [for Your
    service], so accept this from me. Indeed, You are
    the Hearing, the Knowing.”(Qur’an 3:35)
    This supplication was the indirect cause through
    which she and her offspring were protected by Allah
    from the Devil. God provided for Maryam and reared her
    with His blessings. Allah says:
    But when she delivered her, she said, “My Lord, I
    have delivered a female.” And Allah was most
    41
    knowing of what she delivered, “And the male is
    not like the female. And I have named her Mary,
    and I seek refuge for her in You and [for] her
    descendants from Satan, the expelled [from the
    mercy of Allah].” So her Lord accepted her with
    good acceptance and caused her to grow in a good
    manner and put her in the care of Zechariah.
    Every time Zechariah entered upon her in the
    prayer chamber, he found with her provision. He
    said, “O Mary, from where is this [coming] to
    you?” She said, “It is from Allah. Indeed, Allah
    provides for whom He wills without
    account.”(Qur’an 3:36-7)
    Maryam was very pious in her worship of God. She
    was the best of women in her generation. The Prophet,
    may Allah praise him, said:
    There are four women who reached the level of
    Kamal (perfection).”
    He mentioned Maryam, the mother of Jesus as one of
    them. Allah, the Exalted, says:
    And [mention] when the angels said, “O Mary,
    indeed Allah has chosen you and purified you and
    chosen you above the women of the worlds. O
    Mary, be devoutly obedient to your Lord and
    42
    prostrate and bow with those who bow [in
    prayer].” (Qur’an 3:42-3)
    God revealed an entire chapter in the Quran carrying
    her name. It is the 19th chapter in the Quran. It is the only
    chapter in the Quran named after a woman, and in it God
    praises Mary. A praise of similar nature cannot be found
    in any of the previous Scriptures.
    Prophet Jesus 
    God gave the good news to Mary about Prophet
    Jesus, may God praise him. God, the Exalted, says:
    [And mention] when the angels said, “O Mary,
    indeed Allah gives you good tidings of a word
    from Him, whose name will be the Messiah, Jesus,
    the son of Mary – distinguished in this world and
    the Hereafter and among those brought near [to
    Allah]. He will speak to the people in the cradle
    and in maturity and will be of the righteous.” She
    said, “My Lord, how will I have a child when no
    man has touched me?” [The angel] said, “Such is
    Allah; He creates what He wills. When He decrees
    a matter, He only says to it, ‘Be,’ and it is. And He
    will teach him writing and wisdom and the Torah
    and the Gospel. (Qur’an 3:45-8)
    43
    His Birth:
    The birth of Prophet Jesus was a miracle. Even
    though Jesus was born to a virgin, he does not deserve or
    require any worship. Had Jesus deserved any worship on
    account of his miraculous birth, Prophet Adam would be
    more deserving of it than him, since he was created
    without a father or mother. Allah, the Exalted, says:
    Indeed, the example of Jesus to Allah is like that
    of Adam. He created Him from dust; then He said
    to him, “Be,” and he was. The truth is from your
    Lord, so do not be among the doubters. Then
    whoever argues with you about it after [this]
    knowledge has come to you – say, “Come, let us
    call our sons and your sons, our women and your
    women, ourselves and yourselves, then supplicate
    earnestly [together] and invoke the curse of Allah
    upon the liars [among us].” Indeed, this is the
    true narration. And there is no deity except Allah.
    And indeed, Allah is the Exalted in Might, the
    Wise. But if they turn away, then indeed – Allah is
    Knowing of the corrupters. (Quran 3:59-63)
    Allah created and fashioned Jesus as He has all
    creation. Allah speaks of the entire ordeal of the birth of
    Jesus in the Quran, saying:
    44
    And mention, [O Muhammad], in the Book [the
    story of] Mary, when she withdrew from her
    family to a place toward the east. And she took, in
    seclusion from them, a screen. Then We sent to
    her Our Angel, and he represented himself to her
    as a well-proportioned man. She said, “Indeed, I
    seek refuge in the Most Merciful from you, [so
    leave me], if you should be fearing of Allah.” He
    said, “I am only the messenger of your Lord to
    give you [news of] a pure boy.” She said, “How
    can I have a boy while no man has touched me
    and I have not been unchaste?” He said, “Thus [it
    will be]; your Lord says, ‘It is easy for Me, and
    We will make him a sign to the people and a
    mercy from Us. And it is a matter [already]
    decreed.'”So she conceived him, and she
    withdrew with him to a remote place. And the
    pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a
    palm tree. She said, “Oh, I wish I had died before
    this and was in oblivion, forgotten.” But he called
    her from below her, “Do not grieve; your Lord
    has provided beneath you a stream. And shake
    toward you the trunk of the palm tree; it will drop
    upon you ripe, fresh dates. So eat and drink and
    be contented. And if you see from among
    humanity anyone, say, ‘Indeed, I have vowed to
    45
    the Most Merciful abstention, so I will not speak
    today to [any] man.'” Then she brought him to
    her people, carrying him. They said, “O Mary,
    you have certainly done a thing unprecedented. O
    sister of Aaron, your father was not a man of evil,
    nor was your mother unchaste.”So she pointed to
    him. They said, “How can we speak to one who is
    in the cradle a child?” [Jesus] said, “Indeed, I am
    the servant of Allah. He has given me the
    Scripture and made me a prophet. And He has
    made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined
    upon me prayer and Zakah (i.e. charity) as long as
    I remain alive. And [made me] dutiful to my
    mother, and He has not made me a wretched
    tyrant. And peace is on me the day I was born and
    the day I will die and the day I am raised
    alive.” That is Jesus, the son of Mary – the word
    of truth about which they are in dispute. It is not
    [befitting] for Allah to take a son; exalted is He!
    When He decrees an affair, He only says to it,
    “Be,” and it is.(Quran 19:16-35)
    Allah, the Exalted, says:
    And [mention] the one who guarded her chastity,
    so We blew into her [garment] through Our angel
    46
    [Gabriel], and We made her and her son a sign
    for the worlds.(Qur’an 21:91)
    The Human Nature of Jesus
    The Qur’an states clearly that Jesus was a man who
    was chosen by God to convey the message of the belief
    in the Oneness of God to his people. Allah, the Exalted,
    says:
    The Messiah, son of Mary, was not but a
    messenger; [other] messengers have passed on
    before him. And his mother was a supporter of
    truth. They both used to eat food. Look how We
    make clear to them the signs; then look how they
    are deluded. (Qur’an 5:75)
    It is not befitting of God to have a wife or children.
