My First Steps in Islam PDF english islamic book

My First Steps in Islam PDF english islamic book


Written by:
DR.Abdurrahmaan al-Sheha
Translated by:
M. M. Abdus-Salam
Edited by:
Abu Ayoub Jeromē Boulter
Abdurrahman Murad
Revised Edition

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. How does one become a Muslim
  3. The Shahadataan (Two Testimonies of Faith)
  4. The Meaning of ‘La ilaaha ill-Allah’
  5. The Meanings of the Shahadah
  6. The Conditions of the Shahadah
  7. Merits of Belief in Allah
  8. Belief in the Angels
  9. Merits of Belief in Angels
  10. Belief in the Books of Allah
  11. Merits of Belief in Allah’s Books
  12. Belief in Allah’s Messengers
  13. Who is Muhammad?
  14. Merits of Belief in the Messengers
  15. Belief in the Last Day
  16. Merits of Belief in the Last Day
  17. Belief in Qadaa and Qadar
  18. Merits of Belief in Qadaa and Qadar
  19. What the second Testimony of Faith Necessitates
  20. What one should do after pronouncing the Shahadah
  21. How to make Complete Ghusl
  22. Wudhu
  23. Tayammum
  24. The Prayer
  25. Reward of Salah


  1. Prayer times
  2. Prerequisites of Salah
  3. How to Perform Prayers
  4. Voluntary Prayers
  5. Forbidden times of Prayers
  6. Zakah
  7. Conditions of Zakah
  8. Those eligible for Zakah
  9. Important Notes
  10. Fasting
  11. Hajj
  12. How to perform Hajj
    41.The Worship of Allah
  13. Individual & Social Effects of Worshipping Allah
  14. The Commandments of Islam
  15. Some Prohibitions in Islam
  16. Various Supplications & Islamic Etiquettes
  17. Brotherly Advice

All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, and may
Allah exalt the mention of His Prophet, and render him and his
household safe and secure from all derogatory things.
I sincerely congratulate you for the guidance Allah has
granted and favored you with. I ask Allah that He keeps us and
all Muslims firm upon this great religion until we meet Him,
without changing anything from it and not being put through
Indeed a true Muslim feels great joy when someone accepts
Islam, for he wishes well for others and wants them to live as he
does himself: a life of comfort and delight with spiritual joy and
mental stability. This can only result from implementing the
teachings of Islam. Allah (Ι) says:
(Whoever does good whether male or female and he is a
believer, We will most certainly make him live a happy
life, and We will most certainly give them their reward
for the best of what they did.) (16:97)
This is because Allah (Ι) clarified the condition of those who
do not believe in Allah and what He revealed. Allah (Ι) says:
(And whoever turns away from My Reminder, verily,
for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up
blind on the Day of Resurrection. He will say, ‘O my
Lord! Why have you raised me up blind, while [before]
I had sight.’ He [Allah] will say, ‘Like this Our Aayaat
[proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations,
etc.] came to you, but you disregarded them, and so this
Day, you will be neglected.) (20:124-126)

A true Muslim wishes that they live happily forever in the
Hereafter, whose delights are never-ending. Allah (Ι) says:
(Verily those who believe and do righteous deeds shall
have the Gardens of Firdaws (the highest level in
Heaven) for their entertainment. * Therein they shall
dwell [forever]. No desire will they have for removal
there from.) (18:107-108)
The end is inevitable: either eternal happiness or eternal
remorse. Whoever dies upon disbelief – and refuge is sought in
Allah – he will enter Hellfire for eternity. Allah (Ι) says:
(Verily those who disbelieve from the people of the
Book and the polytheists will abide in the Fire of Hell.
They are the worst of creatures.) (98:6)
Dear brother, indeed it is a great blessing and favor of Allah
that He has guided you to Islam and has saved you from
disbelief, for there are many who have not been granted the
guidance to realize the correct religion, as there are many who
have realized that Islam is the true Religion but have not been
granted the guidance to follow it. So you should thank Allah,
my brother, for this favor from Allah and this gift which He has
given you. Ask Allah that He keeps you firm upon this religion
until you meet Him. Allah (Ι) says:
(They regard as a favor to you [O Muhammad (ρ)] that
they have embraced Islam Say, ‘Count not your Islam
as a favor to me. Nay but Allah has conferred a favor
upon you that He has guided you to the Faith, if you
indeed are true.) (49:17)
We are all in need of Allah. Allah (Ι) says:
(O Mankind! It is you who stand in need of Allah. But
Allah is rich (Free of all needs), worthy of all praise.)

Allah (Ι) does not need us: He neither benefits from our
obedience and worship, nor is He harmed by our disbelief and
disobedience. Allah (Ι) says:
(If you disbelieve, then verily Allah is not in need of
you, He likes not disbelief for His slaves. And if you are
grateful [by being believers] He is pleased with that for
you.) (39:7)
The Messenger of Allah (ρ) said in Hadeeth Qudsi1
‘Allah said: ‘O My slaves! I have forbidden dhulm
(oppression) for Myself, and I have made it forbidden
amongst you, so do not oppress one another. O My
slaves, all of you are astray except those whom I have
guided, so seek guidance from Me and I shall guide
you. O My slaves, all of you are hungry except those
whom I have fed, so seek food from Me and I shall feed
you. O My slaves, all of you are naked except those
whom I have clothed, so seek clothing from Me and I
shall clothe you. O My slaves, you commit sins by day
and by night, and I forgive all sins, so seek forgiveness
from Me and I shall forgive you. O My slaves, you will
not attain harming Me so as to harm me, and you will
not attain benefiting Me so as to benefit Me. O My
slaves, if the first of you and the last of you, and the
humans of you and the Jinn2
of you, were all as pious

1 Hadeeth Qudsi: Hadeeth is a narration of the speech, actions, tacit
approvals, and characteristics of the Prophet (ρ). Hadeeth Qudsi is a
Hadeeth in which the Prophet (ρ) narrates from Allah in the first
person (I).
2 Jinn: A creation from the unseen having free will like the humans,
made from a smokeless flame of fire.

as the most pious heart of any individual amongst you,
then this would not increase My Kingdom an iota. O
My slaves, if the first of you and the last of you, and the
humans of you and the Jinn of you, were all as wicked
as the most wicked heart of any individual amongst
you, then this would not decrease My Kingdom an iota.
O My slaves, if the first of you and the last of you, and
the humans of you and the Jinn of you, were all to
stand together in one place and ask of Me, and I were
to give everyone what he requested, then that would
not decrease what I possess, except what is decreased of
the Ocean when a needle is dipped into it. O My slaves,
it is but your deeds that I account for you and then
recompense you for. So he who finds good, let him
praise Allah, and he who finds other than that, let him
blame no one but himself.’ ” (Muslim #2577)
In order to become a Muslim, there are no specific religious
rituals or customs that you need to perform, neither in specific
areas nor in front of people. This is due to the fact that in Islam
man has direct relationship with his Lord without any
Also you don’t need to exert great efforts [to enter its folds]
you merely need to utter a few words, which are easy on the
tongue, while understanding their great meanings.
One who has decided to become Muslim should utter
in order to enter the folds of Islam, which is:
“Ash-hadu an laa ilaaha ill-Allah, wa ashhadu anna
Muhammadan ‘abd-ullahi wa rasooluh.

1 Shahaadatan: Literally, the Two Testimonies of Faith.

Meaning: I testify that there is no true god except Allah, and
I testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.
This statement is the key to enter Islam. Whoever utters it
shuns all other religions besides Islam and all beliefs which
differ with it. Through this statement, he receives the rights
which all Muslims receive, and he must fulfill the rights which
all Muslims fulfill. His wealth, honor and blood become
inviolable, except for that which is prescribed by Islam.
It is true that one is considered a Muslim by his apparent
actions, but only Allah knows what is truly in the hearts…so
what are the meanings of the Shahaadataan?

The Shahaadataan
(The Two Testimonies of Faith)
The Meaning of Laa Ilaaha Ill-Allah
This is the phrase of Tawheed1
. For this concept, Allah
brought the creation into being, and for this concept He created
Jannah and Hellfire. Allah (Ι) says:
(And I have neither created the Jinn nor humans
except to worship Me.) (51:56)
This is the belief which all Prophets and Messengers called
their peoples to, from Adam to the last of them, Muhammad,
may Allah exalt their mention and render them safe from every
derogatory thing. Allah (Ι) says:
(And we have not sent before you any messenger
except that We have revealed to him that there is no
deity that is worshipped in truth except Me, so worship
and obey Me.) (10:25)
The Meanings of the Shahaadah:
The first testimony, that none has the right to be worshipped
but Allah, includes the following meanings:
• Allah is the One Who deserves to be worshipped.2

1 Tawheed: The concept of the Oneness of Allah.
This is concept is known as Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah, or the Oneness of
Allah in His worship.

(No doubt! Verily, to Allah belongs whosoever is in the
heavens and whosoever is in the earth. And those who
worship and invoke others besides Allah, in fact they
follow not the (Allah’s so-called) partners, they follow
only a conjecture and they only invent lies.) (10:66)
• Allah is the Creator of all that exists. Allah (Ι) says:
(Such is Allah, your Lord! Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none
has the right to be worshipped but He), the Creator of
all things. So worship and obey Him (Alone), and He is
the Wakeel (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian, etc.)
over all things.) (6:102)
• Allah is the Proprietor of all that exists, and the Disposer of
all affairs.1
Allah (Ι) says:
(Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment.
Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind,
Jinns and all that exists)!) (7:54)
• To Him belongs the beautiful names and perfect attributes.
Far removed is He from every imperfection.2

Allah says:
(And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so
call on Him by them, and leave the company of those
who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His
Names. They will be requited for what they used to do.)

Points two and three are known as Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah, or the
Oneness of Allah. This is the belief that there is no Creator, Provider,
Sustainer, and Owner except for Allah.
This concept is known as Tawheed al-Asmaa´ was-Sifaat, that Allah
has the Best Names and Attributes, and that there are none equal,
comparable to, or like them.

The Conditions of the Shahaadah:
It is not enough to merely utter the Shahaadah for it to be
accepted by Allah. It is a key to the gates of Jannah, but in
order for the key to work, it needs to have the right notches. The
Shahaadah must meet the following conditions for it to be
accepted by Allah:

  1. Knowledge: Comprises knowing that all things worshipped
    besides Allah are false. There is no god worshipped in truth
    except Allah, even if it be a prophet, a messenger or an angel.
    Allah is the only One Who deserves all types of worship, such
    as prayer [Salaah], supplication (du‘aa), hope, sacrificial
    slaughtering, making oaths, etc.
    Whoever assigns any act of worship to other than Allah while
    that person intends to worship or aggrandize the one who he
    assigned it to has committed kufr1
    , even if he uttered the
  2. Certainty: The heart must be firmly certain of the meaning
    of the two Shahaadah. Certainty is the opposite of doubt, so
    there is no room for a person to doubt or waver in his belief.
    Allah (Ι) says:
    (The believers are only those who have believed in
    Allah and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not,
    and strive with their wealth and their lives for the
    Cause of Allah. Those are the truthful.) (49:15)

1 Kufr: Disbelief.


  1. Acceptance: One should accept the Shahaadah fully,
    and not reject it.1
    Allah (Ι) says:
    (Truly, when it was said to them, “Laa ilaaha ill-Allah
    (no deity is worshipped in truth except Allah),” they
    puff themselves up with pride (i.e. deny it).) (37:35)
  2. Submission, obedience and acting upon all what the
    Shahaadah necessitates.2
    A person must do what Allah ordered
    and abstain from what He prohibited. Allah (Ι) says:
    (And whosoever submits his face to Allah, while he is a
    (doer of good) then he has grasped the most
    trustworthy handhold [La ilaha ill-Allah]. And to Allah
    return all matters for decision.) (37:35)
  3. Truthfulness: One must be truthful in professing the
    Allah says:
    (They say with their tongues what is not in their
    hearts.) (48:11)

It is not sufficient that a person knows what the Shahaadah means
and believes it with certainty. Rather he must accept it by
pronouncing it, and accepts to become a Muslim.
It is not sufficient that a person knows what the Shahaadah means
and believes it with certainty, accepts it by pronouncing it and
accepts to become a Muslim, rather, he must act according to it.
3 Muhsin: Literally, a person who does something well. Here it means
one who does righteous deeds sincerely for Allah, according to the
method the Prophet (ρ) taught us. Allah mentions both submission to
Allah along with doing righteous deeds, and if a person does these he
has grasped the Shahaadah.
Even though a person may be doing all these things on the outside,
he might be hiding disbelief in his heart, like the Hypocrites.


  1. Sincerity of worship: One must sincerely dedicate all acts of
    worship to Allah alone.1
    Allah says:
    (And they were not commanded except to worship
    Allah, following the religion purely and sincerely for
    Him, turning away from other religions.) (98:5)
  2. Love: One must love the shahaadah and all that it
    necessitates. He must love Allah, His Messenger, and His
    righteous slaves. He must hate and show enmity towards all
    who show enmity to Allah and His Messenger. He must prefer
    what Allah and His Messenger love, even if it is differs from his
    desires. Allah (Ι) says:
    (Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your
    wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained,
    the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the
    dwellings in which you delight… are dearer to you than
    Allah and His Messenger, and fighting in His Cause,
    then wait until Allah brings about His Decision
    (torment). And Allah guides not the people who are AlFaasiqoon (the rebellious and disobedient to Allah).)
    The Shahaadah also necessitates that Allah is the only One
    Who has the right to legislate, whether it be in matters
    concerning worship or those concerning human relations, in
    both individual and public matters.
    The act of making something prohibited or lawful is for Allah
    alone. His Messenger (ρ) merely explained and clarified Allah’s
    Allah (Ι) says:

It may be that one fulfills all the previous conditions, but he directs
worship to other than Allah at times, like supplicating to the dead,
etc. He has not made his worship purely for Allah.

