Islamic Book PDF The Fasting of Ramadan

Islamic Book PDF The Fasting of Ramadan

Bid’ah (Innovation)
1) The Islamic definition of Bid’ah.
2) General rules to recognise Bid’ah.
3) The dangers of Bid’ah and their evil effects.
4) Claimed ‘evidences’ of the innovators and their
refutations.
5) Reasons for innovating.
6) Ways to eradicate Bid’ah.
7) Related Qur’anic verses.
8) Related Ahaadeeth.
9) Related words of the Salaf.
10) Related stories.
The Islamic definition of Bid’ah:
Imaam Ash-Shaafi’i, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said:
“A Bid’ah is anything that has no basis in the Qur’aan,
Sunnah or sayings of any of the companions.”
x Ibn Al-Jawzi, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “A
Bid’ah is any form of worship that did not exist (at the
time of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and
his companions) then later it was innovated.”
x Ibn Rajab, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “A
Bid’ah is any form of worship which has no basis in the
Sharee’ah which would warrant its legislation.”
x Ash-Shaatibi, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said:
“(A Bid’ah) is any matter which closely resembles the
Sharee’ah and is intended to be a way of worshipping
Allaah.”
General rules to recognise Bid’ah:
x Any act of worship is based on a fabricated Hadeeth is a
Bid’ah, like the prayer in the month of Rajab which is
called the prayer of Raghaa’ib.
x Any act of worship which the Prophet sallallaahu
‘alayhi wa sallam did not perform, although there were
no preventing factors is a Bid’ah, like uttering the
intention before beginning the prayer, calling Adhaan for
any prayer other than the five obligatory ones or praying
after finishing Sa’y between mount Safaa and Marwah.
x Any habitual act performed with the intention of
pleasing Allaah which Islaam did not consider as an act
or worship is a Bid’ah, such as for example: wearing
coarse woollen clothes, continuous silence, refraining
from eating bread or meat, not drinking cold water or
standing in the sun.
x Performing prohibitions acts with the intention of
pleasing Allaah is a Bid’ah, such as singing songs about
Him.
Moreover, all acts of worship must be performed in
exactly the same manner as the Prophet sallallaahu
‘alayhi wa sallam did them. This cannot be achieved
unless the following six conditions are fulfilled:

  1. The act of worship must coincide with the
    Sharee’ah in the reason for which it is done, or else
    it would be rejected. Therefore, celebrating AlMawlid is a Bid’ah because it is performed as a
    rewardable act, despite the fact that it has not been
    legislated.
  2. The act of worship must coincide with the
    Sharee’ah in its category. Therefore, it is not
    acceptable if a person were to slaughter a horse
    instead of a camel or goat as a sacrifice after Hajj.
  3. The act of worship must coincide with the
    Sharee’ah its quantity. Therefore, if somebody
    were to add two Rak’ah to the Dhuhr prayer,
    making a total of six Rak’ah instead of four, this
    would be unacceptable as it would not be
    coinciding with the Sharee’ah in its quantity.
  4. The act of worship must coincide with the
    Sharee’ah in the manner in which it is performed.
    Therefore, if someone were to begin their wudoo’
    by washing their feet instead of their hands, then
    this act would be unacceptable.
  5. The act of worship must coincide with the
    Sharee’ah in the timing of its performance.
    Therefore, praying the Dhuhr prayer after sunset is
    unacceptable.
  6. The act of worship must coincide with the
    Sharee’ah in the place it which it is performed.
    Therefore, one cannot perform stand on a mountain
    other than ‘Arafah during Hajj.
    The dangers of Bid’ah and their evil effects:
    x Bid’ah is a pre-cursor to disbelief.
    x Making unfounded statements on behalf of Allaah.
    x Correcting the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam or
    claiming that he had deficiencies.
    x Dividing the Muslim nation.
    x Abandoning the Sunnah.
    x Igniting disputes among the Muslims.
    x Accusing the Prophet of not completely conveying the
    message of Islaam.
    x Competing with the Prophets in their prophethood.
    x Altering the religion.
    Claimed ‘evidences’ of the Innovators’ and their
    refutations:
    Claimed Evidence:
    x Jareer Ibn ‘Abdullaah Al-Bujali may Allaah be pleased
    with him, narrated that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi
    wa sallam said: “Whoever introduces a good practice in
    Islaam will get the reward of performing it and that of
    all those who perform it until the Day of Resurrection;
    Whoever introduces a bad practice in Islaam will get
    the punishment of performing it and that of all those
    who do it until the Day of Resurrection.” (Muslim).