    Claiming He has a child is indeed a major sin. God, the
    Exalted, says:
    And they say, “The Most Merciful has taken [for
    Himself] a son.” You have done an atrocious
    thing. The heavens almost rupture there from and
    the earth splits open and the mountains collapse
    in devastation. That they attribute to the Most
    Merciful a son. And it is not appropriate for the
    Most Merciful that He should take a son. There is
    47
    no one in the heavens and earth but that he comes
    to the Most Merciful as a servant.(Quran 19:88-93)
    A child is the product of two equals coming together
    and then producing a child. Nothing is like unto God; He
    has no equal and no partners. God, the Exalted, says:
    Say, “He is Allah, [who is] One, Allah, the Eternal
    Refuge. He neither begets nor is born, Nor is
    there to Him any equivalent.”(Quran Chapter 112)
    People throughout the ages have claimed that God
    had a child. The polytheists among the Arabs claimed
    that God had married from the Jinn and the Angels were
    His daughters. God, the Exalted, says:
    So inquire of them, [O Muhammad], “Does your
    Lord have daughters while they have sons? Or
    did We create the angels as females while they
    were witnesses?”Unquestionably, it is out of their
    [invented] falsehood that they say, “Allah has
    begotten,” and indeed, they are liars. Has He
    chosen daughters over sons? What is [wrong]
    with you? How do you make judgment? Then will
    you not be reminded? Or do you have a clear
    authority? Then produce your scripture, if you
    should be truthful. And they have claimed
    between Him and the jinn a lineage, but the jinn
    48
    have already known that they [who made such
    claims] will be brought to [punishment].Exalted is
    Allah above what they describe, except the chosen
    servants of Allah [who do not share in that
    sin]. (Qur’an 37: 149-160)
    Jews and Christians made similar claims, God, the
    Exalted, says:
    The Jews say, “Ezra is the son of Allah “; and the
    Christians say, “The Messiah is the son of Allah.”
    That is their statement from their mouths; they
    imitate the saying of those who disbelieved [before
    them]. May Allah destroy them; how are they
    deluded? They have taken their scholars and
    monks as lords besides Allah, and [also] the
    Messiah, the son of Mary. And they were not
    commanded except to worship one God; there is
    no deity except Him. Exalted is He above
    whatever they associate with Him. (Qur’an 9:30-1)
    The Quran clearly states that anyone who believes
    that Jesus is God or the son of God or part of a Trinity
    would have embraced a belief that contradicts the
    Message of Jesus, and thus would be a disbeliever in his
    Message. The Quran clarifies that the message of Jesus
    49
    was the belief in the Oneness of God. God, the Exalted,
    says:
    They have certainly disbelieved who say, “Allah is
    the Messiah, the son of Mary” while the Messiah
    has said, “O Children of Israel, worship Allah,
    my Lord and your Lord.” Indeed, he who
    associates others with Allah – Allah has forbidden
    him Paradise, and his refuge is the Fire. And
    there are not for the wrongdoers any helpers.
    They have certainly disbelieved who say, “Allah is
    the third of three.” And there is no god except one
    God. And if they do not desist from what they are
    saying, there will surely afflict the disbelievers
    among them a painful punishment. So will they
    not repent to Allah and seek His forgiveness? And
    Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.(Qur’an 5:72-4)
    The Quran mentions many intellectual evidences that
    clearly demonstrate that God is the only One worthy of
    worship. He does as He wills and pleases. It also clarifies
    that all the miracles that happened through Jesus were by
    the will of God. Jesus himself does not have the power to
    protect himself from the decrees of God. God, the
    Exalted, says:
    They have certainly disbelieved who say that
    Allah is Christ, the son of Mary. Say, “Then who
    50
    could prevent Allah at all if He had intended to
    destroy Christ, the son of Mary, or his mother or
    everyone on the earth?” And to Allah belongs the
    dominion of the heavens and the earth and
    whatever is between them. He creates what He
    wills, and Allah is over all things
    competent. (Qur’an 5:17)
    God warns the Jews and Christians not to adulate
    their Prophets and not to speak in their regard without
    knowledge. It also goes to tell us that Jesus is only a
    human being. God, the Exalted, says:
    O People of the Scripture, do not commit excess in
    your religion or say about Allah except the truth.
    The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was but a
    messenger of Allah and His word which He
    directed to Mary and a soul [created at a
    command] from Him. So believe in Allah and His
    messengers. And do not say, “Three”; desist – it is
    better for you. Indeed, Allah is but one God.
    Exalted is He above having a son. To Him belongs
    whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the
    earth. And sufficient is Allah as Disposer of
    affairs. Never would the Messiah disdain to be a
    servant of Allah, nor would the angels near [to
    Him]. And whoever disdains His worship and is
    51
    arrogant – He will gather them to Himself all
    together. And as for those who believed and did
    righteous deeds, He will give them in full their
    rewards and grant them extra from His bounty.
    But as for those who disdained and were
    arrogant, He will punish them with a painful
    punishment, and they will not find for themselves
    besides Allah any protector or helper. (Qur’an
    4:171-3)
    The Prophethood of Prophet Jesus
    Every Muslim believes that all of the prophets and
    messengers did their duty in conveying to their people
    the message of belief in the Oneness of God. A Muslim
    is to love and revere all of them as well. We are also
    ordered by God to defend all of them. God, the Exalted,
    says:
    Say, [O believers], “We have believed in Allah
    and what has been revealed to us and what has
    been revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac
    and Jacob and the Descendants and what was
    given to Moses and Jesus and what was given to
    the prophets from their Lord. We make no
    distinction between any of them, and we are
    Muslims [in submission] to Him.” So if they
    believe in the same as you believe in, then they
    52
    have been [rightly] guided; but if they turn away,
    they are only in dissension, and Allah will be
    sufficient for you against them. And He is the
    Hearing, the Knowing. (Qur’an 2:137-8)
    Before the advent of Prophet Moses, the children of
    Israel were belittled and forced into menial harsh labor
    work. God, the Exalted, says:
    And [recall, O Children of Israel], when We saved
    you from the people of Pharaoh, [who were]
    afflicting you with the worst torment – killing
    your sons and keeping your women alive. And in
    that was a great trial from your Lord. (Qur’an
    7:141)
    Allah then blessed them with the Prophet Moses, and
    their condition changed from bad to good. God, the
    Exalted, says:
    And We caused the people who had been
    oppressed to inherit the eastern regions of the
    land and the western ones, which We had blessed.