(And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it, and
whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it).) (59:7)
The Merits of Iman (Belief) in Allah

  1. When one fulfills the conditions of the Shahadah, he would
    free himself from worshipping man and devote all acts of
    worship to the Creator of man. This would lead one to being
    independent. Allah (Ι) says:
    (Say: ‘Tell me then, the things that you invoke besides
    Allah, if Allah intended some harm for me, could they
    remove His harm, or if He (Allah) intended some mercy
    for me, could they withhold His Mercy?’ Say:
    ‘Sufficient for me is Allah; in Him those who trust (i.e.
    believers) must put their trust.) (39:38)
  2. Peace of heart, mind and soul. Allah (ρ) says:
    (Those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah – Islamic
    Monotheism) and whose hearts find rest in the
    remembrance of Allah, Verily, in the remembrance of
    Allah do hearts find rest.) (13:28)
  3. Sense of security through the knowledge that there is
    someone to turn to in times of hardships. Allah (Ι) says:
    (And when harm touches you upon the sea, those that
    you call upon besides Him vanish from you except Him
    (Allah Alone). But when He brings you safely to land,
    you turn away (from Him). And man is ever
    ungrateful.) (17:67)
  4. The feeling of spiritual joy in worshipping Allah. This is due
    to the fact that the goal which he is trying to achieve (Jannah)
    cannot be reached except after death. So you see him
    persistently striving to achieve this goal by doing righteous
    deeds, rendering all acts of worship sincerely and purely to
    Allah alone. Allah (Ι) says:

(Say: ‘Verily, my Salaah (prayer) my sacrifice, my
living and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the
‘Aalameen (mankind, Jinn and all that exists). He has
no partner. * And of this I have been commanded, and
I am the first of the Muslims.) (6:162-163)

  1. The guidance and success which is granted by Allah to those
    that believe in Him. Allah (Ι) says:
    (…and whosoever has Iman in Allah, He guides his
    heart.) (64:11)
  2. The love of doing righteous deeds and its propagation
    amongst the masses. Allah (Ι) says:
    (So whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom
    shall see it.) (99:7)
    The Prophet (ρ) said:
    ‘Indeed the one who leads another to do a righteous
    deed is like the one who actually does it (i.e. he will
    receive the same reward).’ (Tirmidhi #2670)
    One who has belief in Allah must also have belief in all the
    things He has informed us of, and among them are the

Belief in the Angels
One must believe that the angels are from the creation of
Allah; no one knows their exact number except Him. They are
from the unseen world. Allah (Ι) created them to worship and
obey Him. They carry out all of Allah’s orders, from
administration, observation, guarding and protecting the
universe as well its creatures, all according to Allah’s Will and
Order. Allah says:
(The Messiah (Jesusυ) will never be so proud to reject
being a slave to Allah, nor [will] the angels who are
near (to Allah).) (4:172)
The Angels act as emissaries between Allah and His
Messengers. Allah says:
(Which the trustworthy Rooh [Jibreel (Gabriel)] has
brought down; * Upon your heart (O Muhammad ρ)
that you may be (one) of the warners, * In a plain
Arabic language.) (26:193-195)
Allah has charged the angels with specific duties, and they do
what they are commanded. Allah says:
(They fear their Lord above them, and they do what
they are commanded.) (16:50)
The angels are not partners, associates, or rivals with Allah,
nor are they His children; but one must still respect and love
them. Allah (Ι) says:
(And they say: ‘The Most Beneficent (Allah) has
begotten a child [from the angels].’ Far removed is He
from every imperfection! They (the angels) are but
honored slaves. They speak not until He has spoken,
and [then] they act on His Command.) (21:26-27)

They spend their time worshipping and obeying Allah,
glorifying Him and praising Him. Allah says:
(They (i.e. the angels) glorify His praises night and day,
(and) without slackening (to do so).) (21:20)
The angels were created from light. The Prophet (ρ) said:
‘The angels were created from light, the Jinn were
created from a smokeless flame of fire, and Adam was
created from what was described to you (black dry
clay).’ (Muslim #2996)
Although they were created from light, they cannot be seen.
Allah (Ι) has given them the ability to change their appearance
in order to be seen and witnessed. Allah informs us that Jibreel
(Gabriel) (υ) came to Maryam (Mary) in the form of a man:
(She placed a screen [to screen herself] from them; then
We sent to her Our Rooh (Jibreel υ), and he appeared
before her in the form of a man in all respects. * She
said: ‘Verily! I seek refuge with the Most Beneficent
(Allah) from you, if you do fear Allah.’ * [The angel]
said: ‘I am only a Messenger from your Lord [to
announce] to you the gift of a righteous son.) (19:17-
The Prophet (ρ) saw Jibreel (υ) in his actual form; he had six
hundred wings, and the whole horizon was blocked.
(Bukhari #3063)
Allah informed us of the names and tasks of some of the
angels, such as; Jibreel (Gabriel) (υ) who was given the task of
revelation. Allah (Ι) says:
(Which the trustworthy Rooh [Jibreel (Gabriel)] has
brought down; * upon your heart (O Muhammad ρ)
that you may be (one) of the warners.) (99:7)

Israafeel is given the task to blow the trumpet on the Day of
Resurrection, while Meekaa`eel is in charge of the rain and
vegetation. Every human has been appointed two angels, one
who records his righteous deeds and the other who records his
sins. Allah (Ι) says:
((Remember!) That the two recorders (angels) record,
one sitting on his right and one on his left.) (50:17)
The Angel of Death (Malak-ul-Mawt) is the angel given the
task of collecting peoples’ souls at the time of death. Allah (Ι)
(Say: ‘The Angel of Death who is set over you will take
your souls, and then you shall be brought back to your
Lord.) (32:11)
Maalik is the Keeper of Hell. Allah (Ι) says:
(And they will cry: ‘O Maalik! Let your Lord make an
end of us.’ He will say: ‘Verily, you shall abide therein
forever.) (43:77)
Ridhwaan is the keeper of Jannah, and there are others also
charged with guarding humans. There are other angels and each
has been assigned a task. Some have been mentioned in the
Qur’an and Sunnah1
, while others have not, but we must believe
in them all.
Merits of Belief in the Angels

  1. One would understand the greatness of Allah (Ι) His power
    and ability, and His All-Encompassing Knowledge, from the
    greatness of His creation which is a proof confirming the
    greatness of the Creator.
  2. When a Muslim knows that there are Angels who record all
    that he says and does, and that everything he does is either for

1 Sunnah: The way of the Prophet (ρ).

him or held against him, he would be keen to perform righteous
deeds and abstain from sins, whether he is alone or in public.

  1. One would safeguard himself from believing in superstitions
    and fables.
  2. One would recognize the mercy Allah shows to His slaves;
    for Allah assigned to every individual angels who guard him
    and take care of his affairs.

Belief in the Books of Allah
One must believe that Allah (Ι) revealed Heavenly Books to
His Messengers in order to convey them to mankind. These
Books during their times contained nothing but the truth. All
these Books call people to worship Allah alone, and that He is
the Creator, Proprietor and Owner, and to Him belong the
beautiful Attributes and Names.
Allah (Ι) says:
(Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear
proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the
Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice.)
Some of the Books are:
1) The Scriptures of Ibraheem (υ) (Abraham) and Musa (υ)
(Moses): The Qur’an has given a brief insight about the
religious fundamentals found in these scriptures. Allah (Ι) says:
(Or, has he not been informed of what is in the
scriptures of Musa? -And (of) Ibraheem who fulfilled
(the commandments): That no bearer of burden shall
bear the burden of another;- And that man shall have
nothing but what he strives for;- And that his striving
shall soon be seen; Then shall be rewarded for it with
the fullest reward; and that to your Lord is the goal.)
2) The Torah: The Torah is the Sacred Book which was
revealed to Musa (υ). Allah (Ι) says:
(Verily, We did send down the Torah [to Musa],
therein was guidance and light, by which the Prophets,
who submitted themselves to Allah’s Will, judged the

Jews. And the rabbis and the priests [too judged the
Jews by the Torah after those Prophets] for to them
was entrusted the protection of Allah’s Book, and they
were witnesses thereto. Therefore fear not men but fear
Me (O Jews) and sell not My Verses for a miserable
price. And whosoever does not judge by what Allah has
revealed, such are the disbelievers.) (5:44)
3) The Zaboor (Psalms): The Zaboor is the Book which was
revealed to Dawood (υ) (David). Allah (Ι) says:
(…and to Dawood We gave the Zaboor.) (4:163)
4) The Injeel (Gospel) : The Injeel is the Book which was
revealed to ‘Eesaa (υ) (Jesus). Allah (Ι) says:
(And in their footsteps, We sent ‘Eesaa, son of
Maryam (Mary), confirming the Torah that had come
before him. And We gave him the Injeel, in which was
guidance and light and confirmation of the Tauraat
(Torah) that had come before it, a guidance and an
admonition for the Allah-fearing.) (5:46)
A Muslim must believe in all the Heavenly Books and he
must believe that they are from Allah (Ι). It is not lawful for him
to abide by its laws, since these Books were revealed to certain
nations at certain times.
The Qur’an has explained some of what was found in the
Torah and the Injeel; such as the prophecy of Muhammad (ρ):
(…and My mercy encompasses all things; so I will
ordain it (specially) for those who are pious and give
Zakah (Obligatory Charity), and those who believe in
Our Ayaat. Those who follow the unlettered Prophet,
whom they find written down with them in the Torah
and the Injeel (who) enjoins them good and forbids
them evil, and makes lawful to them the good things
and makes unlawful to them impure things, and
removes from the their burden and the shackles which

were upon them; so (as for) those who believe in him
and honor him and help him, and follow the light which
has been sent down with him, these it is that are the
successful.) (7:156)
5) The Noble Qur’an: One must hold the following beliefs
concerning it:
a. One must believe that the Qur’an is the Speech of Allah
which Jibreel (Gabriel) (υ) brought to Muhammad (ρ) in
clear Arabic language. Allah (Ι) says:
(Which the trustworthy Rooh [Jibreel (Gabriel)] has
brought down; * Upon your heart (O Muhammad ρ)
that you may be (one) of the warners, * In a plain
Arabic language.) (26:193-195)
b. One must believe that the Qur’an is the last of the
Heavenly Books, which confirms the previous Books
concerning the Message of Tawheed and the obligation to
worship and obey Him. All previous Books were abrogated
by the Qur’an. Allah (Ι) says:
([It is] He Who has sent down the Book (the Qur’an)
to you (Muhammad ρ) with truth, confirming what
came before it. And he sent down the Torah and the
Injeel. Aforetime, as a guidance to mankind, And He
sent down the Furqaan (The Criterion) [of judgment
between right and wrong (this Qur’an)].) (3:3-4)
c. One must believe that the Qur’an contains all divine laws.
Allah (Ι) says:
(This day, I have perfected your religion for you,
completed My Favor upon you, and have chosen for
you Islam as a religion.) (5:3)
d. One must believe that it was revealed to mankind at large;
not to a specific nation, as were previously revealed
Heavenly Books. Allah says:

(And We have not sent you [O Muhammad ρ] except to
all of humanity, as a giver of glad tidings and a warner,
but most people know not.) (34:28)
e. One must believe that Allah has preserved the Qur’an from
all distortions, adulterations, additions, or impairments.
Allah (Ι) says:
(Indeed it is We ourselves Who have sent down the
Remembrance (the Qur’an) and surely, it is We Who
shall guard it [from distortion].) (15:9)
The Merits of Belief in Allah’s Books

  1. One would realize the mercy and love Allah has for His
    slaves; since He revealed to them Books which guide them to
    the path which leads to His pleasure. He safeguarded man from
    confusion and from the evil of Shaytaan1
  2. One would realize the great wisdom of Allah; since He gave
    each nation a set of laws that suited them during their times.
  3. To distinguish true believers from those who are not. It is
    incumbent upon one who believes in his own Book to believe in
    the other Heavenly Books.
  4. To increase the good deeds of the believers; for the one who
    believes in his Book and the Books that came after his Book,
    would receive his reward twice. Allah (Ι) says:
    (Those to whom We gave the Scripture [i.e. the Torah
    and the Injeel, etc.] before it, – they believe in it (the
    Qur’an). And when it is recited to them, they say: ‘We
    believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord.
    Indeed even before it we have been from those who

1 Shaytaan: Satan: A Jinn named Iblees who disobeyed Allah’s order
to prostrate to Adam, therefore was cursed for eternity. He asked
Allah for respite, which He in turn granted, to strive to lead humanity
to the Hellfire with him.

submit themselves to Allah in Islam as Muslims (like
‘Abdullah bin Salaam and Salmaan Al-Faarisi, etc.).
These will be given their reward twice over, because
they are patient, and repel evil with good, and spend (in
charity) out of what We have provided them.) (28:52-

Belief in Allah’s Messengers
One must believe that Allah (Ι) chose the finest amongst
mankind to be Messengers whom He sent to His creation with
specific legislations; to worship and obey Allah, and to
establish His religion and His Tawheed. He ordered His
Messengers to convey the Message to people, so that they
would not have any proof against Allah1
after He sent them.
They are bearers of glad-tidings of the Pleasure of Allah and
His Jannah, which is reserved for those who believe in them
and their teachings. They are also sent as warners to their
peoples, to warn them of the anger of Allah and His punishment
which is reserved for those who disbelieve in them and their
(And We send not the Messengers but as givers of glad
tidings and as warners. So whosoever believes and does
righteous good deeds, upon such shall come no fear, nor
shall they grieve. * But those who reject Our Ayaat, the
torment will touch them for their disbelief.) (6:48-49)
There are many Prophets and Messengers; no one knows their
exact number except Allah. Allah (Ι) says:
(And, indeed We have sent Messengers before you (O
Muhammad ρ); of some of them We have related to
you their story, and of some We have not related to you
their story.) (40:78)

They will not be able to say, “Had Allah sent us messengers, we
would have followed His verses and become of the believers.”

One must believe in all of them and that they were human;
they were not supernatural beings. Allah (Ι) says:
(And We sent not before you (O Muhammad ρ) but
men to whom We inspired, so ask the people of the
Reminder (Scriptures) if you do not know. And We did
not create them (the Messengers, with) bodies that ate
not food, nor were they immortal.) (21:8)
They do not have any attributes resembling Allah’s. They can
neither extend benefit, nor cause harm. They have no control
over the universe, nor can they do with it as they please. They
cannot do anything which only Allah is capable of. Allah (Ι)
(Say (O Muhammad ρ): ‘I possess no power of benefit
or hurt to myself except as Allah wills. If I had the
knowledge of the Unseen, I should have secured for
myself an abundance of wealth, and no evil should have
touched me.) (7:188)
If one believes in some, while he disbelieves in others, he has
committed an act of kufr (disbelief).. Allah (Ι) says:
(Verily, those who disbelieve in Allah and His
Messengers and wish to make distinction between Allah
and His Messengers saying, ‘We believe in some but
reject others,’ and wish to adopt a way in between.
They are in truth disbelievers. And We have prepared
for the disbelievers a humiliating torment.) (4:150-
Allah calls some of the Messengers ‘Ulul-‘Azm’ (those of
strong determination). They were the most determined of the
Messengers in conveying the Message; they were patient and
steadfast. They were Nooh (Noah), Ibraheem, Musa, ‘Eesaa,
and Muhammad, may Allah exalt their mention, and render
them safe from every derogatory thing.
The first Messenger was Nooh (υ). Allah says:

(Verily, We have inspired you (O Muhammad ρ) as
We inspired Nooh (Noah) and the Prophets after him.)
Muhammad (ρ) was the last and final Messenger; no
Messenger will come after him until the Final Day. Allah (Ι)
(Muhammad is not the father of any man among you,
but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last (end) of
the Prophets.) (33:40)
The religion of Muhammad (ρ) abrogated the religions which
preceded it. It is the complete and final religion of truth which
is obligatory to be followed, and it will continue to be so until
the Final Hour.
Who is Muhammad (ρ)?
His name is Muhammad bin1
Abdullah bin Abdul-Muttalib
bin Haashim. His Kunyah2
is Abul-Qaasim. He was from the
Arab tribe of Quraish whose ancestry traces back to ‘Adnaan.
‘Adnaan was from the children of Ismaaeel (υ), the Prophet of Allah and son of Ibraheem (υ), the Khaleel3 of Allah. The Prophet (ρ) said: 'Indeed Allah chose the tribe of Kinaanah over other tribes from the children of Ismaaeel; He chose the
Quraish over other tribes of Kinaanah; He chose Banu
Haashim over the other families of the Quraish; and He
chose me from Banu Haashim.’ (Muslim #2276)

1 Bin pl. Banu: ‘the Son of…’, “the children of…”
2 Kunyah: A name similar to a Nickname.
3 Khaleel: the one whom Allah loves most.