    Refutation:
    x Imaam Ash-Shaatibi, may Allaah have mercy upon him,
    answered those who attempt to use this Hadeeth as
    evidence of the permissibility of innovating by saying:
    “Using this Hadeeth as an evidence (to innovate) implies
    that different evidences (Ahaadeeth) contradict one
    another (because in other Ahadeeth, the Prophet
    sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam unequivocally warned
    against innovating).” Then he said: “The context of this
    Hadeeth is that it was said in a situation where charity
    was being given, and charity is something already
    legislated. The proof of this is actually to be found in the
    very same Hadeeth, if you were to read it all, as Jareer
    Ibn ‘Abdullaah Al-Bujali, may Allaah be pleased with
    him, said: “We were with the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi
    wa sallam (in the Masjid) just after dawn one day when
    some people entered barefooted and clad in woollen
    matting (or covered with sleeveless woollen blankets)
    with their swords hung around their necks. Most of them
    belonged to the tribe of Mudhar. The face of the Prophet
    sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam turned pale due to their
    wretched condition. Then, the Prophet sallallaahu
    ‘alayhi wa sallam went into his house, re-emerged and
    commanded Bilaal to call the Adhaan, and the Iqaamah
    and then he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam led the
    prayer. After the prayer, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi
    wa sallam stood up and addressed people saying (that
    which translates as): “O mankind! Fear your Lord,
    who created you from one soul and created from it its
    mate and dispersed from both of them many men and
    women. And fear Allaah, through whom you ask one
    another, and the wombs. Indeed Allaah is ever, over
    you, an Observer.” (An-Nisaa’: 1) “O you who have
    believed! Fear Allaah. And let every soul look to what
    it has put forth for tomorrow – and fear Allaah.
    Indeed, Allaah is Acquainted with what you do.” (AlHashr: 18). Then, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa
    sallam said: “Give in charity from (what you possess
    of) Deenaars (gold coins) Dirhams (silver coins) a Saa’
    (a small measure of weight) of wheat or even a Saa’ of
    dates.” until he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:
    “Give, even if it as little as half a date” Thereupon, a
    man from the Ansaar (residents of Madeenah) came with
    a bag of food which was so heavy that it was difficult for
    him to carry. Thereafter, people came successively until
    I saw two huge piles of food and clothes, and the
    Prophet’s face was bright as a glittering golden coin
    (due to his happiness). Then the Messenger sallallaahu
    ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Whoever introduces a good
    practice in Islaam will get the reward of performing it
    and that of all those who perform it until the Day of
    Resurrection; Whoever introduces a bad practice in
    Islaam will get the punishment of performing it and
    that of all those who do it until the Day of
    Resurrection.””(Muslim).
    Therefore, it is obvious that this Hadeeth refers to deeds
    that are already legislated and proven to already exist in
    the religion, which in this case was charity given by a
    certain companion of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa
    sallam.
    Claimed Evidence:
    x ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with
    him, remarked upon seeing people playing Taraaweeh in
    congregation that: “This is a good Bid’ah.” (Bukhaari).
    Refutation:
    Imaam Ibn Rajab, may Allaah have mercy upon him,
    said: “Any words from the Salaf considering something
    as a good Bid’ah were meant in the linguistic and not
    the Islamic sense, such as the saying of ‘Umar, may
    Allaah be pleased with him, when he saw people praying
    Taraaweeh in congregation, that “This is a good
    Bid’ah.””
    Claimed Evidence:
    x Ibn Mas’ood, may Allaah be pleased with him, said:
    “What the Muslims see as good is good in the sight of
    Allaah and what they see as bad is bad in the sight of
    Allaah.” (Ahmad).
    Refutation:
    As-Sindi, may Allaah have mercy upon him said: “It is
    obvious that he was referring to the companions of the
    Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and he was
    talking exclusively about those things that they had a
    unanimous consensus on, it does not include others. This
    is besides the fact that these were the words of a
    companion and not the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa
    sallam.”
    Claimed Evidence:
    x Al-‘Izz Ibn ‘Abdus-Salaam, may Allaah have mercy
    upon him, divided Bid’ah into five categories:
    obligatory, recommended, permissible, disliked and
    prohibited.
    Refutation:
    Ash-Shaatibi, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said:
    “This categorisation of Bid’ah is something new which
    has no supportive evidence to it, moreover, it contradicts
    the definition of Bid’ah, because any deed which has an
    evidence which legislates it to be obligatory,
    recommended or allowed is by definition not an
    innovation, and it would have been included in the
    general recommendation of good deeds. Therefore,
    considering a matter to be a Bid’ah yet claiming the
    existence of an evidence to recommend it is a
    contradiction in terms.”