    And the good word of your Lord was fulfilled for
    the Children of Israel because of what they had
    patiently endured. And We destroyed [all] that
    Pharaoh and his people were producing and what
    they had been building. (Qur’an 7:137)
    53
    After that the Children of Israel drifted from the path
    of God, so God sent them Prophet Jesus to guide them
    back to the Straight Path. God, the Exalted, says:
    And We sent, following in their footsteps, Jesus,
    the son of Mary, confirming that which came
    before him in the Torah; and We gave him the
    Gospel, in which was guidance and light and
    confirming that which preceded it of the Torah as
    guidance and instruction for the righteous. (Qur’an
    5:46)
    Prophet Jesus took the lead and called the children of
    Israel to the belief in the Oneness of God and to worship
    God alone and that they uphold the commandments in
    the Gospel, God, the Exalted, says:
    And when Jesus brought clear proofs, he said, “I
    have come to you with wisdom and to make clear
    to you some of that over which you differ, so fear
    Allah and obey me. Indeed, Allah is my Lord and
    your Lord, so worship Him. This is a straight
    path.”(Qur’an 43:63-4)
    When Prophet Jesus saw that they had disbelieved
    and rejected the truth, and were persistent on their
    disbelief, He called out to those who believed amongst
    his people; twelve of them, known as the Apostles. They
    54
    answered his call and pledged their support. Allah, the
    Exalted, says:
    But when Jesus felt [persistence in] disbelief from
    them, he said, “Who are my supporters for [the
    cause of] Allah?” The disciples said, “We are
    supporters for Allah. We have believed in Allah
    and testify that we are Muslims [submitting to
    Him]. Our Lord, we have believed in what You
    revealed and have followed the messenger Jesus,
    so register us among the witnesses [to
    truth].”(Qur’an 3:52-3)
    The Description of Prophet Jesus
    The Quran has given us a description of Prophet
    Jesus, may God praise him. This description covers some
    of his mannerisms and also the nature of His message.
    God mentions that He protected Jesus. He, the Exalted,
    says:
    And We did certainly give Moses the Torah and
    followed up after him with messengers. And We
    gave Jesus, the son of Mary, clear proofs and
    supported him with the Pure Spirit. But is it [not]
    that every time a messenger came to you, [O
    Children of Israel], with what your souls did not
    desire, you were arrogant? And a party [of
    55
    messengers] you denied and another party you
    killed. (Qur’an 2:87)
    Allah also describes Jesus as being a perfect example
    in terms of complete faith and sincerity to God. Muslims
    believe that Prophet Jesus will descend to the earth
    towards the end of time. God, the Exalted, says:
    And when the son of Mary was presented as an
    example, immediately your people laughed
    aloud. And they said, “Are your gods better, or is
    he?” They did not present the comparison except
    for [mere] argument. But, [in fact], they are a
    people prone to dispute. Jesus was not but a slave
    upon whom We bestowed favor, and We made
    him an example for the Children of Israel. And if
    We willed, We could have made [instead] of you
    angels succeeding [one another] on the earth. And
    indeed, Jesus will be [a sign for] knowledge of the
    Hour, so be not in doubt of it, and follow Me. This
    is a straight path.(Qur’an 43:57-61)
    Physical Characteristics of Jesus
    As for his physical qualities and features, the Prophet
    Muhammad  described him saying:
    “There was no prophet between me and Prophet
    Jesus. He will descend from the heavens to earth.
    56
    If you see him, know his description. He is an
    average sized individual; he is neither fat nor
    skinny. His skin color has a reddish-white hue.”
    The Prophet  said:
    “The Prophets are brothers from different
    mothers. The creed they all carry is one and the
    specifics of their laws differ. There is no Prophet
    between Jesus and I. He will break the cross and
    kill the swine and remove the Jizyah (head tax).
    He will unite all under one belief and only Islam
    will prevail during his reign. During his reign the
    anti-Christ will be killed and safety and security
    will spread throughout the lands till animals will
    harmoniously coexist with each other. Children
    will play with snakes not being harmed by them.
    He will rule amongst the Muslims for as long as
    Allah wills and then he will die and the Muslims
    will bury him.” (Ahmed)
    The Prophet  said:
    “I saw Jesus, Moses and Abraham. As for Jesus
    he had a pinkish hue and has a broad-chest.”
    (Bukhari)
    The Prophet clarified that one’s faith would not be
    complete unless they believe in Jesus being a Messenger
    57
    of God. This would lead one to a blissful life in the
    Heavenly Abode. The Prophet  said:
    “Whoever testifies that there is no God worthy of
    worship but Allah and that He has no partner and
    that Muhammad is his slave and messenger and
    that Jesus is the slave of Allah created by the
    command of Allah through Mary and that
    Jannah (i.e. the Heavenly Abode) and Hell are true
    will enter Jannah, even if they have not done a
    single good deed.”
    Believing that Jesus is a messenger of God will also
    increase one’s rewards. The Prophet  said:
    “Whoever believes in Jesus the son of Mary as a
    Prophet and Messenger of God and then believes
    in me, will have two rewards.” (Bukhari)
    Jesus and the Anti-Christ
    The Prophet clarified to us that the return of Jesus to
    the Earth is one of the Final signs of the Day of
    Judgment. The proof of this is in the words of Allah, the
    Exalted:
    And when the son of Mary was presented as an
    example, immediately your people laughed
    aloud. And they said, “Are your gods better, or is
    he?” They did not present the comparison except
    58
    for [mere] argument. But, [in fact], they are a
    people prone to dispute. Jesus was not but a
    servant upon whom We bestowed favor, and We
    made him an example for the Children of
    Israel. And if We willed, We could have made
    [instead] of you angels succeeding [one another]
    on the earth. And indeed, Jesus will be [a sign for]
    knowledge of the Hour, so be not in doubt of it,
    and follow Me. This is a straight path.(Quran 43:57-
    61)
    Due to the greatness of Prophet Jesus, he will be the
    one who will slay the Anti-Christ. He will also spread
    the message of Islam during the times of great
    tribulation. During that time the good will be viewed as
    bad and the bad as good. The Prophet  said:
    “O people, there has been no Fitnah (trial)
    greater on this earth from the time that Adam
    was created till the end of time than that of the
    Dajjal (Anti-Christ). Every Prophet warned his
    people of this trial. I am the last of Prophets and
    you are the last of nations, and he will come forth
    during this era without a doubt. If he comes out
    while I am amongst you I will defend every
    Muslim. But if he comes out after I pass away,
    then every Muslim will have to defend himself. He
    will first emerge from an area between the
    59
    Greater Syria Area and Iraq. He will go to the
    east and the west causing problems wherever he
    goes. O slaves of Allah, O people, Be firm! I will
    describe him to you like no prophet has described
    him. He will claim to be your God, but you shall
    not see God in this world. He is one eyed and
    your God is not one eyed! It is written between his
    eyes, ‘disbeliever’ every believer will be able to
    read it whether they are lettered or unlettered. He
    will have a heaven and a hell with him. His hell is
    a heaven and the heaven is a hell. Whoever is
    tried through his hell; let them beseech Allah and
    recite the first verses of the chapter of al-Kahf. He
    would say to a Bedouin, if you see that I resurrect
    your mother and your father would you believe in
    me? The Bedouin would say yes, and two devils
    would emerge in the form of his parents and
    order him to obey ad-Dajjal. He will kill a person
    cutting him in half and then say, look at my slave,
    I have cut him in half and I shall resurrect him.