He received his first revelation from Allah at the age of forty,
and he remained in Makkah thereafter for thirteen years calling
to the Tawheed of Allah. He then migrated to Madinah and
called its people to Islam, and they accepted it. There, Allah
revealed the remaining legislations. He conquered Makkah
eight years after his migration, and he died when he was sixtythree, after Allah revealed to him the whole Qur’an. All the
legislations of the religion were revealed, completed and
perfected, and all the Arabs accepted Islam.
The Merits of Belief in the Messengers

  1. One would realize the mercy and love Allah has for His
    slaves; since He sent to them Messengers who conveyed to
    them His religion. They in themselves were examples whom
    people emulated.
  2. To distinguish the believers who are truthful in their Faith
    from others; for it is incumbent upon one who believes in his
    own Messenger to believe in other Messengers who are
    mentioned in his Book.
  3. Those of the people of the Book (Jews and Christians) who
    believe in their Messengers and then believe in Muhammad,
    may Allah exalt his mention, would receive double reward.

Belief in the Last Day
One must believe that the life of this world will come to an
end. Allah (Ι) says:
(Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish.) (55:26)
When Allah wills this world to come to an end, Allah will
order Angel Israafeel to blow the Trumpet. At that point,
everything on Earth will perish. Then He will order him to blow
it again, and upon that, all people will rise from their graves in
their bodies, all over the world, from the time of Adam (υ).
Allah says:
(And the Trumpet will be blown, and all who are in
the heavens and all who are on the earth will collapse
and die, except him whom Allah wills. Then it will be
blown a second time and behold, they will be standing,
looking on (waiting).) (39:68)
Belief in the Last Day constitutes, belief in everything Allah
and His Messenger, may Allah exalt his mention, has informed
us about:
1) To believe in the life of the Barzakh: This life is the time
after one’s death until the Last Day. In it, the believer will live a
life of pleasure, while the disbelievers will be punished. Allah
(Ι) says:
(The Fire; they are exposed to it, morning and
afternoon, and on the Day when the Hour will be
established (it will be said to the angels): ‘Make
Fir‘awn’s (Pharaoh) people enter the severest torment!)

2) To believe in the Resurrection: Allah will resurrect
mankind, naked, barefooted, and uncircumcised. Allah (Ι) says:
(The disbelievers pretend that they will never be
resurrected (for the Account). Say: Yes! By my Lord,
you will certainly be resurrected, then you will be
informed of (and recompensed for) what you did, and
that is easy for Allah.) (64:7)
3) To believe in the Gathering: Allah will gather all creation
together and call them to account. Allah (Ι) says:
(And (remember) the Day We shall cause the
mountains to pass away (like clouds of dust), and you
will see the earth as a leveled plain, and we shall gather
them all together so as to leave not one of them behind.)
4) To believe that people will be brought before Allah in
ranks: Allah (Ι) says:
(And they shall be brought before your Lord, standing
in ranks: Now certainly you have come to Us as We
created you at first. Nay, you thought that We had not
appointed to you a time of the fulfillment of the
promise.) (18:48)
5) To believe that one’s limbs will bear witness. Allah (Ι)
(Till, when they reach it (Hellfire), their hearing (ears)
and their eyes, and their skins will testify against them
as to what they used to do. * And they will say to their
skins, ‘Why do you testify against us?’ They will say:
‘Allah has caused us to speak, He causes all things to
speak: and He created you the first time, and to Him
you are made to return.’ * And you have not been
hiding yourselves (in the world), lest your ears, and
your eyes, and your skins testify against you; but you

thought that Allah knew not much of what you were
doing.) (41:20-22)
6) To believe in the Questioning. Allah (Ι) says:
(But stop them; verily they are to be questioned. *
‘What is the matter with you? Why do you not help one
another [as you used to do in the world]?’ * Nay, but
that Day they shall surrender.) (33:40)
7) To believe in the Siraat (Bridge) and that everyone must
pass over it. Allah (Ι) says:
(There is not one of you but will pass over it (Hell); this
is with your Lord a Decree which must be
accomplished.) (19:71)
8) To believe in the weighing of deeds. Allah will call people
to account and reward those who did well with what they
deserve, due to their righteous deeds, their Belief, and
adherence to their Messengers, and He will punish those who
did evil. Allah (Ι) says:
(And We shall set up balances of justice on the Day of
Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in
anything. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed,
We will bring it. And Sufficient are We to take
account.) (21:47)
9) To believe in the handing out of Scrolls and Books. Allah
(Ι) says:
(Then, as for him who will be given his Record in his
right hand, He surely will receive an easy reckoning. *
And he will return to his family in joy! * But whosoever
is given his Record behind his back. * He will invoke
(his) destruction. * And he shall enter a blazing Fire
and made to taste its burning.) (84:7-12)

10) To believe that people will be rewarded with Jannah or
Hellfire in an everlasting and eternal life. Allah (Ι) says:
(Verily those who disbelieve from among the people of
the Book (Jews and Christians) and the mushrikoon
(pagans) will abide in the Fire of Hell. They are the
worst of creatures * Verily, those who believe and do
righteous deeds, they are the best of creatures. Their
reward with their Lord is ‘Adn (Eden) Jannah
(Gardens of Eternity), underneath which rivers flow.
They will abide therein forever, Allah will be pleased
with them, and they with Him. That is for him who
fears his Lord.) (98:6-8)
11) To believe in the Hawd1
, Intercession, and all other things
which the Messenger of Allah (ρ) informed us.
The Merits of Belief in the Last Day:
1) It would make one prepare himself for that Day, by
performing good deeds, and competing therein, and abstaining
from sinful acts and fearing His punishment.
2) It would comfort the believers; since they know what they
missed in this world, Allah would reward them with better in
the Hereafter.
3) To distinguish the believers who are truthful in their faith
from those who are not.

1 The Pool which Allah granted the Prophet ε; whoever drinks from it
once, will never feel thirsty thereafter.

Belief in Qadaa´ and Qadar1
One must believe that Allah knew everything before it came
into being, and what will happen to it afterwards. He then
brought them into existence, all in accordance to His
Knowledge and Measure. Allah (Ι) says:
(Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.)
Everything which occurred in the past that is occurring in the
present and what will occur in the future is known to Allah
before it came into existence. Allah then brought it into being,
all in accordance to His Will and Measure. The Messenger of
Allah (ρ) said:
“A person is not a Muslim until he believes in Qadar,
its good and its evil consequences – until he knows that
whatever happened to him would have never missed
him, and what missed him would never have
occurred.” (Tirmidthi #2144)
The belief in Qadar means to believe in four things:

1 Qadaa´ and Qadar: These two Arabic words are usually translated
as ‘fate’, ‘destiny’, or ‘pre-ordainment’. Many of these English words
lead people to incorrectly believe this concept, so the best way is to
leave them as Arabic terms and understand them in their true light.

1) To believe that Allah is well acquainted with everything
taking place and His knowledge encompasses everything.
2) To believe that Allah has pre-assigned the portions of
everything in the ‘Preserved Tablet’ (Al-Lawh-ul-Mahfoodh).
The Prophet (ρ) said:
“The first thing which Allah created was the Pen, and
He said to it, ‘Write.’ It responded, ‘What should I
write?’ He said, ‘Write everything that will occur until
the Day of Resurrection.’ (Abu Dawood 4700 &
Timidhi #3319)
3) Nothing takes place in the heavens or on the earth without
the will of Allah and His wish; whatever Allah wills, takes
place, and whatever He does not, will not take place.
4) Allah, the Exalted, is the Creator of all things. There is no
other creator besides Him, nor is there a Lord other than He…
This belief does not contradict the fact that one must strive to
attain things. To clarify this, if a person wants a child he must
do certain things to achieve this goal; such as getting married.
After he does all that is in his power, he may be granted what he
wishes or not. The reason for this, is that a person would realize
that what he does to achieve his goal is not in fact the true cause
behind it; rather it is the Will of Allah. These ‘means’ to fulfill
our goals are also considered from the Qadar of Allah. The
Prophet (ρ) was asked:
‘O Messenger of Allah, do the verses and supplications
we recite and the medicine we take to cure ourselves
waive the Qadar of Allah (Ι)?’ [He replied,] ‘They are
from the Qadar of Allah.’ (Mustadrak al-Haakim, but
with a weak chain).
The Merits of Belief in Qadaa´ and Qadar

1) One strengthens his dependence upon Allah [in achieving
results] after fulfilling their means.
2) One becomes pleased with whatever results, which in turn
produces peace of heart and spiritual comfort. Allah (Ι) says:
(No evil befalls on the earth nor in your own souls, but
it is in a book before We bring it into existence; surely
that is easy to Allah: So that you may not grieve for
what has escaped you, nor be exultant at what He has
given you; and Allah does not love any arrogant
boaster.) (57:22-23)
3) It eases the effects of calamities. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“The strong believer is better and more beloved to Allah
than a weak believer, and in each one there is good. Be
keen to do what benefits you and seek Allah’s help, and
do not be neglectful in doing so. And if any mishap
befalls you, do not say, ‘If only I had only done such and
such,’ but rather say, ‘This is the Qadar of Allah, and
whatever He Wills He does (Qadarullaah wa maa shaa
fa‘al),’ for indeed, ‘if,’ opens the door for Shaytaan’s
works.” (Muslim #2664)
4) It increases one’s reward and effaces his sins. The Prophet
(ρ) said:
“No Muslims is fatigued, is stricken with illness, feels
stress, worry, sadness, or harm, not even a thorn which
pricks him, except that Allah forgives sins through it.”
(Bukhari #5318)
Belief in Qadar is not, as some mistakenly think, a call to put
one’s trust in Allah without striving or fulfilling the means, for
the Messenger of Allah (ρ) replied to a person who asked him:
‘Should I leave my camel untied and trust in Allah?’
He said, ‘Tie it and trust in Allah.” (Tirmidhi #2517)


The Testimony that ‘Muhammad is the
Messenger of Allah’ and what it Necessitates
1) To believe that he is a Messenger, and that he is the best, and
last of the Messengers; no Messenger will come after him.
Allah (Ι) says:
(Muhammad is not the father of any man among you,
but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last of the
Prophets.) (33:40)
2) To believe that he is infallible in the teachings he conveyed
from Allah (Ι). Allah, the Exalted, says:
(Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. It is only an
Inspiration that is inspired.) (53:3-4)
As for the affairs of this world, he was a human, and he would
perform ijtihaad1
in his judgments. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Indeed I am only a human. It may be that a claimant
comes to me with a dispute, and due to one of them
being more coercive in speech than the other, I may
rule in his favor. Whoever was ruled in his favor while
he is wrong, [what he is receiving without right] is only
a portion of the Hellfire, so let him take it or leave it.”
(Muslim #1713)

1 Ijtihaad: In religious context, it is striving to decipher a ruling based
upon legislative reasoning and textual evidence.

3) To believe that he is a Messenger to all creation; to Jinn and
men until the Last Hour. Allah (Ι) says:
(And We have not sent you (O Muhammad ρ) except to
all of humanity, as a giver of glad tidings and a warner,
but most people know not.) (34:28)
4) To obey the Prophet (ρ) in what he ordered, to believe in
everything he said, and to abstain from what he forbade and
warned against. Allah says:
(And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it, and
whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it).) (59:7)
5) To follow and adhere to the Prophet’s (ρ) Sunnah, without
innovating matters in it. Allah, the Exalted, says:
(Say (O Muhammad ρ to mankind): If you (really) love
Allah then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive
you of your sins. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most
Merciful.) (3:31)

What One Should Do After
Pronouncing the Shahadataan
After pronouncing the Shahadataan, it is from the
Sunnah that a person does the following:
1) It is recommended that a person takes a complete bath
(ghusl) with pure water and then perform a two-unit prayer. It is
narrated that Thumamah al-Hanafi was taken captive and the
Prophet (ρ) would keep coming to him and say:
“What do you say, O Thumamah?” He would say, “If
you decide to kill me, you would be killing [in right]
because I have killed; if you let me free, you would be
letting free one who shows gratitude; and if you desire
wealth, we will give you what you please.” The
Companions of the Prophet (ρ) liked to ransom captives,
and so they said, “What would we gain if we killed him?”
So finally one day, the Prophet (ρ) decided to set
[Thumamah] free, and he accepted Islam. The Prophet (ρ)
untied him and sent him to the walled garden of Abu
Talhah, commanding him to take a complete bath (ghusl).
He performed a complete bath and prayed a two unit prayer,
and the Prophet (ρ)
said, “Your brother’s Islam is sincere.”
(Saheeh ibn Khuzaimah #253)
How to perform a Complete Bath (Ghusl)
 The Intention (Niyyah). One must intend (in his heart) that
he is performing ghusl to purify himself from a state of major

– whether janâbah, menstruation or postpartum
bleeding – without uttering such intention verbally.
 Say ‘Bismillah’ (‘I begin with the name of Allah’).
 Wash the hands and then the private parts.
 Next, perform wudhu2
as he would for the prayer. He may
delay washing his feet until the end of his ghusl.
 He should pour [at least] three handfuls of water on his
head, running his fingers through his hair and beard so that
water reaches the roots of his hair and scalp.
 Then pour water over the rest of the body, beginning with
the right side. He should make sure that he washes his armpits,
ears, navel, and the creases of the skin if he is fat, for these
creases prevent water from reaching the areas of skin concealed
within. He should then wash his feet if he has not already done
so while making wudhu [before performing the ghusl].
‘Aa`ishah reported:
“When Allah’s Messenger (ρ) would perform ghusl due
to sexual intercourse, he would first wash his hands,
then pour water with his right hand into his left,
washing his private parts. After that he would perform
wudhu as he would for the Prayer, and then take water
and rub it into the roots of his hair with his fingers.
[Lastly] he would wash his feet.” (Muslim #316)
Ghusl becomes obligatory after one of the following

There are two types, major and minor, both will be explained later.
2 Wudhu is washing specific parts of the body to remove oneself from
a state of minor impurity. It will be explained in detail.