    Reasons behind innovations:
    x Ignorance of the religion of Islaam.
    x Following ones whims.
    x Clinging to doubts.
    x The sole use of ration with no reference to the Islamic
    texts (Qur’aan and Sunnah).
    x Islamic Scholars not fulfilling their expected role.
    x Dependence on weak or fabricated Ahaadeeth.
    x Extreme reactions to others errors.
    x The failure to limit ones understanding of the Islamic
    texts to that of the companions of the Prophet
    sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
    x Blind imitation of the masses.
    x Not following the instructions of sincere scholars.
    Ways to eradicate Bid’ah:
    x Warning against the dangers of Bid’ah a nd its evil
    effects.
    x Calling people to adhere to the Qur’aan and Sunnah,
    with the understanding of the Salaf.
    x Distinguishing between weak and the authentic
    Ahaadeeth.
    x Purifying the schools of jurisprudence from the
    innovation of fanaticism towards them.
    x Spreading knowledge and correcting the peoples
    understanding of faith, worship and financialtransactions.
    x Warning against and subduing the innovators.
    x Receiving knowledge from the correct sources; i.e., the
    sincere guided Islamic scholars.
    Related Qur’anic verses:
    x Allaah says that which translates as: “And do not be like
    those who became divided and differed after the clear
    proofs had come to them. And they will have a great
    punishment.” (Aal ‘Imraan: 105). Al-Qurtubi, may
    Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “This verse refers to
    the Jews and the Christians according to the majority of
    the scholars, but others have said that it refers to
    innovators within the Muslim nation.”
    x Allaah says that which translates as: “On the Day
    [some] faces will turn white and [some] faces will turn
    black, [to them it will be said]: ‘Did you disbelieve [i.e.,
    reject faith] after your belief? Then taste the
    punishment for what you used to reject.’” (Aal
    ‘Imraan: 106). Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with
    him, said concerning this verse: “The faces of the people
    who adhered to the Sunnah will turn white and bright,
    while the faces of the innovators will turn black and
    gloomy”. Al-Qurtubi, may Allaah have mercy upon him,
    said: “He who innovates or changes anything of the
    religion of Allaah will be amongst the black faced
    people who will be prevented from reaching the
    Prophet’s fountain and therefore prohibited from
    drinking from it”.
    x Allaah says that which translates as: “And whoever
    opposes the Messenger after guidance has become
    clear to him and follows other than the way of the
    believers – We will give him what he has taken [i.e.,
    make him responsible for his choice] and drive him
    into Hell, and evil it is as a destination.” (An-Nisaa’:
    115). Imaam Ibn Katheer, may Allaah have mercy upon
    him, said concerning this verse: “This refers to those
    who take a path other than the one which the Messenger
    sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came with; so they
    became on one side and the Sharee’ah on the other,
    despite the fact that the truth had become clear to them
    and they knew this.”
    x Allaah says that which translates as: “…This day I have
    perfected for you your religion and completed My
    favour upon you and have approved for you Islaam as
    a religion…” (Al-Maa’idah: 3). Imaam Maalik, may
    Allaah have mercy upon him, said concerning this verse:
    “He who innovates a new Bid’ah in Islaam considering
    it to be something good is in effect claiming that
    Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not fully
    convey the message of Islaam… So whatever was not a
    part of the religion at that time (i.e., the time of the
    Prophet and his companions) cannot be considered as a
    part of the religion today.” Imaam Ibn Katheer, may
    Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “One of the greatest
    bounties from Allaah upon the Muslim nation is that He
    completed and perfected the religion of Islaam for them,
    so they have no need of any other religion or Prophet
    other than their Prophet. This is precisely why Allaah
    made Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam the seal
    of all Prophets and sent him to the Jinn as well as
    mankind. The only matters which are lawful are those
    that the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made
    lawful and the only matters which are unlawful are those
    which he made unlawful. The only things that can be
    considered as part of the religion of Islaam are those
    which he conveyed; and that which he did not convey
    can never and will never be part of the religion.