    He then would ask that person, ‘who is your
    God?’ the man who was just cut would say
    ‘Allah! You are the enemy of Allah you are adDajjal! I am now surer than ever that you are the
    one whom our Prophet warned us against!’ He
    would order the heavens to pour rain and the
    60
    earth to bring forth the best of its vegetation. He
    would pass by a district who disbelieve in him and
    he would order the land to stop producing its
    vegetation and all their crops and animals would
    die. He would pass by another and ask them to
    believe in him and they would, and they would
    witness such great material blessings. He will go
    to every corner of this world except for Makkah
    and Madinah. Angels will be standing guarding
    both with their swords. While he is waiting
    outside, Madinah would shake violently and all
    the hypocrites would emerge and go out to join
    him. It will be purified by the will of Allah. It was
    said, ‘Where are the Arabs on that day?’ He said,
    they would be few in number and they would be
    with a pious Imam (leader). While he is about to
    perform the Morning Prayer, Jesus would
    descend, and the Imam would step back to let him
    lead, but Jesus would push him forward. After the
    prayers, Jesus would ask that the door be opened
    and behind it would be the Dajjal and with him
    70000 of his troops. They would all be killed and
    Jesus would rule as a wise and just ruler. He
    would kill the swine, break the Cross and rule
    with the laws of Islam.”
    61
    Miracles of Prophet Jesus
    At times people would reject the veracity of a
    Prophet and would not believe until they witnessed a
    tangible miracle. So in light of this, Allah sent his
    Prophets and Messengers with miracles. Allah, the
    Exalted, says:
    And We have already sent messengers before you
    and assigned to them wives and descendants. And
    it was not for a messenger to come with a sign
    except by permission of Allah. For every term is a
    decree. (Qur’an 13:38)
    Each prophet was given miracles that their nations
    could comprehend and relate to. The people of Prophet
    Moses were well known for their mastery of sorcery. So
    Allah aided Prophet Moses with miracles his people
    could comprehend; his staff miraculously transformed
    into a serpent. God, the Exalted, says:
    And the magicians came to Pharaoh. They said,
    “Indeed for us is a reward if we are the
    predominant.” He said, “Yes, and, [moreover],
    you will be among those made near [to
    me].” They said, “O Moses, either you throw
    [your staff], or we will be the ones to throw
    [first].”He said, “Throw,” and when they threw,
    they bewitched the eyes of the people and struck
    62
    terror into them, and they presented a great [feat
    of] magic. And We inspired to Moses, “Throw
    your staff,” and at once it devoured what they
    were falsifying. So the truth was established, and
    abolished was what they were doing. And
    Pharaoh and his people were overcome right
    there and became debased. And the magicians fell
    down in prostration [to Allah]. They said, “We
    have believed in the Lord of the worlds. The Lord
    of Moses and Aaron.” (Qur’an 7:113-121)
    The people of Prophet Jesus were well known for
    their knowledge of medicine. His was aided with
    miracles his people could comprehend. He spoke to
    people while he was a newborn infant. He would make a
    bird’s shape in clay, and then by the will of God, life
    would be breathed into it. He would heal the lepers and
    those who were blind from their ailments. He even, by
    the will of Allah, brought the dead back to life. Allah
    says:
    [The Day] when Allah will say, “O Jesus, Son of
    Mary, remember My favor upon you and upon
    your mother when I supported you with the Pure
    Spirit and you spoke to the people in the cradle
    and in maturity; and [remember] when I taught
    you writing and wisdom and the Torah and the
    63
    Gospel; and when you designed from clay [what
    was] like the form of a bird with My permission,
    then you breathed into it, and it became a bird
    with My permission; and you healed the blind and
    the leper with My permission; and when you
    brought forth the dead with My permission; and
    when I restrained the Children of Israel from
    [killing] you when you came to them with clear
    proofs and those who disbelieved among them
    said, “This is not but obvious magic.” (Qur’an
    5:110)
    Another miracle Prophet Jesus received was the
    Feast. His disciples asked for a heavenly feast so that
    their hearts would be affirmed. So he prayed to Allah for
    this and it was granted. Allah, the Exalted, says:
    [And remember] when the disciples said, “O
    Jesus, Son of Mary, can your Lord send down to
    us a table [spread with food] from the heaven?