1) Ejaculation of semen due to desire, nocturnal emission, or the
2) Sexual intercourse, even if it does not result in ejaculation.
3) Following menstruation,
4) Following postpartum bleeding.
One should perform wudhu before the prayer, for the Prophet
(ρ) said:
“Prayer is not accepted without purification….”
(Muslim #224)
Allah (Ι) says:
(O you who believe! When you intend to offer the
Salaah, wash your faces and your hands up to the
elbows, pass wet hands over your heads, and [wash]
your feet up to the ankles.) (59:7)
One should perform wudhu in the following manner:
Humraan the freed slave of ‘Uthmaan bin Affaan (τ) said:
“I saw ‘Uthmaan (τ) perform wudhu. He poured water
on his hands thrice, then he rinsed his mouth and nose,
washed his face thrice, washed his right hand up to his
elbow thrice, washed his right hand up to his elbow
thrice, wiped over his head once, washed his right foot
thrice, and then his left foot thrice. He then said, ‘I saw
the Messenger of Allah (ρ) perform wudhu like this,
and he said: ‘Whoever performs wudhu like my
wudhu, and then prays two Rakaat not thinking about
anything else, Allah will forgive him all his previous
sins.’ (Bukhari #1832)

1) One should intend that he is performing wudhu to purify
himself from a minor state of impurity. The proof that intention
(niyyah) is obligatory as seen from the statement of the Prophet
“All deeds are considered by their intentions, and each
person will be rewarded according to what he
intends…” (Bukhâri #1 & Muslim #45)
2) One should say, “Bismillaah,” before making wudhu. The
Prophet (ρ) said:
“There is no Prayer for one who does not perform
wudhu, and there is no wudhu for one who does not
mention the name of Allâh.”
(Abu Dawood #101 & ibn Maajah # 399)
3) One should wash his hands thrice at the beginning of
the wudhu.
4) One should rinse his mouth and clean his nose by sniffing
water into it thrice. He should blow the water out of his nose
using the left hand.
5) One should wash his face thrice. The face consists of the area
starting from the forelock at the top of the forehead of a normal
haired man to the bottom of the [chin or] beard, vertically, and
from right earlobe to the left, horizontally.
6) One should wash his hands from the tips of fingers to the
elbow (while washing it as well) beginning first with the right
hand, then the left. If he is wearing a ring or a watch, he must
remove it in order to allow the water to reach the skin
underneath it.
7) One must wipe over his head once. This is done by wetting
the hands and passing them over the head, beginning from the

front, proceeding to the back, and then passing them back over
the head to the front. Abdullah b. Zaid (τ) narrated:
“Allâh’s Messenger (ρ) passed his hands over his head
starting from the front, proceeding to the back. He
started from his forehead and passed them over to the
top of his neck, and then passed them back to the place
where he started from.” (Bukhari #183 & Muslim#235)
8) One should wipe his ears by inserting wet index fingers in
the cavity of the ears, and wipe their backs with the thumbs. Ibn
Abbas described the wudhu of the Prophet (ρ) saying:
“He then wiped over his head and put his index fingers
into his ears. He wiped the outside of his ears with his
thumbs, and the insides of his ear with his index
fingers.” (Abu Dawud #123)
9) One should wash his feet three times from the tips of the toes
up to and including the ankles. Abu Hurairah (τ) said that the
Messenger of Allah (ρ) saw a person who did not wash his
heels, and he said to him:
“Woe to the heels from the Hellfire!”
(Bukhari#60 & Muslim #142)
10) One should wash the parts of wudhu in the correct
sequence. He should not contradict the sequence mentioned in
the verse, for Allah mentioned the obligatory acts of wudhu in a
specific sequence.
11) One should not delay washing one part of the body so that
the previously washed part becomes dry.
It is mentioned in a Hadeeth that the Prophet (ρ) saw a man
praying, but a portion of his foot -the size of a dirham- was not

wet. Upon this, the Prophet (ρ) ordered him to repeat his wudhu
and Prayer.”1
(Abu Dâwud #175)
One must remove anything from the parts that must be
washed in the wudhu which might prevent water from reaching
the skin underneath it, such as paint, and similar things.
One remains in a state of wudhu unless something invalidates
it, such as urination, defecation, passing of gas, pre-seminal
fluid, prostatic fluid, false menstruation (vaginal bleeding other
than menses) eating camel meat, touching the private parts with
one’s hand directly, and deep sleep.
Tayammum (Dry Ablution)
If there is no water available to perform wudhu or ghusl, or
there is a factor present which prevents the use of water, such as
illness, or the inability to use water, it is lawful to perform
Tayammum takes the place of water in purifying oneself from
states of impurity, and it is performed as follows:
1) One should strike the ground once with his hands while his
fingers are spread apart,
2) One should then wipe over his face once with his palms,
3) One should wipe both hands until his wrists.
The Prayer
It is obligatory upon you to establish the prayer (Salaah) for it
is the backbone of the religion; without it, one’s Islam would

1 Note that he did not merely order him to wash his foot, but rather
he ordered him to repeat the entire wudhu’ as well as his prayer.

not be complete. The Prophet (ρ) said [striking an example
between the religion and a camel]:
“As for the head of the religion, it is Islam (the
Shahadataan); as for its backbone, it is the Salaah, and
as for the highest part of its hump, it is Jihad1
(Tirmidhi #2616)
The Salah is a term which denotes a group of words and
actions which start with takbeer (saying ‘Allahu Akbar’,
meaning: ‘Allah is the greatest’) and end with tasleem (saying
‘As-Salaamu ‘alaykum wa Rahmatullaah).
The Reward of Salaah
When one establishes the Salaah, he benefits in the following
1) Spiritual joy: The Salaah establishes a relationship between
the slave and Allah. He enters a private conversation with Him,
supplicating Him in sincere humbleness.
2) Peace of heart and tranquility. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Women and perfume have been made beloved to me,
and the Salaah has been made the delight of my eyes.”
(Nasa’ie #3940)
3) The Salaah prevents one from all sinful and immoral deeds.
Allah (Ι) says:
(And We have not sent you (O Muhammad ρ) except to
all of humanity, as a giver of glad tidings and a warner,
but most people know not.) (29:45)

1 Jihad: Fighting against the disbelievers to raise Allah’s word and
establish Islam.

4) The Salah strengthens the bonds of love and unity among the
Muslims. It breaks down all social differences that may exist
between them; they all stand together side by side in rows, the
old and young, the rich and poor, the noble and ignoble. All
people are the same, humbling themselves before Allah, facing
the same direction (the Qiblah1
) performing the same actions,
reciting the same recitation, all at the same time.
Prayer Times
There are five prayers during the day and night which are
obligatory upon every Muslim. All men should establish Salaah
in congregation (jamaa‘ah) in the Masjid, unless they have a
valid excuse; while women should pray in their homes.
The Messenger of Allah (ρ) said:
“The time of Dhuhr is when the sun declines from its
zenith until a person’s shadow becomes equal to his
height, as long as the time of ‘Asr is not due. The
(recommended) time of Asr is until the sun starts to
turn yellow [at which point it becomes makrooh2
]. The
time of Maghrib remains until the red color of the
horizon disappears, and the time of ‘Ishaa´ remains
until the middle of the night, and the time of Fajr
prayer is when the pre-dawn light appears until the
sun starts to rise. If the sun starts to rise, then abstain

1 Qiblah: the direction of the Ka’bah.
2Makrooh: Something disliked in the Religion. If a person does it, he
will not be punished, but if he leaves it, he will be rewarded. It is
preferred do pray ‘Asr before the sun starts to turn yellow, but it is
permissible until the sun fully sets.

from prayer, for indeed it rises between the two horns
of Shaytaan.” (Muslim #612)
Prayer Chart
Name &
Type of


Its Time


It starts from the time
the sun starts to descend
towards the west after its
zenith, and ends when
the length of an object’s
shadow is equal to the
actual object’s height.
4 rak‘ahs
and 2
2 ‘Asr
It starts when the time
of Dhuhr ends, and ends
when the sun sets.
It starts when the Sun
has totally set, and ends
when red color of dusk
2 rak‘ahs
It starts when the time
of Maghrib ends, and
ends at the first
appearance of light
before dawn.
2 rak‘ahs
Fajr (Dawn)
It starts at the first
appearance of light at
dawn, and ends when
the sun starts to rise.
2 rak‘ahs

These are the Sunnah prayers which are emphasized; there are
others related to each prayer which the author did not mention for
the sake of brevity.

The Pre-Requisites of Salaah
Know that the Salaah has certain prerequisites; if one leaves
them, his prayer is invalid. They are as follows:
1) Praying them in their proper times.
2) One must purify himself from minor and major impurities.
Allah, the Exalted, says:
(O you who believe! When you intend to offer the
Salah, wash your faces and your hands up to the
elbows, pass wet hands over your heads, and [wash]
your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state of
janaabah (state of major impurity), purify yourself
(bathe your whole body).) (5:6)
3) One’s body must be clean from any impurities. The Prophet
(ρ) said:
“Be careful to keep yourself clean from urine, for
indeed majority of the punishment of the graves is due
to people not doing so.” (Haakim #654 and verified)
One must keep his clothes pure from any impurities. Allah (Ι)
(And purify your garments.) (74:4)
One must make sure that the place he is praying in is free
from impurities. A Bedouin once urinated in the Masjid, and the
people stood up to confront him and the Prophet (ρ) said:
“Leave him and pour a bucket of water where he
urinated, for you have been sent to make things easy,
not to make things hard.” (Bukhari #217)

4) Covering one’s ‘awrah1
. For a man, it is the area between the
navel and the knees, but in Salah, it includes both his shoulders.
As for a woman, it is her whole body, but in Salah, she does not
need to cover her face and hands. Allah (Ι) says:
(O Children of Adam! Take your adornment (by
wearing clean clothes), while praying.) (7:31)
5) One must face the Qiblah. Allah (Ι) says:
(So turn your face to the direction of al-Masjid alHaraam (in Makkah). And wherever you are, turn
your faces (in prayer) to that direction.) (2:144)
A woman in her menstrual period, or postpartum bleeding
should not pray until her bleeding stops. Thereupon, she should
perform a complete bath (ghusl) and resume praying, and
perform ablution (wudhu) for each prayer if she invalidates it.
She should not make up any prayers she missed while bleeding.
How to Perform Salah
1) One should make wudhu by using pure water, as Allah (ρ)
(O you who believe! When you stand to offer Salah (the
Prayer) wash your faces and your hands up to the
elbows, pass wet hands over your heads, and [wash]
your feet up to ankles.) (5:6)
2) One must face the Qiblah, which is the direction of the
Ka’bah, with his whole body and intend (with his heart) the
specific prayer he is performing, without uttering it verbally.

‘Awrah: The parts of the body which are forbidden for another to
look at.

3) One must pronounce Takbeerat-ul-Ihraam by saying ‘Allahu
Akbar’. He should do so while looking at the place he will
prostrate in, raising his hands to the level of his shoulders or his
earlobes, extending his fingers [with his palms] facing the
4) One should put his hands on his chest, placing his right hand
over his left, and recite the opening supplication (Du‘aa-ulIstiftaah):
“Subhaanak-Allahumma wa bi hamdika, wa
tabaarak-Asmuka, wa ta‘aala jaddukka wa laa ilaaha
Meaning: Far removed are You from every imperfection, O
Allah, and all praise belongs to You. Blessed is Your Name.
Great and Exalted is Your Kingdom. None has the right to be
worshipped except You.”
One should then say:
“A‘oodhu billaahi min ash-Shaytaan ir-Rajeem.
Bismillaah ir-Rahmaan ir-Raheem.”
Meaning: I seek refuge with Allah from Satan, the Rejected
One. I begin with the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, and
the Bestower of Mercy.
Then one should recite Surah al-Faatihah, saying ‘Ameen’
after finishing it; saying it aloud in the prayers in which he
reads aloud and silently in the silent prayers. After this, one
should recite whatever he can from the Qur’an.
5) After completing recitation, one should bow (rukoo’) by
bending the back forward. First he should say:
“Allahu Akbar.”
Meaning: Allah is the Greatest.

He should raise his hands to his shoulders or earlobes while
doing so. Then he should make rukoo’ (bowing posture)
extending his back, making his head level with it. At this point
he should place his hands with his fingers spread on his knees,
keeping the elbows away from his sides. In the rukoo’, one
should say three times:
“Subhaana Rub-biyal-Adheem.”
Meaning: Far removed is my Lord, the Most Magnificent,
from every imperfection.
6) One should raise his head [and upper body] from the rukoo,
and raise his hands to his shoulders or earlobes, saying:
“Sami‘allahu liman Hamidah.”
Meaning: Allah answers the supplication of those who praise
and extol Him.
One should say this whether he is praying alone or leading
others in Prayer. After fully returning to a standing position,
one should say:
“Rabanaa wa lak-al-Hamd.”
Meaning: Our Lord, and to You belongs all praise.
But if one is praying behind an Imam1
, he should say while
“Rabanaa wa lak-al-Hamd.”
Meaning: Our Lord, and to You belongs all praise.

1 Imam: One who leads others in Prayer.

It is recommended that one should place his hands on his
chest as he did in the first standing before the rukoo’.
7) Next, one must prostrate (Sujood) and say:
“Allahu Akbar.”
Meaning: Allah is the Greatest.
He should not raise his hands [to his shoulders or ears]. He
should descend, placing his knees on the ground before his
hands -if it is not hard for him- and prostrate on his forehead
and nose, his hands, his knees, and the bottom of the toes. The
fingers and toes should face the Qiblah, and his fingers should
be drawn together (not spread apart). He should keep his elbows
away from his sides and his knees away from his stomach and
his thighs away from his legs. He should lift his elbows and
forearms off the ground and say (three times):
“Subhaana Rub-biyal-A’laa.”
Meaning: Far removed is my Lord, the Most High, from
every imperfection.
One should supplicate as much as possible1
in the sujood, for
the Prophet (ρ) said:
“As for the rukoo’, aggrandize the Lord (Υ) and as for
the sujood, make as much supplication as you can, for
[it is the place where] it is most likely to be accepted.”
(Muslim #479)
8) One should raise his head from the sujood and say, “Allahu
Akbar.” One should not raise his hands to his shoulders or
earlobes while saying so. He should lay his left foot flat on the

He may supplicate Allah in his own words, or native language.

ground [pointing to the right] and sit upon it, and prop his right
foot upright [with the bottom of his toes on the ground facing
the Qiblah]. One should place his hands on his thighs and
knees, and then say thrice:
“Rabbighfir li.”
Meaning: My Lord, forgive me.
In addition to this, he may say:
“Allahumm-aghfir li, warhamni, wahdini, warzuqni, wa
‘aafini, wajburni.”
Meaning: O Allah, forgive me, have mercy upon me, grant me
sustenance, keep me in a state of safety and wellbeing, and
strengthen my weakness.
9) One has to perform a second sujood saying, “Allahu Akbar,”
without raising his hands. He should do as he did in the first
10) Then one raises his head [from sujood] saying, “Allahu
Akbar,” without raising his hands [to his shoulders or earlobes]
and stand up and perform the second Rak’ah, supporting himself
with his knees, if possible. If this is difficult, then he may stand
up while supporting himself with his hands.
After standing, he should recite Surah al-Faatihah and
whatever he can recite from the Qur’an, just as he did in the first
11) If one is performing a prayer which consists of two Rak’aat,
such as Fajr, Jumu‘ah, or ‘Eid, after the second prostration he
should sit with his right foot propped up, sitting on his left foot
laid flat [pointing to the right]. He should clench his right hand
and place it on the lower part of his right thigh, and he should

point with his finger during his supplication and mentioning
Allah (the tashahhud) symbolizing His Tawheed. He should
place his left hand on the bottom part of his left thigh and recite
the tashahhud:
“At-Tahiyyaatu lillaahi, was-Salawaatu, watTayyibaatu, as-Salaamu ‘alayka ‘ayyuhan-Nabiyyu, wa
rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh. As-Salaamu ‘alaynaa
wa ‘alaa ‘ibaad-illaah-is-Saaliheen. Ash-hadu an laa
ilaaha ill-Allaah, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan
‘abduhu wa rasooluh.”
Meaning: All Words of Praise and glorification are for Allah
alone, and all Prayers and acts of worship, and pure words and
attributes. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of
Allah and His blessings. May Allah send peace and security
upon us, and upon all of Allah’s righteous slaves. I bear
witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah,
and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Slave and
He should then seek refuge from four things:
“Allaahumma innee a‘oodhu bika min ‘adhaabi
jahannam, wa min ‘adhaab-il-qabr, wa min fitnat ilmahyaa wal-mamaat, wa min fitnat il-maseeh idDajjaal.”
Meaning: O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the
punishment of Hellfire, from the Torment of the Grave, from
the Trials of Living and Dying, and from the Trials of the
Pseudo-Christ (Dajjaal).1