    Everything that the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa
    sallam said was true and correct without even a trace of
    error or dishonesty.”
    x Allaah says that which translates as: “And [Moreover],
    this is my path. Which is straight, so follow it; and do
    not follow [other] ways, for you will be separated from
    His way. This has He instructed you so that you may
    become righteous.” (Al-An’aam: 153). Mujaahid, may
    Allaah have mercy upon him, said concerning this verse:
    “The other ways mentioned are desires and
    innovations.” Ibn Mas’ood, may Allaah be pleased with
    him, was asked about ‘the straight path’, he replied:
    “Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam left us
    standing at its beginning and it ends in Paradise. There
    are fast horses on its right and its left (indicating the
    speed with which they would lead one to Hell) with men
    inviting those who pass by (on the straight path) to come
    with them; so whoever responds to their invitation will
    be lead rapidly into the Hellfire, and whoever remains
    on the straight path will be lead to Paradise.”
    x Allaah says that which translates as: “[They are] those
    whose effort is lost in worldly life, while they think they
    are doing well in work.” (Al-Kahf: 104) Imaam At-
    Tabari, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said
    concerning this verse: “‘It refers to anyone who did an
    act thinking it to be correct and something that was in
    obedience to Allaah and something that pleased him,
    while in reality, it was a way of disobeying Allaah and
    straying away from the path of the believers.”
    x Allaah says that which translates as: “So let those
    beware who dissent from his [i.e., the Prophet’s] order
    lest trials strike them or a painful punishment.” (AnNoor: 63) Imaam Ibn Katheer, may Allaah have mercy
    upon him, said concerning this verse: “It refers to those
    who differ from the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa
    sallam in any way, whether in his Sunnah, Sharee’ah or
    methodology. All words and deeds must be weighed
    according to his words and deeds, if they coincide then
    that is acceptable, otherwise, it will be rejected by
    Allaah regardless of who these words and deeds came
    from, as the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:
    “He who does something which is not according to
    what we (i.e., the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam
    and his companions) are upon, then it is rejected (by
    Allaah)” (Muslim).”

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  1. Related Ahaadeeth:
    x Anas Ibn Maalik, may Allaah be pleased with him,
    narrated that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam
    said: “Allaah does not accept the repentance of an
    innovator until he abandons his innovation” (AtTabaraani & Bayhaqi). Sufyaan Ath-Thawri, may Allaah
    have mercy upon him, said: “An innovation is dearer to
    Satan than a sin, for one can easily repent from a sin,
    but an innovation is not easily repented from (as an
    innovator thinks that he is on the correct path).”
    x Al-‘Irbaadh Ibn saariyah, may Allaah be pleased with
    him, narrated that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa
    sallam said: “He who lives long enough will see many
    things which he will not recognise, therefore, hold on
    to my Sunnah and that of the rightly guided caliphs
    who succeed me; bite onto it (i.e., my Sunnah) with
    your molars. Stay away from innovations, because
    every innovation is misguidance.” (Ahmad & Abu
    Daawood). Shaykh Al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, may
    Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “Anyone who
    performs an act which is neither compulsory nor
    recommended, and intends for this to be an act of
    worship, and believes it to be compulsory or
    recommended, is misguided and has innovated an evil
    Bid’ah according to the consensus of the Muslim
    scholars”. Ibn Rajab, may Allaah have mercy upon him,
    said: “Anything newly introduced into the religion with
    no basis or reference in the Qur’aan or Sunnah is a
    misguidance, and the religion of Islaam has nothing to
    do with it.”
    x ‘Aa’ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, narrated that
    the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “He who
    does something which is not according to what we (i.e.,
    the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his
    companions) are upon then it is rejected.” (Bukhaari &
    Muslim). Ibn Rajab, may Allaah have mercy upon him,
    said: “Anyone who attempts to draw nearer to Allaah
    (i.e. please Him) by performing an act which neither
    Allaah nor His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam
    legislated as an act which pleases Allaah, will have that
    act rejected by Him.”
    x ‘Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood, may Allaah be pleased with
    him, narrated that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa
    sallam said: “I will be ahead of you in reaching my
    fountain, and there will be people who will be
    prevented from reaching it, therefore, I will say: ‘My
    Lord! These are my followers!’ It will be said: ‘You do
    not know what they innovated and altered after you.’