    [Jesus] said,” Fear Allah, if you should be
    believers.”They said, “We wish to eat from it and
    let our hearts be reassured and know that you
    have been truthful to us and be among its
    witnesses.”(Qur’an 5:112-3)
    64
    Prophet Jesus and His Rejection of Shirk
    (Polytheism)
    The Qur’an has mentioned to us that Jesus was like
    all Prophets and Messengers sent by God. He upheld the
    belief in the Oneness of Allah. God, the Exalted, says:
    And when Jesus brought clear proofs, he said, “I
    have come to you with wisdom and to make clear
    to you some of that over which you differ, so fear
    Allah and obey me. (Qur’an 43:63)
    The Qur’an clarifies that Jesus never called for
    people to worship him. God, the Exalted, says:
    And [beware the Day] when Allah will say, “O
    Jesus, Son of Mary, did you say to the people,
    ‘Take me and my mother as deities besides
    Allah?'” He will say, “Exalted are You! It was not
    for me to say that to which I have no right. If I
    had said it, You would have known it. You know
    what is within myself, and I do not know what is
    within Yourself. Indeed, it is You who is Knower
    of the unseen.I said not to them except what You
    commanded me – to worship Allah, my Lord and
    your Lord. And I was a witness over them as long
    as I was among them; but when You took me up,
    You were the Observer over them, and You are,
    over all things, Witness. If You should punish
    65
    them – indeed they are Your servants; but if You
    forgive them – indeed it is You who is the Exalted
    in Might, the Wise. (Qur’an 5:116-8)
    The Glad Tidings of Prophet Jesus of the
    Advent of Prophet Muhammad
    The Message of every Prophet was identical in
    matters of creedal belief. God, the Exalted, says:
    And [recall, O People of the Scripture], when
    Allah took the covenant of the prophets, [saying],
    “Whatever I give you of the Scripture and
    wisdom and then there comes to you a messenger
    confirming what is with you, you [must] believe in
    him and support him.” [Allah] said, “Have you
    acknowledged and taken upon that My
    commitment?” They said, “We have
    acknowledged it.” He said, “Then bear witness,
    and I am with you among the witnesses.” And
    whoever turned away after that – they were the
    defiantly disobedient.(Quran 3:81-2)
    Prophet Jesus asked his people to believe in the
    Messenger to come, Prophet Muhammad. God, the
    Exalted, says:
    O Children of Israel, remember My favor which I
    have bestowed upon you and fulfill My covenant
    66
    [upon you] that I will fulfill your covenant [from
    Me], and be afraid of [only] Me. And believe in
    what I have sent down confirming that which is
    [already] with you, and be not the first to
    disbelieve in it. And do not exchange My signs for
    a small price, and fear [only] Me. And do not mix
    the truth with falsehood or conceal the truth while
    you know [it]. (Qur’an 2:40-2)
    Jesus Christ was one more prophet in the long line of
    prophets sent to the Children of Israel. It is recorded in
    the Bible that he said:
    “I was not sent except to the lost sheep of the
    house of Israel.” (Matthew 15:24)
    When Jesus sent the disciples out in the path of God,
    he instructed them:
    “Do not go into the way of the Gentiles, and do
    not enter a city of the Samaritans. But go rather
    to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.” (Matthew
    10:5-6)
    Throughout his ministry, Jesus was never recorded as
    having converted a Gentile, and in fact is recorded as
    having initially rebuked a Gentile for seeking his favors,
    likening her to a dog (Matthew 15:22-28 and Mark 7:25-
    30).
    67
    Jesus was himself a Jew, his disciples were Jews, and
    both he and they directed their ministries to the Jews.
    One wonders what this means to us now, for most of
    those who have taken Jesus as their ‘personal savior’ are
    Gentiles, and not of the “lost sheep of the house of
    Israel” to whom he was sent!
    From this passage we also learn that Jesus was not
    sent to mankind at large. God, the Exalted, says:
    And [mention] when Jesus, the son of Mary, said,
    “O children of Israel, indeed I am the messenger of
    Allah to you confirming what came before me of
    the Torah and bringing good tidings of a messenger
    to come after me, whose name is Ahmad.” But
    when he came to them with clear evidences, they
    said, “This is obvious magic.” (Qur’an 61:6)
    The Position of the Rabbis and Priests
    towards Prophet Muhammad 
    The Priests and Rabbis who had heard of the
    Message of Prophet Muhammad  knew that it was the
    truth. Details of the life of Prophet Muhammad are
    mentioned in the previous scriptures. God, the Exalted,
    says:
    Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered
    prophet, whom they find written in what they
    68
    have of the Torah and the Gospel, who enjoins
    upon them what is right and forbids them what is
    wrong and makes lawful for them the good things
    and prohibits for them the evil and relieves them
    of their burden and the shackles which were upon
    them. So they who have believed in him, honored
    him, supported him and followed the light which
    was sent down with him – it is those who will be
    the successful. (Qur’an 7:157)
    Safiyah, the daughter of the Jewish Noble Ka’b, said:
    “My father and my uncle, Abu Yasir, went to visit the
    Messenger of Allah and returned towards the end of that
    day, exhausted and tired. I tried to cheer them up, but
    they didn’t look at me. I heard my uncle ask my father,
    ‘Is it him?’ I heard him say: ‘By the Lord of Moses, it
    is!’ My uncle then asked, ‘What shall we do?’ He said: ‘I
    will be an enemy to him till death.’
    Many accepted the Message of Islam, and amongst
    them was the King of Habesha (Ethiopia), an-Najashi.
    He was a Christian and was very knowledgeable
    regarding the Scripture. He knew that a Prophet would
    come after Jesus. Umm Salamah said: “When we arrived
    in the land of Habesha, an-Najashi was very kind to us,
    he gave us protection and allowed us freedom to worship
    Allah alone. We were not harmed in any way.”
    69
    Quraish could not tolerate the prospect of a secure
    haven available for the Muslims in Abyssinia (Ethiopia),
    so they dispatched two envoys to demand the extradition
    of the Muslims. They were ‘Amr bin Al-‘As and
    ‘Abdullah bin Abi Rabi‘a — before embracing Islam.
    They had taken with them valuable gifts to the king and
    his clergy, and had been able to win some of the
    courtiers over to their side. The pagan envoys claimed
    that the Muslim refugees should be expelled from
    Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and be handed over to them, on the
    ground that they had abandoned the religion of their
    forefathers, and their leader was preaching a religion
    different from theirs and from that of the king.
    The king summoned the Muslims to the court and
    asked them to explain the teachings of their religion. The
    Muslim emigrants had decided to tell the whole truth,
    with no regard to the possible consequences. Ja‘far bin
    Abi Talib stood up and addressed the king in the
    following words: “O king! We were plunged in the depth
    of ignorance and barbarism; we adored idols, we lived
    unchastely, we ate carrion, and we spoke in a most vile
    manner. We disregarded ties of mutual respect and the
    duties of hospitality and neighborhood. We knew no law
    but that of the strong. Allah then raised from among us a
    man, whose truthfulness, honesty, and purity we were
    well aware of. He called us to the Oneness of Allah, and
    70
    taught us not to associate anything with Him. He forbade
    us from the worship of idols; and he enjoined us to speak
    the truth, to be faithful to our trusts, to be merciful and to
    uphold the rights of the neighbors and the kith and kin.
    He forbade us to speak evil of women, or to steal the
    wealth of orphans; he ordered us to refrain from all evil.