The ‘Trials of Living…’ are that which a person encounters in life
with regard to being enticed by the worldly life and the desires to
which it gives rise. The ‘Trials of dying…’ are the trials of the grave,

One should ask Allah whatever he wishes,1
and desires from
the good things of this life and next.
12) Lastly, one should make the ‘Tasleem’ to the right, by
turning his head to the right saying:
“As-Salaamu ‘alaykum wa Rahmatullaah.”
Meaning: May the Safety and Mercy of Allah be upon you.
Then he should make tasleem to his left, by turning his head
to the left, saying “As-Salaamu ‘alaykum wa Rahmatullaah.”
13) If one is performing a three rak‘ah Prayer, such as Maghrib,
or a four rak‘ah prayer, such as Dhuhr, ‘Asr or ‘Ishaa, after
saying “Ash-hadu an laa ilaaha ill-Allah wa ash-hadu anna
Muhammadan ‘Abduhu wa Rasooluhu,” in the Tashahhud
mentioned previously, he should stand up and pray the third
rak‘ah for a three rak’aat Prayer, or the third and fourth rak‘ahs
for a four rak‘aat Prayer. He should stand, while supporting
himself with his knees if he is able, and raise his hands to the
level of his shoulders [or earlobes] saying, “Allahu Akbar.” He
should place his hands on his chest, grasping the right hand
over the left, and recite Surah al-Fatihah. He should do the same
as he did in the previous rak‘aat. He should then sit for the last
Tashahhud, and after its recitation, he should conclude his
Prayer by making the Tasleem.

and the questioning by the two Angels. The ‘Trials of the False
Messiah (Dajjaal)…’ are the supernatural occurrences that will
happen at his hands: things that will lead many people to go astray,
to follow him and accept his claim to divinity.
He may supplicate Allah in his own words, or native language.

Voluntary Prayers
There are certain prayers known as as-Sunan-ur-Rawaatib1
by which one would get extra reward and raise his level in
Jannah. Through them, one makes up for any of his faults in the
obligatory prayers, which have been mentioned in the table. The
Witr Prayer is also a Sunnah Prayer, and it consists of at least
one rak‘ah. It should be the last prayer one performs at night.
Forbidden Times of Prayer
Voluntary prayers other than those mentioned may be
performed at any time other than those specifically forbidden by
Allah and His Messenger (ρ). They are as follows:
1) After the Fajr Prayer until the sun rises a spear’s length.2
2) The time when the sun reaches its zenith until it descends.
3) After the ‘Asr prayer until the sun sets.

See chart on p.54.
About 15-20 minutes after the sun has risen.

Upon becoming Muslim, one must pay Zakaah to those who
deserve it.
Zakaah is a right from the rights of Allah (Ι) which a Muslim
must pay to his brothers from the poor and those in need to
cover their requirements and save them from the humility of
asking others. Allah (Ι) says:
(And they were commanded not, but that they should
worship Allah, and worship none but Him Alone
(abstaining from ascribing partners to Him), and
establish the Salah and give the Zakah: and that is the
upright religion.) (98:5)
There is a great wisdom and many reasons why Zakah has
been prescribed. From them, may be the following:
1) It purifies the souls of rich Muslims and cleanses them from
greed, selfishness, base covetousness, and the love of this
interim world and drowning in its desires.
2) It purifies the soul of the poor from hate and jealousy which
they might feel for the rich. They see them giving from their
wealth, and continuously caring for them, by giving them
money and treating them well.
3) It causes a Muslim to grow fond of good manners, such as
giving charity, and preferring others over himself.
4) It uproots poverty in the Muslim society and alleviates the
dangers which result from it, such as theft, murder, and
transgression against people’s honor.
5) It brings the spirit of mutual dependence and Islamic
brotherhood to life, by fulfilling the needs of Islam and the

6) It plays a role in spreading Islam throughout the world.
Through it, non-Muslims are shown the religion of Islam and its
beauty, and it is hoped that they would accept it.
The Conditions of Zakaah
1) Possession of the nisaab, which is the amount of wealth upon
which Islam has legislated Zakaah. This amount is equal to 85
grams of gold.
2) The elapse of one year. If one possesses the nisaab for a
period of a complete year, Zakaah becomes due upon him.
Those Eligible for Zakaah
Allah has specified those who are eligible to receive Zakah.
Allah says:
(As-Sadaqaat (i.e. Zakaat) are only for the Fuqaraa´
and Masaakeen (the poor) and those employed to
collect [the funds]; and to attract the hearts of those
who have been inclined [towards Islam]; and to free the
captives; and for those in debt; and for Allah’s Cause
(i.e. for Mujaahidoon – those fighting in Jihad), and for
the wayfarer (a traveler who is cut off from
everything); a duty imposed by Allah. And Allah is AllKnower, All-Wise…) (9:60)
Important Notes
1) There is no Zakah due on those items which one possesses
for personal use, such as houses, furniture, cars, and beasts of
burden (horses, donkeys, etc.).
2) There is no Zakah due on those assets one holds for rental
purposes, like cars, shops, houses. Zakah must be paid on the
rental payment if it is combined with his other wealth, reaches
the nisaab and remains in his possession for a period of one

The Fast (Siyaam) of Ramadhan
Upon becoming Muslim, one must fast the month of
Ramadhan, every year. One must abstain from anything that
breaks the fast, such as food, drink, and sexual intercourse, from
Fajr until Maghrib as an act of obedience to Allah. Allah (Ι)
(O you who believe! Fasting has been prescribed for
you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you
may become from the pious.) (2:18)
The objective of fasting is not that one merely abstains from
the material and physical things which break one’s fast, but
rather, one must also refrain from those intangible things which
diminish [the reward] of one’s fast, such as lying, backbiting,
tale-bearing, cheating, deception, false talk, and other offensive
behavior. He should keep in mind that it is obligatory upon him
to abstain from these offensive things outside of Ramadhan, but
more so in this month, due to the saying of the Prophet (ρ):
“Whoever does not refrain from false speech and
deeds, Allah has no need for him to leave his food and
(Bukhari #1804)
There are many reasons and great wisdoms why Siyaam has
been prescribed. From them are the following:
1) It is spiritual exercise for the believer, for his soul is making
against his wants and desires.

1 Jihad: Here the word is used in its literal sense, which means ‘to
strive against’.

2) Keeping the Muslim’s soul above all offensive speech and
deeds. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“When one of you is fasting, he should not speak evil,
nor should he yell or shout, and if someone were to
curse or fight him, let him say, ‘Indeed I am a fasting
person.” (Bukhari #1805 & Muslim #1151)
3) Through fasting, one realizes how his needy brothers feel,
and this encourages him to fulfill their rights, ask about their
welfare, and look into their needs.
It is not allowed for a woman in her menstrual period or
postpartum bleeding to fast until her bleeding stops. Once it
does, she must have a complete bath (ghusl) and make up the
fasts she missed. If one is ill or traveling, it is permissible for
him not to fast, but he must make up those days at a later time.1

One must make up the fasts before the arrival of the following

Upon becoming Muslim, one must perform Hajj once in his
lifetime. Hajj is the pilgrimage one makes to the Sacred House
of Allah (the Ka’bah) in order to perform certain rites at
specific places at specific times. This pillar of Islam is
obligatory upon every Muslim, male or female, who is sane and
has reached the age of puberty, once in a lifetime if they have
the physical and financial ability. If a person has an incurable
disease which prevents him from performing Hajj, but has
enough money, he must assign someone to perform Hajj for
him. But if a person does not have enough money to fulfill his
daily requirements or to support those whom he supports, Hajj
is not an obligation upon him. Allah says:
(And Hajj to the House (Ka’bah) is a duty that
mankind owes to Allah, those who can afford the
expenses; and whoever disbelieves, then Allah stands
not in need of any of the ‘Aalameen (Mankind and
Jinns).) (3:97)
There are many reasons and great wisdoms why Hajj has been
prescribed. From them are the following:
1) To increase one’s good deeds due to his act of obedience, for
the reward of Hajj which has been accepted by Allah is nothing
but Jannah. The Messenger of Allah (ρ) said:
“An ‘Umrah1
followed by another is an expiation for
the lesser sins one performed between them, and there
is no reward for a Hajj which has been accepted by

‘Umrah: Lesser pilgrimage. It consists of Tawaaf and Sa‘i whilst in
the state of Ihraam. These terms will be explained later.

Allah except Jannah.” (Bukhari #1683 and Muslim

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2) To realize the unity of the Muslims, for Hajj is the largest
Islamic gathering. Muslims from all over come together at one
place, at one time, calling the same Lord, wearing the same
clothes, performing the same rituals. There is no difference
between the rich and poor, the noble and ignoble, the white and
black, Arab and non-Arab. They are all equal; there is no
difference between them except in piety (taqwaa). This is
nothing but an emphasis of the brotherhood of all Muslims and
the unity of their hopes and feelings.
3) It is a spiritual exercise which trains one to exert his efforts,
physically and financially, in the way of Allah and seeking His
4) It is a purification of one’s sins and wrongdoings. The
Prophet (ρ) said:
“Whoever performs Hajj to this House (the Ka’bah)
and does not and does not have sexual relations, he will
return [sin-free] like the day he was born.”
(Bukhari #1723 & Muslim #1350 )
How to Perform Hajj
There are three types of Hajj; each one has its specific rites.
The best type is Tamattu’, wherein one performs Hajj and
‘Umrah separately, in the Sacred Months of Hajj. It is done as

1) One should enter the state of Ihraam1
from the Miqat2
the 8th of Dhu’l-Hijjah. He should enter state of Ihram, saying:
“Labbayk-Allahumma ‘Umratan mutamitti’an bihaa
Meaning: Here I am at your service, O Allah, performing
‘Umrah and then a Hajj [separately].
2) After entering Makkah, he should perform Tawaaf3
the Ka’bah4
and perform the Sa‘i for ‘Umrah, and then shave or
shorten the hair. Women should clip her hair equal to a third of
a finger’s length.
3) On the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah, which is called the day of
Tarwiyah, one should enter the state of Ihraam at the time of
, from the place he is in. He should then go to Minaa´,
and there he should perform Dhuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib, and ‘Ishaa´

1 Ihraam: A state in which certain things become forbidden for a
2 Meeqaat: Particular places which one cannot cross without entering
a state of Ihraam if he wishes to perform ‘Umrah or Hajj.
3 Tawaaf: Circumambulating the Ka’bah counter clockwise.
The Ka’bah is the first place which was made for the worship of
Allah on the face of the earth. It was built by Ibraheem and Ismaa’eel,
may the Safety and Mercy of Allah be upon them both, upon the
command of Allah (Ι). Allah said:
“And Hajj to the House (Ka’bah) is a duty that mankind owes to
Allah, those who can afford the expenses; and whoever disbelieves,
then Allah stands not in need of any of the ‘Aalameen (mankind and
jinns).” (3:97)
5 Duhaa: Forenoon. The time after the sun has risen a spear’s length
until before it reaches its zenith.

prayers. He should shorten Dhuhr, ‘Asr and ‘Ishaa´ prayers [as
a traveler does] but he should not combine them.1
4) After the sun has risen on the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah,
which is the Day of ‘Arafah, one should leave Minaa´ and head
towards ‘Arafah. He should pray Dhuhr and ‘Asr at the time of
Dhuhr, both two rak‘ahs. After completing them, he should
spend his time remembering Allah and supplicating him with
sincere humility. One should ask Allah whatever he wishes
raising his hands while facing the Qiblah.
5) When the sun sets on the Day of ‘Arafah, one should set out
for Muzdalifah. Once he has reached, he should pray the
Maghrib and ‘Ishaa´ prayers, combining both prayers together,
making the ‘Ishaa´ prayer two rak’aat only. He should spend the
night in Muzdalifah. He should pray Fajr prayer in its earliest
acceptable time, and then he should spend his time supplicating
until the sky appears bright.
6) But before the sun has risen, he should leave for Minaa´.
Once he arrives, he should throw seven pebbles at Jamrat-ul-
, saying “Allahu Akbar” with each throw. The pebbles
should be the size of a chickpea.
7) After this, he should slaughter his sacrificial animal, and then
shave or shorten the hair. Shaving is better for men, but as for
women, she should clip her hair about a third of a finger’s
length. (She should not shave her head).

Allah has legislated that the traveler shortens the Dhuhr, ‘Asr and
‘Ishaa´ prayers from four rak‘ahs to two rak‘ahs. A traveler may also
combine the Dhuhr with the ‘Asr prayer, by praying them together,
one after the other, and the Maghrib with the ‘Ishaa´ prayer.
These are three pillars in Minaa, the small, middle and large. The
largest is the Jamrat-ul-‘Aqabah.