    (i.e., after your death) Therefore, I will say: ‘Let those
    who altered (the religion) be kept away. (in a
    humiliated place).” (Bukhaari & Muslim).
    x ‘Abdullaah Ibn ‘Amr Ibn Al-‘Aas, may Allaah be pleased
    with him, narrated that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi
    wa sallam said: “It was mandatory upon each of the
    Prophets who came before me to guide their nations to
    all that was good for them, and warn them against all
    that was evil for them” (Muslim). It was asked of
    Salmaan Al-Faarisi, may Allaah be pleased with him:
    “Your Prophet taught you everything, even what to do
    when using the toilet?” he replied: “Yes, he forbade us
    from facing the Qiblah (direction of prayer), and to
    clean ourselves afterwards using the right hand…”
    (Muslim).
    x Abu Ad-Dardaa’, may Allaah be pleased with him,
    narrated that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam
    said: “I swear by Allaah that I have left you with it (i.e.,
    the religion) so clear that it is as clear at night as it is
    during the day (i.e., patently obvious) and only a
    doomed person will stray away from it.” (Ibn Maajah).
    x Abu Dharr, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: “The
    Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told us about
    everything before his death, even (something as
    seemingly insignificant as) the birds in the sky.”
    (Ahmad). Ash-Shaatibi, may Allaah have mercy upon
    him, said: “From this narration, we know that there is no
    room for anybody’s opinion in matters of worship and
    that the only thing people must do is restrict themselves
    to the boundaries set by the Messenger sallallaahu
    ‘alayhi wa sallam.”
    x ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with
    him, narrated that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa
    sallam said: “Do not praise me (excessively) as the
    Christians praised ‘Eesaa the son of Maryam, I am but
    the slave of Allaah, so call me the slave and Messenger
    of Allaah” (Bukhaari).
    Related words of the Salaf:
    x Ibn Mas’ood, may Allaah be pleased with him, said:
    “Follow (the Sunnah) and do not innovate, because you
    have been sufficed.” (Ad-Daarimi). He also said:
    “Practicing a little of the Sunnah is far better than
    practicing many innovations.” (Al-Haakim).
    x Hudhayfah Ibn Al-Yamaan, may Allaah be pleased with
    him, said: “Do not perform any act of worship which
    was not practiced by the companions of the Prophet
    sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam because the early people
    (i.e. his companions) did not leave anything
    unaddressed…so follow the way of those who were
    before you.”
    x A man came to Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with
    him, and said: “Advise me” so he replied: “Fear Allaah,
    follow (the Sunnah) and do not innovate.”
    x Al-Awzaa’i, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said:
    “Persevere on adherence to the Sunnah; stop where they
    (the companions of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa
    sallam) stopped; refrain from what they refrained from
    and follow the way of the Salaf because what sufficed
    them will suffice you.”
    x Al-Fudhayl, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said:
    “Beware of the one who sits with innovators; he who sits
    with innovators will not be granted wisdom; I wish there
    was a fortress of steel between me and the innovators.”
    Related stories:
    x Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him, was
    circumambulating the Ka’bah with Mu’aawiyah Ibn Abu
    Sufyaan, may Allaah be pleased with him and his father,
    during Mu’aawiyah’s reign. Mu’aawiyah would touch
    all four corners of the Ka’bah while circumambulating
    and so Ibn ‘Abbaas remarked: “The Prophet only
    touched two corners (the black stone and the Yemeni
    corner).” Mu’aawiyah replied: “No part of the house of
    Allaah should be neglected.” Thereupon, Ibn ‘Abbaas
    recited (that which translates as): “There has certainly
    been for you in the Messenger of Allaah an excellent
    pattern (i.e., example to be followed) for anyone whose
    hope is in Allaah and the Last Day and [who]
    remembers Allaah often.” (Al-Ahzaab: 21). Upon
    hearing this, Mu’aawiyah refrained.
    x Sa’eed Ibn Al-Musayyib, may Allaah have mercy upon
    him, saw a man praying too many optional prayers
    before the Fajr prayer and therefore he forbade him
    from doing so. The man retorted: “O Abu Muhammad!
    Will Allaah punish me for praying?” Sa’eed replied: “No,
    but He will punish you for doing other than the Sunnah.”
    x A man asked Imaam Maalik, may Allaah have mercy
    upon him: “At which point do I initiate my state of
    Ihraam?” he replied: “From Thul Hulayfah – where the
    Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did so” the man
    retorted: “I wish to do it from the area beside the grave
    of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam” Imaam
    Maalik said: “Do not do that, for I fear that if you do so,
    you will be afflicted with trials” the man replied: “Why
    would I be afflicted with trials? All I wanted was to do it
    from a place which is only a few miles away from where
    you told me!” Imaam Maalik said upon hearing this:
    “What can be more serious than feeling that you
    performed a righteous deed that the Prophet sallallaahu
    ‘alayhi wa sallam failed to do? I heard the saying of
    Allaah (which translates as): “So let those beware who
    dissent from his [i.e., the Prophet’s] order lest trials
    strike them or a painful punishment.””(An-Noor: 63)