    He ordered us to offer prayers, to give charity to the poor
    and needy, and to observe fasting. We have believed in
    him, we have accepted his teachings and his injunctions
    to worship Allah, and not to associate anything with
    Him, and we have allowed what He has allowed, and
    prohibited what He has prohibited. For this reason, our
    people have risen against us, have persecuted us in order
    to make us forsake the worship of Allah and return to the
    worship of idols and other abominations. They have
    tortured and harmed us, so we came to your country so
    that we would be safe.”
    The king was very impressed by these words and
    asked the Muslims to recite some of Allah’s Revelation.
    Ja‘far recited the opening verses of Surah Maryam
    (Chapter 19 — Mary). In this chapter Allah speaks of the
    birth of Prophet Jesus . Thereupon the king along
    with the bishops were moved to tears. An-Najashi (the
    Negus) exclaimed: “It seems as if these words and those
    which were revealed to Jesus are rays of light that have
    radiated from the same source.” Turning to the envoys of
    71
    Quraish, he said, “I will not give them up! They are free
    to live and worship in my kingdom as they please.”
    The next day, the envoys went to the king and said
    that Muhammad  and his followers claimed that Jesus
    was not the son of God. Again the Muslims were
    summoned and asked what their belief in Jesus was.
    Ja‘far again stood up and replied: “We speak about Jesus
    as we have been taught by our Prophet that is, he is the
    slave of Allah, His Messenger, and that he was created
    by the command of God.” The king at once remarked,
    “We believe the same! Blessed be you, and blessed be
    your master.” Some of the ministers became upset so he
    said to them, “You may fume as you like but Jesus is
    nothing more than what Ja‘far has said about him.” He
    then assured the Muslims of full protection. He returned
    the gifts he had been given by Quraish. The Muslims
    lived in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) for a number of years till
    they returned to Madinah.9
    Another inspiring story is one that took place
    between some of the Quraish traders and the King
    Heraclius of Rome.
    Abdullah b. Abbas, the nephew of the Prophet,
    reported that the Messenger of God  wrote to Heraclius
    and invited him to Islam though a letter he sent with a
    9 Ibn Hisham 1/334-338
    72
    companion of his named Dihya al-Kalbi. Dihya handed
    this letter to the Governor of Busra who then forwarded
    it to Heraclius.
    Heraclius, as a sign of gratitude to God, had walked
    from Hims to Ilya (i.e. Jerusalem) when God had granted
    Him victory over the Persian forces. When the letter of
    the Messenger of God reached Heraclius, he said after
    reading it, ”Seek for me anyone of his people, (Arabs of
    the Quraish tribe) if present here, in order to ask him
    about the Messenger of God!” At that time Abu Sufyan
    bin Harb was in Shaam (the Greater Syria Area)10 with
    some men from Quraish who had come as merchants
    during the truce that had been concluded between the
    Messenger of God and the pagans of Quraish. Abu
    Sufyan said,
    “Heraclius’ messenger found us somewhere in the
    Greater Syria area, so he took me and my companions to
    Ilya and we were admitted into Heraclius’ presence. We
    found him sitting in his royal court wearing a crown,
    surrounded by the senior Byzantine dignitaries. He said
    to his translator. ‘Ask them whom amongst them is a
    close relation to the man who claims to be a prophet.’ ”
    10 This is a historic region in the Middle East bordering the
    Mediterranean. It is generally considered to include the modern
    states of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, and Jordon.
    73
    Abu Sufyan added, “I replied: ’I am the nearest
    relative to him.’ He asked, ’What degree of relationship
    do you have with him?’ I replied, ’He is my cousin,’ and
    there was none from the tribe of Abd Manaf in the
    caravan except myself. Heraclius said, ’Let him come
    nearer.’ He then ordered that my companions stand
    behind me near my shoulder and said to his translator,
    ’Tell his companions that I am going to ask this man
    about the one who claims to be a prophet. If he tells a lie,
    they should contradict him immediately.’ ”
    Abu Sufyan added, “By Allah! Had it not been for
    shame that my companions brand me a liar, I would not
    have spoken the truth about him when he asked me. But
    I considered it shameful to be called a liar by my
    companions, so I told the truth.”
    “He then said to his translator, ’Ask him what kind
    of family he belongs to.’ I replied, ‘He belongs to a
    noble family amongst us.’ He asked, ’Has anybody else
    amongst you ever claimed the same before him?’ I
    replied, ‘No.’ He asked, ‘Have you ever blamed him for
    telling lies before he claimed what he claimed?’ I
    replied, ’No.’ He asked, ’Was anybody amongst his
    ancestors a king?’ I replied, ’No.’ He asked, ’Do the
    noble or the poor follow him?’ I replied, ’It is the poor
    who follow him.’ He asked, ’Are they increasing or
    decreasing (daily)?’ I replied, ’They are increasing.’ He
    74
    asked, ’Does anybody amongst those who embrace his
    religion become displeased and then discard his
    religion?’ I replied, ’No.’ He asked, ‘Does he break his
    promises?’ I replied, ’No, but we are now at truce with
    him and we are afraid that he may betray us.’
    Abu Sufyan added, “Other than the last sentence, I
    could not say anything against him.”
    ”Heraclius then asked, ’Have you ever had a war
    with him?’ I replied, ’Yes.’ He asked, ’What was the
    outcome of your battles with him?’ I replied,
    ’Sometimes he was victorious and sometimes we.’ He
    asked, ’What does he order you to do?’ I said, ’He tells
    us to worship God alone, and not to worship others along
    with Him, and to leave all that our fore-fathers used to
    worship. He orders us to pray, give in charity, be chaste,
    keep promises and return what is entrusted to us.’ ”
    ”When I had said that, Heraclius said to his
    translator, ’Say to him: I asked you about his lineage and
    your reply was that he belonged to a noble family. In
    fact, all the Messengers came from the noblest lineage of
    their nations. Then I questioned you whether anybody
    else amongst you had claimed such a thing, and your
    reply was in the negative. If the answer had been in the
    affirmative, I would have thought that this man was
    following a claim that had been said before him. When I
    asked you whether he was ever blamed for telling lies,
    75
    your reply was in the negative, so I took it for granted
    that a person who did not tell a lie to people could never
    tell a lie about God. Then I asked you whether any of his
    ancestors was a king. Your reply was in the negative,
    and if it had been in the affirmative, I would have
    thought that this man wanted to take back his ancestral
    kingdom. When I asked you whether the rich or the poor
    people followed him, you replied that it was the poor
    who followed him. In fact, such are the followers of the
    Messengers. Then I asked you whether his followers
    were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they
    were increasing. In fact, this is the result of true faith till
    it is complete [in all respects]. I asked you whether there
    was anybody who, after embracing his religion, became
    displeased and discarded his religion; your reply was in
    the negative. In fact, this is the sign of true faith, for
    when its pleasure enters and mixes in the hearts
    completely; nobody will be displeased with it. I asked
    you whether he had ever broken his promise. You
    replied in the negative. And such are the Messengers;
    they never break their promises. When I asked you
    whether you fought with him and he fought with you,
    you replied that he did and that sometimes he was
    victorious and sometimes you. Indeed, such are the
    Messengers; they are put to trials and the final victory is
    always theirs. Then I asked you what he ordered you.