8) With this one would partially terminate the Ihraam, and
remain in a state of lesser Ihraam. He may wear normal clothes
and do everything which is allowed for a normal person except
for having marital relations with his wife.
9) One should then proceed to Makkah and perform the Tawaaf
and Sa‘i, both for Hajj. Upon completion, he should return to
Minaa´ and spend the nights of the eleventh and twelfth of
Dhul-Hijjah there. During the days, he should throw seven
pebbles at all three Jamaraat, saying “Allahu Akbar” with each
pebble. He should do so after the sun starts to decline from its
zenith. He should begin with the smallest Jamrah, and then
proceed to the middle and then the largest.
10) Once a person has thrown pebbles at the Jamaraat on the
twelfth day, he may leave Minaa´ or he may spend another
night in Minaa´, throwing pebbles at the three Jamaraat on the
thirteenth day after the sun starts to decline from its zenith as
explained earlier, this is more praiseworthy.
11) Once one intends to return home, he should proceed to
Makkah and perform Tawaaf al-Wadaa’ (farewell Tawaf). This
Tawaaf is not an obligation for a woman experiencing menses
or postpartum bleeding. Once a person has done this, his Hajj is

The Worship of Allah
Know my brother that worship is obligatory upon every
Muslim who is mentally sane and has reached the age of
puberty. Performing these pillars of Islam is a means to enter
Jannah, after the Mercy of Allah (Ι). The Prophet (ρ) once said
to a Bedouin who came and asked:
‘O Messenger of Allah, tell me what Allah has
obligated upon me in terms of the prayer.’ He replied,
‘The five [daily] prayers, except if you wish to perform
some voluntary ones.’ He asked, ‘Tell me what Allah
has obligated upon me in terms of the fasting.’ He
replied, ‘The month of Ramadaan, except if you wish
to perform some voluntary ones.’ He said, ‘Tell me
what Allah has obligated upon me in terms of Zakaah.’
[The narrator] said ‘So the Messenger of Allah (ρ)
informed him of the legislations of Islam.’ The Bedouin
said, ‘By Him Who has honored you, I will not do any
voluntary acts, and I will not leave anything of what
Allah has ordered me.’ The Messenger of Allah (ρ),
said: ‘He has succeeded (or, ‘He will enter Jannah’) if
he is saying the truth.’ ” (Bukhari #46 & Muslim#11)
The Individual and Social Effects of the Worship of Allah
1) The believers will achieve happiness and success in the life
of this world as well as the Hereafter. Allah (Ι) says:
(Indeed whosoever purifies himself shall achieve
success, [as well as he who] remembers (glorifies) the
Name of his Lord, and prays.) (87:14-15)

2) Physical and spiritual strength which results from one’s
private conversation with Allah. Allah (Ι) says:
(Truly, Allah is with those who fear Him (keep their
duty unto Him), and those who are muhsinoon (gooddoers).) (16:128)
3) The Help of Allah and establishing His believing slaves’
authority on the earth. Allah (Ι) says:
(Verily, Allah will help those who help His (Cause).
Truly, Allah is All-Strong, All-Mighty. Those (Muslim
rulers) who, if We give them power in the land, (they)
order the establishment of the Salaah, to pay the
Zakaah, and they enjoin all good, and forbid all evil
[i.e. they make the Qur’an as the law of their country in
all the spheres of life]. And with Allah rests the end of
(all) matters (of creatures).) (22:40-41)
4) Building ties of brotherhood, cooperation, bonding, and
security between the individuals in an Islamic society. Allah (Ι)
(The believers, men and women, are Awliyaa´ (helpers,
supporters, friends, protectors) of one another, they
enjoin all good, and forbid from all evil; they establish
the Salaah and give the Zakaah, and obey Allah and His
Messenger. Allah will have His Mercy on them. Surely
Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.) (9:71)
5) The guidance of Allah and the success which is only granted
by Him. Allah (Ι) says:
(O you who believe! If you obey and fear Allah, He will
grant you Furqaan (a criterion to judge between right
and wrong), and will expiate for you your sins, and
forgive you.) (8:29)

6) An abundance of provision from Allah and ease in times of
hardships. Allah says:
(And whosoever fears Allah and keeps his duty to Him,
He will make a way for him to get out (from every
difficulty). And He will provide him from (sources) he
never could imagine.) (65:2-3)
7) A multiplication of reward and expiation of sins. Allah says:
(And whosoever believes in Allah and performs
righteous good deeds, He will remit from him his sins,
and will admit him to Gardens under which rivers flow
(Jannah) to dwell therein forever, that will be the great
success.) (64:9)

The Commandments of Islam
Dear Brother, seek a path in your relationship with society
and others that is guided by the sayings of the Prophet (ρ):
“Avoid the prohibited and you will be the best
worshipper, be pleased with the sustenance Allah has
provided for you and you will be the richest of people,
be good to your neighbor and you will be a true
believer, desire for others what you desire for yourself
and you will be a true Muslim, and do not laugh much,
for indeed laughing much causes the heart to die.”
(Tirmidhi #2305 & ibn Maajah #8081)
And he (ρ) said:
“A true Muslim is he from whom Muslims are safe
from his tongue and his hand, and a true muhaajir1
one who abandons what Allah has forbidden.”
(Bukhari #10)
Islam aims to form a well knit society, in which individuals
show mutual mercy and love and exemplify the Sunnah of the
Messenger of Allah ρ by ordering them to do certain things and
to abstain from other things.
“The Believers in their love, mercy and feelings for each
other are like one body: if one part feels pain, all the other
parts feel pain by fever and sleeplessness.”
(Bukhari #5665 & Muslim #2586)
Islam has guided man to every good and warned them of
every evil. Islam commands the following things:

The other type of hijra or migration: is to migrate from the land of
disbelief for the sake of Allah.

1) It commands one to believe in the Tawheed of Allah (i.e.
oneness of Allah) and forbids associating partners with Him
(i.e. Shirk). Allah (ρ) says:
(Surely Allah does not forgive that anything should be
associated with Him, and He forgives what is besides
this to whom He pleases; and whoever associates
anything with Allah, he indeed strays off into a remote
error.) (4:116)
The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Avoid the seven destructive sins.” They asked, “O
Messenger of Allah, what are they?’ He replied,
“Associating partners (shirk) with Allah, sorcery,
killing someone who Allah has forbidden without right,
taking interest, consuming the wealth of orphans,
fleeing upon confronting the enemy in battle, and
accusing chaste believing women who are far removed
from committing any licentious acts.”
(Bukhari #2615 & Muslim #89)
2) It commands treating others well and forbids false
consumption of wealth, such as interest, theft, deception,
usurpation of property, and the like. Allah (ρ) says:
(O you who believe! Do not devour your property
among yourselves falsely, except that it be trading by
your mutual consent; and do not kill your people;
surely Allah is Merciful to you.) (4:29)
3) It commands justice and equity and forbids all types of
oppression and transgression against others. Allah (ρ) says:
(Verily, Allah enjoins justice and al-Ihsaan [i.e. to be
patient in performing your duties to Allah, totally for
Allah’s sake and in accordance with the Sunnah (legal

ways) of the Prophet in a perfect manner], and giving
(help) to kith and kin; and forbids all licentious acts,
evil, and oppression, He admonishes you, that you may
take heed.) (16:90)
4) It commands that people cooperate in righteousness, and it
forbids that they cooperate in evil. Allah (ρ) says:
(Help you one another in righteousness and piety; and
do not help one another in sin and transgression. And
fear Allah. Verily, Allah is Severe in punishment.)
5) It commands with the preservation of souls, and forbids
killing and participating in it, except with due right. Allah (ρ)
(Because of that We ordained for the Children of
Israel that if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of
murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land – it
would be as if he killed all mankind, and if anyone
saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all
mankind. And indeed, there came to them Our
Messengers with clear proofs, evidences, and signs,
even then after that many of them continued to exceed
the limits (e.g. by doing oppression unjustly and
exceeding beyond the limits set by Allah by committing
the major sins) in the land!) (5:32)
Allah (ρ) also says:
(And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his
recompense is Hell to abide therein, and the Wrath and
the Curse of Allah are upon him, and a great
punishment is prepared for him.) (4:93)
6) It commands well-treatment of one’s parents and forbids
their disobedience. Allah (ρ) says:

(And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but
Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of
them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not
to them a word of disrespect, nor shout at them but
address them in terms of honor. * And lower unto them
the wing of submission and humility through mercy,
and say: ‘My Lord! Bestow on them Your Mercy as
they did bring me up when I was small.) (17:23-24)
7) It commands joining ties of relation and forbids severing
them. Allah (ρ) says:
(Would you then, if you were given the authority, do
mischief in the land, and sever your ties of kinship?
Such are they whom Allah has cursed, so that He has
made them deaf and blinded their sight.) (47:22-23)
The Prophet (ρ) said:
“One who severs ties of relations will not enter
Jannah.” (Bukhari #5638 & Muslim #2556)
8) It commands and encourages marriage. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“O youth! Whoever of you is able to get married let
him do so, for it lowers one’s gaze and keeps one
chaste. Whoever is not able then let him fast, for indeed
it acts like a shield for him.” (Bukhari #1806 & Muslim


It forbids fornication and homosexuality and all things which
lead to it. Allah (ρ) says:
(Say (O Muhammad): ‘(But) the things that my Lord
has indeed forbidden are al-fawaahish (great evil sins,
every kind of unlawful sexual intercourse, etc.) whether
committed openly or secretly, sins (of all kinds)
unrighteous oppression, joining partners in worship

with Allah for which He has given no authority, and
saying things about Allah of which you have no
knowledge.) (7:33)
9) It orders the protection of the wealth of orphans and their
well-treatment, and it forbids consuming their wealth without
right. Allah (ρ) says:
(Verily, those who unjustly devour the property of
orphans, they devour only a fire into their bellies, and
they will be burnt in the blazing Fire.) (4:10)
It forbids grieving and ill-treating them. Allah (ρ) says:
(Therefore, treat not the orphan with oppression.)
10) It orders that one be truthful in his testimony and forbids
that one lie in them (shahaadat-uz-zoor). The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Shall I not tell you the three greatest sins?” They said.
“Indeed O Messenger of Allah.” He said, “Associating
partners with Allah (shirk) and ill-treatment of
parents.” He was leaning [when he mentioned that],
and then sat up straight (as if he was alarmed) and
said, “And bearing false witness.” [The narrator] said,
“He continued to repeat this until we said [to
ourselves], “If only he would stop.” (Bukhari #2511 &
Muslim #87)
11) It commands that one fulfill his oaths and forbids that one
lie in it: (al-yameen al ghamoos), which means that one
intentionally lies in his oath in order to deprive another his
right. Allah (ρ) says:
(Verily, those who purchase a small gain at the cost of
Allah’s Covenant and their oaths, they shall have no

portion in the Hereafter (Jannah). Neither will Allah
speak to them, nor look at them on the Day of
Resurrection, nor will He purify them, and they shall
have a painful torment.) (3:77)
12) It commands humans to take care of themselves and forbids
suicide, whether directly or indirectly, such as dealing with
intoxicants, drugs, cigarettes, and other things which modern
medicine has proven to be causes of harmful diseases. Allah (ρ)
(And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another).
Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you. * And whoever
commits that through aggression and injustice, We
shall cast him into the Fire, and that is easy for Allah.)
13) It commands truthfulness, trustworthiness, and the fulfilling
of oaths; and it forbids lying, deception and treachery. Allah (Ι)
(O you who believe! Betray not Allah and His
Messenger, nor betray knowingly your amaanaat
(things entrusted to you and all the duties which Allah
has ordained for you).) (8:27)
14) It commands love and unity, and it forbids disassociation
and all things which lead to hate and enmity, such as bearing
grudges, hatred, and envy. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Do not hate each other, do not envy each other, and
do not turn your backs on each other (i.e. boycott) but
rather be true slaves of Allah as brothers. It is
impermissible for a Muslim to boycott his brother
more than three days.” (Bukhari #5718 & Muslim


15) It commands generosity and forbids greed and miserliness.
Allah (Ι) says:
( And let not your hand be tied (like a miser) to your
neck, nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach (like a
spendthrift),so that you become blameworthy and in
severe poverty ) (17:29)
16) It commands one to be frugal in all matters and forbids
wastefulness and the squandering of money uselessly. Allah (Ι)
(And give to the near of kin his due and (to) the needy
and the wayfarer, and do not squander wastefully.
Surely the squanderers are the brothers of the Shaitans
and the Shaitan is ever ungrateful to his Lord.) (17:26-
17) It commands moderateness and forbids fanaticism and
extremism in religion. Allah (Ι) says:
(Allah intends for you ease and He does not want to
make things difficult for you.) (2:185)
The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Be aware and stay away from extremism in religion,
for indeed the only thing which destroyed those before
you was extremism in Religion.”
(Nasa’íe #3039 & ibn Maajah #3057 )
18) It commands humility and forbids pride and arrogance.
Allah (Ι) says:

(And be moderate (or show no insolence) in your
walking, and lower your voice. Verily, the harshest of
all voices is the voice (braying) of the ass.) (13:19)
About pride, the Prophet (ρ) said:
“He who has even a mustard seed’s worth of pride in
his heart will not enter Jannah.” A person asked, “O
Messenger of Allah, people like to wear nice clothes
and sandals.” He said, “Indeed Allah is Beautiful and
He loves beauty. Arrogance is to reject the truth and
belittle others.” (Muslim #91)
The Prophet (ρ) said about self-conceit:
“Whoever drags his clothes on the ground out of selfconceit, Allah will not look at him on the Day of
Resurrection.” (Bukhari #3465 & Muslim #2085)
19) It commands people to console others and not feel happy
about others’ grief. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Do not feel happy about your brother’s grief, it might
be that Allah will show mercy to him and put you
through a trial.” (Tirmidhi #2508)
20) It forbids Muslims from interfering in affairs which do not
concern them. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Indeed from the good traits of a true Muslim is that
he leaves that which does not concern him.”
(Tirmidhi #2317 & ibn Maajah #3976)
21) It commands respecting people and forbids debasing them
and holding them in contempt. Allah (Ι) says:

(O you who believe! Let not a group scoff at another
group, it may be that the latter are better than the
former; nor let (some) women scoff at other women, it
may be that the latter are better than the former. And
do not defame one another, nor insult one another by
nicknames.) (49:11)
22) It commands one to jealously protect and guard one’s
, and it forbids cuckoldry (i.e. the person is not
protective of his relatives and turns a blind eye to their
. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Three will not enter Jannah: one who maltreats his
parents, a cuckold (Day’youth) and women who act like
men.” (Nasa’ie #2562)
23) It prohibits resembling members of the opposite sex. Ibn
‘Abbaas (τ) said:
“The Messenger of Allah (ρ) cursed those men who
imitate women and those women who imitate men.”
(Bukhari #5546)
24) It commands that people exert efforts in doing good to
others, and it forbids that they remind them of their favors
upon them. Allah’s (Ι) says:
(O you who believe! Do not render in vain your
Sadaqah (charity) by reminders of your generosity or
by injury.) (2:264)
25) It commands thinking good about others, and it forbids
suspicion and backbiting. Allah (Ι) says:

1 Maharim: Those relatives who are forbidden for a person to marry
due to their closeness in blood relations, like mothers, sisters, aunts,
or suckling or marriage ties etc.