    76
    You replied that he ordered you to worship God alone
    and not to worship others along with Him, to leave all
    that your fore-fathers used to worship, to offer prayers,
    to speak the truth, to be chaste, to keep promises, and to
    return what is entrusted to you. These are really the
    qualities of a prophet who, I knew [from the previous
    Scriptures] would appear, but I did not know that he
    would be from amongst you. If what you say is true, he
    will very soon occupy the earth under my feet, and if I
    knew that I would reach him definitely, I would go
    immediately to meet him; and were I with him, then I
    would certainly wash his feet.’”
    Abu Sufyan added, “Heraclius then asked for the
    letter of the Messenger of God and it was read. Its
    contents were the following:
    I begin with the name of Allah, the most
    Beneficent, the most Merciful [This letter is]from
    Muhammad, the slave of God, and His
    Messenger, to Heraclius, the Ruler of the
    Byzantine. Peace be upon the followers of
    guidance. I invite you to Islam [i.e. surrender to
    God]). Accept Islam and you will be safe; accept
    Islam and God will bestow on you a double
    reward. But if you reject this invitation of Islam,
    you shall be responsible for misguiding the
    peasants [i.e. your nation].
    77
    O people of the Scriptures! Come to a word
    common between you and us, that we worship
    God, and that we associate nothing in worship
    with Him; and that none of us shall take others as
    Gods besides God. Then if they turn away, say:
    Bear witness that we are they who have
    surrendered [unto Him].(Qur’an 3:64)
    Abu Sufyan added, “When Heraclius had finished his
    speech, there was a great hue and cry caused by the
    Byzantine dignitaries surrounding him, and there was so
    much noise that I did not understand what they said. So,
    we were ordered out of the court.”
    “When I went out with my companions and we were
    alone, I said to them, ‘Verily, Ibn Abi Kabsha’s (i.e. the
    Prophet’s) affair has gained power. This is the King of
    the Romans fearing him.’”
    Abu Sufyan added: “By God, I became surer and
    surer that his religion would be victorious till I
    ultimately accepted Islam.” (Bukhari #2782)
    Prophet Muhammad  invited the Christians of
    Najran to embrace Islam. The Christians counseled
    among themselves and decided to send a group of their
    scholars to meet the Prophet; they were Abdul Maseeh
    Aaquib, Saiyed and Abdul Haris.When they reached
    Madinah, they changed their clothes, which they ha
    worn on the journey, dressed themselves in silken
    garments, put rings of gold on their fingers, and went to
    greet the Prophet . All of them greeted the Prophet
    traditionally, but the Prophet of Allah  did not respond
    and turned his face away from them. They left the
    Mosque and approached the Companion Uthman and
    Abdurrahman bin Auf, complaining “your Messenger
    wrote to us and invited us, but when we went to see him
    he did not reply to us! Now what do you advise us to do?
    Should we go back or wait for another opportunity?”
    Uthman and Abdurrahmann could not comprehend the
    situation. At last they took the disputes to Ali, who
    advised them to remove the clothes of silk and the rings
    of gold that they were wearing and to put on their
    priestly robes. The Prophet  would then willingly see
    them. Thereupon the Christian delegates changed into
    humble garments and presented themselves to the
    Prophet who then responded to their salutations and said,
    “By Allah, when they first came to me they were
    accompanied by Satan”.
    Thereafter the Prophet  preached to them and
    requested them to accept Islam. They asked, “What is
    your opinion about Jesus Christ?” The Prophet  said,
    “Take a rest today and you will receive the replies to all
    your questions.” The Prophet  was awaiting a
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    revelation in this matter, and the next day the verses 59-
    60 from the third chapter were revealed to him.
    Surely the likeness of Jesus is with Allah as the
    likeness of Adam; He created him from dust, then
    said to him ‘Be’, and he was. (This is) the truth
    from your Lord, so be not of the disputers. (Qur’an
    3:59-60)
    The next day, when the Christians came before the
    Prophet  he recited to them the verses that were
    revealed to him. Despite what they heard they refused to
    accept the truth; thus verse 61 was revealed from the
    same chapter.
    But whoever disputes with you in this matter after
    what has come to you of knowledge, then say:
    Come let us call our sons and your sons and our
    women and your women and ourselves and
    yourselves, then let us be earnest in prayer, and
    invoke the curse of Allah on the liars. (Qur’an 3:61)
    With this the Prophet  challenged them to
    ‘Mubahala’, which means to invoke a curse upon the
    lying party. The Christian delegation consulted each
    other and ultimately announced their acceptance of the
    challenge. Early next morning the Prophet  sent
    Salman al Farsi to an open place, fixed outside the city
    for the historic event. When the Christians of Najran saw
    80
    the Prophet they were awestruck and spellbound.
    Abdul Haris, the greatest scholar among them, addressed
    his people saying:
    “Verily I see a divine light on the face of our
    opponents; if they were to supplicate God for the
    mountains to move from their spots it would have
    materialized. Beware! Do not continue with this
    curse, otherwise you will perish and the entire
    nation of Christians will succumb to extinction!”
    Thereupon the Prophet  said, “By Allah! Had the
    Christians of Najran engaged in Mubahala they would
    have been destroyed!”