(O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion, indeed
some suspicions are sins. And spy not, neither backbite
one another. Would one of you like to eat the flesh of
his dead brother? You would hate it (so hate
backbiting). And fear Allah. Verily, Allah is the One
Who accepts repentance, Most Merciful.) (49:12)
26) It commands that one guards his tongue from all evil talk,
and that he use it for good and beneficial things which would
benefit himself and his society; such as remembering Allah, and
reconciliation between people. Likewise, it forbids the
individual to use it in evil. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“May your mother lose you O Mu‘adh! Are
people thrown into the Hellfire on their faces or
nostrils except for what their tongues reaped?”
(Tirmidhi #2616 & ibn Maajah #373)
27) It commands with well-treatment of the neighbor and
forbids harming them. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“By Allah he is not a true believer! By Allah he is not a
true believer! By Allah he is not a true believer!” It was
said, “And who is he, O Messenger of Allah?” He
replied, “Him whose neighbor is not safe from his evil.”
(Bukhari #5670)
28) It commands that one seek righteous companions and
forbids that one seek evil companions. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“The example of a righteous and evil companion is like
one who carries perfume and another who is a
blacksmith. As for the one who carries perfume, he will
either give you some perfume, you might buy some, or
[at least] you will find a pleasing scent with him. As for

the blacksmith, either he (the blacksmith) will burn his
clothes, or you will find a hideous odor from him.”
( Bukhari #1995 & Muslim #2628)
29) It orders people to settle their disputes and prohibits
anything which leads to enmity and hatred. Allah (Ι) says:
(There is no good in most of their secret talks save (in)
him who orders Sadaqah (charity in Allah’s Cause), or
Ma’roof (Islamic Monotheism and all the good and
righteous deeds which Allah has ordained), or
conciliation between mankind, and he who does this,
seeking the good Pleasure of Allah, We shall give him a
great reward.) (4:114)
30) It orders that people be sincere to each other [by giving
good advice] and forbids that advice be withheld when it is
sought. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“The religion is sincere counseling.” We asked, “To
whom?” He replied, “To Allah, to His Book, to His
Messenger, and to the leaders of the Muslims and their
general folk.” (Muslim #55)
31) It orders people to help relieve worries of Muslims, to give
them respite [in paying back debts] and to conceal their faults.
The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Whoever relieves some worry of a believer, Allah will
relieve a worry of his on the Day of Requital. Whoever
makes things easy for one in times of hardship [by
giving respite to one who is not able to pay back a debt]
Allah will make things easy upon him in this life and
the next. And whoever conceals the faults of a Muslim,
Allah will conceal his faults in this life and in the

Hereafter. Allah helps his slave as long as he helps his
brother.” (Muslim #2699)
32) It orders that one have patience and fortitude in times of
hardships, and forbids that one become worried and discontent.
Allah (Ι) says:
(And certainly, We shall test you with something of
fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give
glad tidings to As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.). Who,
when afflicted with calamity, say: “Truly! To Allah we
belong and truly, to Him we shall return. They are
those on whom are the Salawat (i.e. blessings, etc.) (i.e.
who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord,
and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is
they who are the guided-ones.) (2:155-157)

33) It orders one to forgive, pardon, and turn away from one
who does evil to him, and forbids that one seek revenge and
retribution. Allah (Ι) says:
(And march forth in the way (which leads to)
forgiveness from your Lord, and for Jannah as wide as
the heavens and the earth, prepared for Al-Muttaqoon
(the pious). Those who spend [in Allah’s Cause – deeds
of charity, alms, etc.] in prosperity and in adversity,
who repress anger, and who pardon men; verily, Allah
loves Al-Muhsinoon (the good doers).) (3:133-134)
34) It commands mercy and it forbids cold-heartedness. The
Prophet (ρ) said:
“Allah shows mercy to those who show mercy. Show
mercy to those on earth, and Allah will be merciful to
you.” (Abu Dawood #4941 & Tirmidhi #1924)

35) It commands people to be kind and lenient to each other,
and it forbids harshness. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Nothing is done with kindness except that it is
beautified, and nothing is devoid of kindness except
that it is flawed.” (Muslim #2594)
36) It commands that one return evil with good, and forbids that
one reciprocate evil with evil. Allah (Ι) says:
(Repel (the evil) with one which is better (i.e. Allah
ordered the faithful believers to be patient at the time
of anger, and to excuse those who treat them badly):
then verily he, between whom and you there was
enmity, (will become) as though he was a close friend.)
37) It commands the spreading of knowledge and forbids
concealing it. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Whoever was asked about knowledge but conceals it,
he will be brought on the Day of Resurrection muzzled
with the leashes of Hellfire.”
(Abu Dawood #3658 & Tirmidhi #2649 )
38) It commands that Muslims enjoin virtue and righteousness
and prevent evil and vice, each according to his ability. The
Prophet (ρ) said:
“Whoever of you sees an evil act, let him change it with
his hand, if he is not able, then with his tongue, and if
he is not able, then with his heart, and that is the lowest
branch of Iman.” (Muslim #49)

Some Prohibitions Concerning Food, Drink and
1) Wine and all other drugs which come under this heading,
whether ingested, inhaled or injected. Allah (Ι) says:
(O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic
drinks) gambling, Al Ansaab, and Al Azlaam (arrows
for seeking luck or decision) are an abomination of
Shaytaan’s (Satan) handiwork. So avoid (strictly all)
that (abomination) in order that you may be successful.
Shaytaan (Satan) wants only to excite enmity and
hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks)
and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance
of Allah and from As-Salaat (the prayer). So, will you
not then abstain?) (5:90-91)
2) Eating the meat of carrion, pigs, and all other things
mentioned in Allah’s (ρ) words:
(Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maytatah (the dead
animals – cattle-beast not slaughtered), blood, the flesh
of swine, and the meat of that which has been
slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah, or has
been slaughtered for idols, etc., or on which Allah’s
Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering, and
that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent
blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the smiting of horns –
and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal

  • unless you are able to slaughter it (before its death)
    and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An Nusub
    (stone altars). (Forbidden) also is to use arrows seeking

luck or decision, (all) that is Fisqun (disobedience of
Allah and sin).) (5:3)
3) Eating things over which the Name of Allah was not
pronounced intentionally, or that over which other than the
Name of Allah was pronounced upon slaughtering. Allah (ρ)
says: (Eat not (O believers) of that (meat) on which Allah’s
Name has not been pronounced (at the time of the
slaughtering of the animal), for sure it is Fisq (a sin and
disobedience of Allah).) (6:121)
4) Eating animals which have canine teeth, such as lions,
leopards, wolves and the like, as well as birds which have
talons, like eagles, falcons, hawks etc. Ibn ‘Abbaas said:
“The Prophet (ρ) forbade us from [eating] any
carnivorous animal which has canine teeth, and every
bird which has talons [with which it catches its prey].”
(Muslim #1934)
5) What was slaughtered by other than the Jews and the
Christians. It is considered carrion and it is impermissible to
6) Any food or drink which is apparently harmful to one’s
body, such as cigarettes and the like; they are impermissible.
Allah (ρ) says:
(And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely,
Allah is Most Merciful to you.) (4:29)
7) Wearing silk, gold, and silver for men; they are permissible
for women. The Prophet (ρ) said: “The wearing of silk and
gold has been permitted for the women of my nation but not
for its men.” (Ahmad #19662)
It is allowed for men to wear silver rings, belts, and have
decoration on weaponry.

Various Supplications, Words of Remembrance,
and Islamic Etiquettes
1) Mention the name of Allah [by saying Bismillaah] before
you start eating or drinking, and thank Allah [by saying
Alhamdulillaah] upon finishing. You should eat from what is in
front of you and you must eat with your right hand, for the left
hand is mainly used to clean what is abhorred (like cleaning
oneself after relieving himself).
‘Umar bin Abi Salamah (τ) said: “When I was a young boy, I
was in the care of the Messenger of Allah (ρ) and my hand was
wandering all over the plate [while eating]. So the Messenger of
Allah (ρ) said to me,
“Young boy, mention the name of Allah [before you
start to eat], eat with your right hand, and eat from
what is in front of you.” (Bukhari #5061 & Muslim

My First Steps in Islam PDF english islamic book

2) Never be critical of food, no matter how it is. Abu Hurairah
(τ) said:
“The Messenger of Allah (ρ) never criticized food at
all. If he liked it he ate it, and if he did not, he left it.”
(Bukhari #3370 & Muslim #2064)
3) Do not enter the houses except after seeking permission [by
knocking or the like]. Allah (Ι) says:
(O you who believe! Enter not houses other than your
own, until you have sought permission and greeted
those in them.) (24:27)

Do not persist in seeking permission [more than thrice]. The
Prophet (ρ) said:
“One should seek permission thrice. If he grants you
permission, [then enter] and if not, go back.”
(Muslim #2153)
5) Greet both those you know and those you do not know [by
saying ‘As-Salaamu ‘alaykum] for love and friendship would
result from this. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“You will never enter Jannah until you believe, and
you will never believe fully until you love each other.
Shall I not inform you of something that if you do it,
you will love each other? Greet one another with
(Muslim #54)
6) If someone greets you with Salaam, return him the same
greeting or one that is better.1
Allah (Ι) says:
(When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return
with what is better than it or (at least) return it equally.
Certainly, Allah is Ever a Careful Account Taker of all
things.) (4:86)
7) When you feel like yawning, you should try to suppress
yourself as much as possible. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Yawning is from the Shaytaan. When one of you feels
like yawning, let him suppress it as much as he can.

If someone says “As-Salaamu alaykum,” respond with, “wa
‘alaykum As-Salaam,” at the very least. It is better to add, “wa
Rahmatullaah,” and even further, “wa Barakaatuh.”

And if one of you yawns making sound, “Aahh!”
Shaytaan laughs.” (Bukhari #3115)
If he is unable to suppress it, he should cover his mouth with
his right palm. If he uses his left hand, he should either use its
back, or make a fist and use the circle composed of his index
finger and thumb.
8) When you sneeze, say, “Alhamdulillaah.” If another
Muslim sneezes and says, “Alhamdulillaah,” you should reply
by saying, “Yarhamuk-Allah (may Allah have mercy on
you).” If someone replies to you by saying, “YarhamukAllah,” reply to him by saying, “Yahdeekumullaah wa
yuslihu baalakum (may Allah guide you and better your
affairs).” The Prophet (ρ) said:
“When one of you sneezes, let him say,
‘Alhamdulillaah,’ his brother or companion should say
to him, ‘Yarhamuk-Allahu,’ and the one who sneezed
should say, ‘Yahdeekumullaah wa yuslihu baalakum.’
” (Bukhari #5870)
If a disbeliever says, “Alhamdulillah,” you should reply
saying, “Yahdeekumullaah (may Allah guide you),” only.
(Abu Dawood #5038 & Tirmidhi #2739)
Abu Hurairah (τ) related, that whenever the
Messenger of Allah (ρ) sneezed, he would put his hand
or his clothes in front of his mouth and lower his voice
[in doing so]. (Abu Dawood #5870)
9) Do not burp in public. Ibn ‘Umar (τ) said:
“A man burped while in the company of the Messenger
of Allah (ρ), and he said to him: ‘Save us from your

burping, for the most satiated in this life will be hungry
for the longest time on the Day of Resurrection.’
(Tirmidhi #2478)
10) If you joke, do not say anything to harm or ill-treat others.
The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Let not anyone take his brother’s things (to anger
him) seriously or jokingly.” (Abu Dawood 5003 &
Tirmidhi #2160)
Do not let your joking be untrue, leading you to lie to make
others laugh. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Woe to the one who lies in his speech to make people
laugh, woe to him! woe to him!”
(Abu Dawood #4990 & Tirmidhi #2315))
11) When you wish to sleep, mention the Name of Allah and lie
down on your right side. Hudhayfah ibn al-Yamaan said:
“When the Prophet (ρ) would retreat to his bed, he
would say:
‘Bismika amootu wa ahyaa.’
Meaning: With your Name I die and I live.
Upon awaking, he would say:
‘Alhamdu-lillaah-illadhi ahyaanaa ba’da maa
amaatanaa wa ilayh-in-nushoor.’ ” (Bukhari #5953)
Meaning: All praise is due to Allah, Who gives us live
after He has caused us to die and to Him will be the

12) When you go to your wives [to have marital relations], say:
“Bismillaah. Allahumma jannibnash-Shaytaan, wa
jannib-ish-Shaytaana maa razaqtanaa.”
Meaning: “I begin with the Name of Allah. O Allah, keep
the Shaytaan away from us, and keep the Shaytaan away
from what you grant us [from offspring].”
The Prophet (ρ) said:
“If someone says when he approached his wife (before
sexual intercourse), ‘I begin with the Name of Allah. O
Allah, keep the Shaytaan away from us, and keep the
Shaytaan away from what you grant us [from
offspring],’ if Allah grants them a child he (the
Shaytaan)would not harm him.”
(Bukhari #141 & Muslim #1434)
Also, keep whatever takes place between you and your
partner private. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Indeed from the worst of people on the Day of
Resurrection is one who has marital relations with his
wife and then spreads her private matters.”
(Muslim #1437)
13) Upon leaving your home, say the following supplication.
The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Whoever says, meaning upon leaving his home:
‘Bismillaahi, tawakkaltu ‘ala Allahi, laa hawla wa laa
quwwata illaa billaah.’

Meaning: I begin with the Name of Allah, I put my trust in
Allah, there is no ability or might except with Allah.’
…it will be said to him, ‘Your affair has been taken care
of, you have been protected [from all evil], and the
Shaytaan moves away from him.” (Tirmidhi #3426 &
Abu Dawood #5095)
14) When you visit the sick, invoke the supplication which has
been narrated from the Prophet (ρ). When he would visit the ill,
he would sit close to his head and say the following seven
“Asalullaah al-‘Adheem, Rabb al-‘Arsh il-‘Adheem an
Meaning: I beseech Allah, the Magnificent, the Lord of the
Magnificent Throne, that He cures you.
He said:
“If Allah has written for him to live longer, he will be
cured from this sickness.” (Saheeh ibn Hibbaan #2975)
15) When you enter the toilet, enter with your left foot and say:
“Bismillah Allahumma inni a’uthu bika min al-kubthi
Meaning: I begin with the Name of Allah, O Allah, I seek
refuge in you from the male and female Devils.
(Bukhari #142 & Muslim #375)
When you leave the toilet, exit with your right foot and say:
Meaning: I seek your forgiveness.

(Abu Dawood #30 & ibn Maajah #300)

Brotherly Advice
1) Know that upon entering the folds of Islam, Allah has
effaced all your previous sins and evil deeds. The Prophet (ρ)
“Do you not know that Islam effaces all that is done
before it?” (Muslim #121)
Rather, the evil deeds you committed before you entered
Islam are changed into good deeds by the Bounty of Allah.
Allah (Ι) says:
(And those who invoke not any other ilaah (god) along
with Allah, nor kill such life as Allah has forbidden,
except for just cause, nor commit illegal sexual
intercourse and whoever does this shall receive the
punishment. * The torment will be doubled to him on
the Day of Resurrection, and he will abide therein in
disgrace. * Except those who repent and believe (in
Islamic Monotheism), and do righteous deeds, for
those, Allah will change their sins into good deeds, and
Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (25:68-70)
Listen to this good news from Allah (Ι). Those who embrace
this religion from the People of the Book will be given double
reward, due to their belief in their Messenger and their belief in
Muhammad (ρ). Allah says:
(Those to whom We gave the Scripture [i.e. the
Tawraah and the Injeel, etc.] before it, – they believe in

it (the Qur`an). And when it is recited to them, they
say: ‘We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our
Lord. Indeed even before it we have been from those
who submit themselves to Allah in Islam as Muslims
(like ‘Abdullah bin Salaam and Salmaan Al-Faarisi,
etc.).These will be given their reward twice over,
because they are patient, and repel evil with good, and
spend (in charity) out of what We have provided them.)
The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Whoever accepts Islam from the people of the two
Books (the Jews and Christians) they will have a
double reward. They will receive the rights we enjoy,
and they must give the rights we give. And whoever
accepts Islam from the pagans [other than them] will
have their reward, and they will receive the rights we
enjoy, and they must give the rights we give.” (Ahmad


Your records are white and clean, so be careful not to taint it
by doing any sins.
2) Now that you know the truth, set aside a part of your time to
learn your religion. The Messenger of Allah (ρ) said:
“If Allah desires good for a person, He gives him
understanding of the religion.”
(Bukhari #71 & Muslim #1037)
Seek the knowledge of ‘Aqeedah (Creed) and then study
everything else you need in your daily life about your religion,
such as Tahaarah, Salah, and the rest. You should also study

the rulings of trade and the rulings pertaining to your source of
livelihood, so that you do not unintentionally fall into things
which are impermissible. Also, try your best to memorize the
Book of Allah.
You should understand your religion from its proper and
trusted sources, the Book of Allah and the authentic Sunnah of
His Messenger (ρ).
Your example should be Muhammad (ρ) learn his biography
so that you can emulate him. Try your best to be in the
company of the scholars and students of knowledge who
practice what they preach.
Be advised that not everyone who claims to be a Muslim is a
true Muslim. Therefore, you should be careful who you seek
knowledge from. Whatever you read or hear should be
scrutinized in light of the Qur’an and Sunnah of the Prophet (ρ)
(The Sunnah should be understood in light of the understanding
of the Pious Predecessors). The Prophet (ρ) said:
“I advise you with the taqwaa of Allah, hearing and
obeying even to an Ethiopian slave with amputated
limbs (if he be your leader). For indeed whoever lives
long amongst you will see many differences. So adhere
to my Sunnah, and the Sunnah of the Rightly Guided
Caliphs. Hold tight and cling on to it with your molar
teeth. And beware of innovated matters [in religion],
for indeed every innovated matter is an Bid’ah, and
every Bid’ah is misguidance.” ( Abu Dawood #4607,
Tirmidhi #2676 & ibn Majaah #42)
Whatever is in accordance with his Sunnah take it, and
whatever opposes it, leave it. The Prophet (ρ) said:

“The Jews split into seventy-one sects, one is in Jannah
and seventy are in the Hellfire. The Christians split
into seventy-two sects, seventy-one are in the Hellfire
and one is in Jannah. By Allah, my Ummah (nation)
will be split into seventy-three sects, one will be in
Jannah and seventy-two will be in Hellfire.” It was
said, “O Messenger of Allah, who are they?” He
answered, “The Jamaa‘ah1
.” (Abu Dawood #4596 &
ibn Maajah #3993)
3) Al-Wala and Al-Bara. You must love and stand with the
believers, and hate the disbelievers and take them as enemies.
But to hate them does not mean to oppress and transgress
against them or usurp their rights. You should not hate them
merely for their selves, but rather due to their disbelief and
misguidance. This should encourage you to do your utmost to
help save them from the Hellfire. Do not prefer disbelievers
over Muslims, and do not help them against Muslims. Allah (Ι)
(The believers, men and women, are Awliyaa´ (helpers,
supporters, friends, allies, protectors) of one another.)
4) Know that whoever accepts Islam would face opposition,
disagreement and harm, especially from those closest to them.
You should keep this in mind and know that if you are
oppressed in any way, this would elevate your rank, purify your
sins, and would serve as a test through which Allah is trying
you to see the extent of your truthfulness and steadfastness on
your religion. Allah (Ι) says:

Jamaa’ah: The group (i.e. those who stick to the way of the Prophet
(ρ) and his companions).

(Do people think that they will say: ‘We believe,’ and
will not be tested. We indeed tested those who were
before them. * And Allah will certainly make (it)
known (the truth of) those who are true, and will
certainly make (it) known (the falsehood of) those who
are liars, (although Allah knows all that before putting
them to test.) (29:2-3)
Also, the Prophet (ρ) was asked:
“Which people are the most tested?” He replied, “The
Prophets, then the righteous, then those after them,
and then those after them. Every person is tried
according to the strength of his religion, if his religion
is strong, he is tested more, and if his religion is weak,
his trial is lessened. A person continues to be tested and
tried until he walks on the earth totally free of sin (for
they would be effaced due to the trials).” (Tirmidhi

My First Steps in Islam PDF english islamic book 2398 & ibn Majaah #4023 )

Know that they will try to raise doubts in your mind about
Islam and constantly mention these doubts to you. Ask the
People of Knowledge, so that you may find a proper reply to
these doubts, from the Qur’an and the Sunnah.
5) Calling to the religion of Allah (Da’wah) and his authentic
Sunnah. You must be knowledgeable to what you call people
to. In this manner, the doubts that the enemies of Islam bring
about can be easily answered. Give Da’wah as Allah says:
(Invite (mankind, O Muhammad ρ) to the Way of your
Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine
Inspiration and the Qur’an) and fair preaching, and
argue with them in the best way. Truly, your Lord

knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He
is the Best Aware of those who are guided.) (16:125)
Save others from the Hellfire, just as Allah saved you from it,
and start with those closest to you. Be mindful of the words of
the Prophet (ρ):
“Allah did not send me to make things hard…rather as
a teacher and to make things easy.” (Muslim #1478)
Know that there is much good and great Bounty from Allah in
helping a person to become Muslim, The Messenger of Allah
(ρ) said to ‘Ali (τ):
“If Allah guides a person through you, it is better for
you than all that is on the earth.” (Bukhari #2783 &
Muslim #2406)
You will receive the same reward as all those who have been
guided through you, without their reward being decreased in the
least. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Whoever calls to guidance, he will receive an
additional reward equal to those who follow him,
without their rewards being reduced in the least.
Whoever calls to misguidance, he will receive the sin of
those who follow him, without their punishment being
reduced in the least.” (Muslim #2674)
Know that conveying this religion to non-Muslims and calling
them to it is a duty upon every Muslim, so do not fall short in
doing this duty. The Messenger of Allah (ρ) said:
“Convey to others (the religion), even if it be one
verse.” (Tirmidhi #2669)

You should make people love the religion of Allah. The
Prophet (ρ) said:
“Give glad tidings, and do not cause people to flee from
the religion; make things easy for people and don’t
make things hard.” (Bukhari #69 & Muslim#1732)
Know that in calling others to Islam, you are not responsible
for the results, for your calling is restricted to merely clarifying
and showing people the way to the truth. Allah (Ι) says:
(And verily, you (O Muhammad ρ) are indeed guiding
(mankind) to the Straight Path (i.e. Allah’s religion of
Islamic Monotheism). The Path of Allah, to Whom
belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the
earth. Verily, all the matters at the end go to Allah (for
decision).) (42:52-53)
As for the guidance by which one actually practices Islam,
this is from Allah alone. Allah (Ι) says:
(Verily! You (O Muhammad ρ) guide not whom you
like, but Allah guides whom He wills. And He knows
best those who are the guided.) (28:56)
6) Try to choose righteous companions who encourage and help
you to do good, warn and prevent you from doing evil, and will
be a support for you in your life. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“The example of a righteous and evil companion is like
one who carries perfume and another who is a
blacksmith. As for the one who carries perfume, either
he will give you some perfume, or you might buy it, or
[at least] you will find a pleasing scent with him. As for
the blacksmith, either he (the blacksmith) will burn his
clothes, or he will find a hideous odor from him.”

(Bukhari #1995 & Muslim #2628)
7) Be careful not to go to extremes in the religion. There is
neither monasticism nor fanaticism in the religion. Allah says:
(Allah intends for you ease and He does not want to
make things difficult for you.) (2:185)
Anas bin Maalik (τ) said:
Three people came to the houses of the wives of the
Prophet (ρ) asking about the worship of the Prophet
(ρ). When they were informed, they thought it was too
little and said, “Who are we in comparison to the
Prophet (ρ) for indeed Allah has forgiven him his past
and future sins.” One of them said, “As for me, I will
pray the whole night long.” Another said, “I will fast
every day without breaking it,” and yet another said,
“I will stay away from women and never marry.” The
Messenger of Allah (ρ) came [and when he heard of
this, he] said, “Are you the people who said such and
such? As for me, By Allah, indeed I am the most godfearing and most cautious amongst you, but I fast and I
eat, I pray and I sleep, and I marry women. Whoever
desires other than my Sunnah (Way), then he is not
from me.” (Bukhari #4776)
On the other hand, there should be no compromising or
improper lenience in the religion of Allah. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Leave me to what I have ordered you. Indeed those
before you were destroyed due to their [persistent]
questioning, and opposing their Prophets. If I forbid
you from something, abstain from it, and if I command
you with something, do of it as much as possible.”
(Bukhari #6858 & Muslim#1337)

8) You will see many Muslims who do not fulfill their
obligations and do not refrain from the prohibitions of the
religion. They do not fulfill their obligations towards the
Da’wah. People differ in this; such that some fulfill their
obligations in a more complete way than others. In any case, the
reason one does not fulfill these obligations is due to the fact
that Shaitan is trying his utmost to misguide the Children of
Adam. Allah, the Exalted, says:
([Iblees (Satan)] said: ‘By Your Might, then I will
surely mislead them all.) (32:82)
Shaitan has promised to exert all his efforts to mislead the
Children of Adam. Allah, the Exalted, says:
(And surely, We created you (your father Adam) and
then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human
being), then We told the angels, ‘Prostrate to Adam’,
and they prostrated, except Iblees (Satan), he refused to
be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: ‘What
prevented you (O Iblees) that you did not prostrate,
when I commanded you?’ Iblees said: ‘I am better than
him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You
created from clay.’ (Allah) said: ‘(O Iblees) get down
from this (Jannah), it is not for you to be arrogant here.
Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.’
(Iblees) said: ‘Allow me respite till the Day they are
raised up (i.e. the Day of Resurrection).’ (Allah) said:
‘You are of those allowed respite.’ (Iblees) said:
‘Because You have sent me astray, surely I will sit in
wait against them (human beings) on Your Straight
Path. Then I will come to them from before them and
behind them, from their right and from their left, and
You will not find most of them as thankful ones (i.e.
they will not be dutiful to You).’ (Allah) said (to Iblees)

‘Get out from this (Jannah) disgraced and expelled.
Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then
surely I will fill Hell with you all.) (32:82)
Do not be discouraged from fulfilling your duty in the field of
Da’wah to the religion of Allah; let this be an incentive to
yourself to strive in spreading the religion of Allah.
9) Practice Islamic conduct in your daily life; such as helping
someone who is in need whether you know him or not, and
smiling in the face of your brother. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Smiling in the face of your brother is a charity,
enjoining good and prohibiting evil is a charity,
showing someone the way when he is lost is a charity,
helping the weak-sighted is a charity, removing a rock,
a thorn, or bones from the path is a charity, and
pouring water from your bucket into the bucket of
your brother is a charity. (Tirmidhi #1956)
Your clothes and all your things should be clean. A Muslim
must always be clean, for his religion is the religion of
cleanliness. Allah (Ι) says:
(O Children of Adam! Take your adornment (by
wearing your clean clothes), while praying.) (7:31)
You should try to do as many good deeds as possible, such as
giving charity, performing supererogatory prayers and other
acts of worship.
When one performs these deeds [mentioned above] they are
giving indirect Da’wah to the Muslims who are heedless of
their religion. They are also giving Da’wah to the non-Muslims;
since they would become curious and ask about Islam when
they see its beautiful aspects.

Treat your relatives well, and do not sever your relationship
with them even if they oppose your acceptance of Islam. You
should have better relations with your relatives, in order to
bring them closer to Islam. They would also know that after you
became a Muslim, your manners improved and you became a
better person. Asmaa´ (τ) said:
“My mother, who was a pagan during the life of the
Messenger of Allah (ρ), came to visit me, so I asked the
Messenger of Allah (ρ): ‘My mother has come to visit
me…should I keep ties with my mother?’ He (ρ) said:
‘Yes, keep your ties of relation with your mother.’ ”
(Bukhari #2477 & Muslim #1003)
10) Know that the struggle between good and evil will last till
the Last Day. The weakness of the Muslims and the strength of
the disbelievers, the minority of Muslims and the majority of
the disbelievers, the backwardness of the Muslims and the
advancement of the disbelievers, the humility of the Muslims
and the might of the disbelievers are not evidences indicating
the falseness of Islam. It is a definite result of their distance
from implementing the legislation of their Lord and their
abandoning righteous deeds and calling to the path of Allah.
‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (τ), the second Khaleefah (Caliph)
“We are a people who Allah honored and gave might
through Islam. If we seek honor in something else, Allah
would humiliate us. The truth should be followed, for indeed
Allah created Jannah and Hell, and He has promised that
each one will be filled.”
11) Know my brother that we are in the last of times (the Last
Day is near) and that each year that passes, we come closer to

the end of the world and the establishing of the Final Hour. The
Prophet (ρ) said:
‘I myself and the Hour have been raised like these
two,’ and he joined his index and middle fingers.”
(Bukhari #4652 & Muslim #867)
The Prophet (ρ) foretold the state of Islam [and Muslims] in
this time. He (ρ) said:
“Islam started as a strange thing and it shall once again
return to this state. So may glad tidings be to the
strangers.” (Muslim #145)
Having many followers is not a proof of the correctness of a
methodology. The Prophet (ρ) said:
“Glad tidings to the strangers! Glad tidings to the
strangers! Glad tidings to the strangers!” Someone
asked, “Who are the strangers O Messenger of Allah?”
He said, “Righteous people amongst many evil ones.
Those who disobey them are more than those who
obey.” (Ahmad #7072)
He also clarified the state in which the Muslim who holds on
to his religion will be, and the various hardships he will face [in
practicing his religion] whether physical or psychological. The
Prophet (ρ) said:
“Enjoin the good and forbid the evil, but when you see
that greed is obeyed, desires followed, the life of this
world playing its affect on people, and that people are
pleased with their own opinions, stick to yourselves and
leave commanding the general public with good, for

indeed there will be days after you, having patience in
them is like grasping a hot coal. One who does
righteous deeds in them will receive the reward of fifty
people doing the same deed.” ( Saheeh ibn Hibbaan)
The Prophet (ρ) informed us that when the Day of
Resurrection draws near, the religion would diminish. No
person who says “Laa ilaaha ill-Allah” will remain on the face
of Earth. Only the most evil of creation will remain, and upon
them will the Final Hour be established.
Nawwaas ibn Sam‘aan narrated the Hadeeth of the Prophet
(ρ) in which he describes the story of the Dajjaal (PseudoChrist) the descending of ‘Eesaa ibn Maryam, and the coming
of Ya’jooj wa Ma’jooj (Gog and Magog) saying:
“… then Allah will send a good and pure wind which
will take them underneath their armpits. It will take
the soul of every Mu´min and Muslim, and only the
most evil of people will remain. They will engage in sex
in public in front of people like donkeys, and upon
them the Hour will strike.” (Muslim #2937)
12) Know that all affairs are judged by the way they end, so be
keen to always ask Allah that He keeps you steadfast upon
Islam, and that He causes you to die with a good end. Make
sure your speech and deeds are purely for Allah’s sake, that
they are done according to what He legislated, and that you
spend your time in Allah’s (ρ) obedience. Take account of
yourself, before you are taken to account, and let Allah see you
doing what He commanded not what He forbade.
May Allah keep us steadfast on His religion, and cause us to
die as Muslims.