    The Characteristics of the Followers of
    Jesus
    Allah describes them in the Quran, saying:
    Then We sent following their footsteps Our
    messengers and followed [them] with Jesus, the
    son of Mary, and gave him the Gospel. And We
    placed in the hearts of those who followed him
    compassion and mercy and monasticism, which
    they innovated; We did not prescribe it for them
    except [that they did so] seeking the approval of
    Allah. But they did not observe it with due
    observance. So We gave the ones who believed
    81
    among them their reward, but many of them are
    defiantly disobedient. (Qur’an 57:27)
    Allah describes the true followers of Jesus as being
    among those who rush to accept the truth and follow it
    whole-heartedly. They work to spread the true message
    of Jesus. Allah has ordered the Muslims to follow suit
    and be like the followers of Jesus. He says:
    O you who have believed, be supporters of Allah,
    as when Jesus, the son of Mary, said to the
    disciples, “Who are my supporters for Allah?”
    The disciples said, “We are supporters of Allah.”
    And a faction of the Children of Israel believed
    and a faction disbelieved. So We supported those
    who believed against their enemy, and they
    became dominant.(Qur’an 61:14)
    Allah also describes them as being the closest of
    people to the Muslims. He says:
    You will find the nearest of them in affection to
    the believers those who say, “We are Christians.”
    That is because among them are priests and
    monks and because they are not arrogant. And
    when they hear what has been revealed to the
    Messenger, you see their eyes overflowing with
    tears because of what they have recognized of the
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    truth. They say, “Our Lord, we have believed, so
    register us among the witnesses. (Qur’an 5:82-3)
    The Ascension of Prophet Jesus into the
    Heavens
    The Muslim belief in relation to Prophet Jesus is that
    he was not killed, nor crucified; rather, he ascended into
    the Heavens by the will of God. Allah, the Exalted, says:
    And We did certainly give Moses the Torah and
    followed up after him with messengers. And We
    gave Jesus, the son of Mary, clear proofs and
    supported him with the Pure Spirit. But is it [not]
    that every time a messenger came to you, [O
    Children of Israel], with what your souls did not
    desire, you were arrogant? And a party [of
    messengers] you denied and another party you
    killed. (Qur’an 2:87)
    God, the Exalted, also says:
    And [We cursed them] for their breaking of the
    covenant and their disbelief in the signs of Allah
    and their killing of the prophets without right and
    their saying, “Our hearts are wrapped”. Rather,
    Allah has sealed them because of their disbelief,
    so they believe not, except for a few. And [We
    cursed them] for their disbelief and their saying
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    against Mary a great slander, And [for] their
    saying, “Indeed, we have killed the Messiah,
    Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah.”
    And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify
    him; but [another] was made to resemble him to
    them. And indeed, those who differ over it are in
    doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it
    except the following of assumption. And they did
    not kill him, for certain. Rather, Allah raised him
    to Himself. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might
    and Wise. And there is none from the People of
    the Scripture but that he will surely believe in
    Jesus before his death. And on the Day of
    Resurrection he will be against them a witness.
    (Qur’an 4:155-9)
    Ibn Abbas said: “When Allah decreed that Jesus
    ascend into the heavens, his companions who were
    twelve in number came to him in his home, and they saw
    that his head was dripping with water. Jesus asked them,
    “Who of you would be transformed by God to appear as
    me and be killed in my place and he shall receive the
    reward of the Heavenly Abode?” The youngest of the
    group volunteered, but Jesus  told him to sit down,
    but he volunteered once again and Jesus chose him. He
    was made to appear as Jesus and Jesus ascended into the
    heavens. The people came and captured the one who
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    appeared as Jesus and killed him by crucifixion. God, the
    Exalted, says:
    And the disbelievers planned, but Allah planned.
    And Allah is the best of planners. [Mention] when
    Allah said, “O Jesus, indeed I will take you and
    raise you to Myself and purify you from those
    who disbelieve and make those who follow you [in
    submission to Allah alone] superior to those who
    disbelieve until the Day of Resurrection. Then to
    Me is your return, and I will judge between you
    concerning that in which you used to differ. And
    as for those who disbelieved, I will punish them
    with a severe punishment in this world and the
    Hereafter, and they will have no helpers.”But as
    for those who believed and did righteous deeds,
    He will give them in full their rewards, and Allah
    does not like the wrongdoers. (Qur’an 3:54-7)
    Christians later claimed that Jesus was killed to atone
    for the sins of mankind. As Muslims, we believe that
    everyone of us will stand before God to be judged for
    what they have done. No one bears the sins of anyone
    else.
    85
    The Descent of Prophet Jesus
    Muslims believe that Prophet Jesus will return to the
    earth towards the end of time. He will return during a
    period in which ignorance would become widespread
    and people would be distanced from Faith. Prophet Jesus
    will bea just ruler who will rule by the laws of Islam.
    86
    Conclusion
    There has been a great amount of dispute about
    Prophet Jesus. Some despised him and ascribed to him
    the worst of descriptions, and there were others who
    adulated him and worshipped him. God guided the
    Muslims to the moderate path. We recognize the
    greatness of this Prophet of God. We love, respect and
    revere him, but we do not worship him. He is indeed a
    great messenger of God, but he is only a slave of God
    who has no claim to divinity. This is what we find
    affirmed in the Quran and the Prophetic Traditions. Jesus
    is not as the Christians assert; a Son of God or part of the
    Trinity. He is simply a Messenger of God sent to his
    people to convey to them the belief in the Oneness of
    God.
    God has blessed us with the faculty of reason and
    intellect. We have to use this to discern who deserves
    worship and who does not.
    Finally, we extend our hands to the People of the
    Book and ask them to read intellectually their own books
    and to ask questions and to seek knowledge and the
    truth. God, the Exalted, says:
    Many of the People of the Scripture wish they could
    turn you back to disbelief after you have believed,
    out of envy from themselves [even] after the truth
    87
    has become clear to them.= So pardon and overlook
    until Allah delivers His command. Indeed, Allah is
    over all things competent. (Qur’an 2:109)
    Jews and the Christians were given the glad tidings
    of a Prophet to come. They thought he would be from
    the Children of Israel, but when he came from amongst
    those other than them, they disbelieved in him. God
    says:
    And when there came to them a Book from Allah
    confirming that which was with them – although
    before they used to pray for victory against those
    who disbelieved – but [then] when there came to
    them that which they recognized, they disbelieved
    in it; so the curse of Allah will be upon the
    disbelievers. (Qur’an 2:89)
    I hope that this book will serve as an eye-opener for
    you and act as the beginning of your journey for the
    search for the truth. The beauty of the truth is that once
    you have it, and cling to it, you will find peace and
    tranquility. God, the Exalted, says:
    Those who have believed and whose hearts are
    assured by the remembrance of Allah.
    Unquestionably, by the remembrance of Allah
    hearts are assured.” (Qur’an 13:28)

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