Islam is The Religion of Peace english islamic book pdf download

Islam is The Religion of Peace english islamic book pdf download

ISLAM IS
THE RELIGION
OF PEACE
By:
Dr.Abdur-Rahman Abdul-Kareem Al-Sheha
Translated and Adapted into English
with additions by
Abu Salman Deya-ud-Deen Eberle
Revised by:
Um Salman
Islam is the Religion of Peace
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Table of contents
· Introduction
· The meaning of Islam
· The misconception that Islam was spread by Force
· The misconception that Worldly Gains were the
Aim of the Islamic Conquests
· Just War Theory and Practice in Islam
· Islamic Principles Enjoin Mercy and Condemn
Aggression
· Islamic General Principles Champion
Comprehensive Peace
· Islamic Morals Promote Comprehensive Peace
· Islam Enjoins Believers to Observe the Following
Moral Obligations and Recommendations to
Promote Peace
· Examples of Acts Prohibited in Islam which help
Promote Peace
· Conclusion

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Introduction
“Terrorism” is of two kinds: terrorism that is evil based
upon wicked tyrannical acts, and terrorism that is good and
desired based on necessary and justified acts. The terrorism
that is evil is injustice, double standards, tyranny, and
aggression, in all the hateful connotations that these words
imply. It targets women and children, civilians and noncombatants, trying to force defeat and difficult political
decisions by spreading terror. This kind is what most people
immediately think about when hearing the word terrorism.
Often people associate it with what they have been
preconditioned to picture by various government agencies and
segments of the mass media. Muslims are routinely portrayed
as terrorists even though many are either totally innocent of
the charge or are more innocent than many of their antagonists
who aggress against them. “Muslim terrorism” is a media and
think tank byword, even though one would be hard pressed to
find the equivalent term of Jewish, Christian, Hindu or
Buddhist terrorism in usage. Certain institutions and
individuals – with known agendas and backings – have been
instrumental in fabricating and perpetuating misinformation,
exaggeration, and previously disqualified and refuted
misunderstandings and slanders.
The terrorism that is desired and based on necessary and
justified acts is enforcing the rule of just laws, providing fair
punishments commensurate to the crimes committed, and
preparing and defending against attacks, aggression, and
corruption. It is used against the criminal evildoers
themselves, and never targets women, children and noncombatants. We use the word “terrorism” here in a new and
positive connotation, perhaps unimagined by the reader. In
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this positive sense terror is rightfully struck into the hearts of
the evildoers, the enemies of Allah, as a deterrent so that they
will fear a quick and harsh retribution for any evil acts they
perpetrate or conspire to enact. In this sense only it is termed
terrorism, although just and beneficial terrorism condoned in
principle as legitimate by all universally. Allah () says in the
Majestic Qur’an about the justified form of terrorism which we
are speaking of and which prevents and deters aggression:
Make ready against them your strength to the utmost of
your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into
the hearts of the enemies of God and your enemies, and
others besides them whom you may not know but whom
God knows well. Whatever you spend in the cause of
God will be repaid unto you, and you will not be treated
unjustly. (8:60)
One might claim that we are using terror here in its linguistic
meaning and outside the scope of the technical legal definition
of terrorism, but since that definition is hotly under contention
because no universally accepted standard has been agreed
upon, since many grievances against the hypocrisy and double
standards of the major powers that are coming more and more
into light, and since might is still not considered legally right,
the point we are emphasizing is a return to universal common
sense: terror can have a negative and a positive sense
according to circumstance and context.
Terrorism invariably does not arise in a vacuum but in a
historical context of persecutions, injustices, and grievances
that build up over time to the point of explosion and rebellion.
A common form of undeniable terrorism is state terrorism, but
this is often purposely neglected or downgraded in legal and
government sponsored examinations of the issues
surrounding terrorism for the simple fact that those who hold
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power often do not wish that their institutional and party
crimes are exposed as crimes against humanity and as
incidents of state terrorism. That their agendas of labeling
others but not their own operatives as criminals and terrorists
are not discovered. Is clandestine assassination and murder a
form of terrorism? Is torture and rape a form of terrorism? Is
deliberate military, political, economic and environmental
sabotage resulting in mass death a form of terrorism? Are
wholesale persecutions of one racial or ethnic group or one
class with lynching, killing and beatings of some others
terrorism? Is target bombing a form of terrorism? Is the use of
nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction on
major population centers a form of terrorism? What is
justifiable collateral damage? If these acts are not terrorism,
then what are they exactly? If they are not legal and justified,
then what do we call numerous examples around the globe
during the 20th century of unprecedented human wars and
mass destruction? What do they call the implemented policies
of what is coerced upon the world nowadays in this 21st
century, and which some neo-conservative minded pundits
call the “Project For a New American Century,” and related
“PAX AMERICANA”? Many difficult issues remain under
investigation and contention, and demand serious and
reasonable answers from scholars and politicians alike.
Many of the national and secular governments and systems
claim to champion human rights, peace, prosperity, and
happiness for man, but in reality we see that they practice
narrow national and party politics meant to empower and
enrich selected groups, and that they are inherently
fragmented and self contradictory by seeking to serve various
special interest groups while professing to serve the general
public good. The legislations of these regimes and agencies
enact laws and policies that serve the interests of power and
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wealth in their societies. The social, political, economic, and
environmental consequences of unchecked power and greed
for profit and luxury is detrimental to the majority of mankind
and is leading humanity in general to irreversible devastation
and destruction.
Islam, on the other hand, is a comprehensive and universal
religion for all races and classes of people not inclined to serve
a specific category or group of people but specially aimed to
address the needs of all humanity with its moral, spiritual,
social, legal, political and economic systems. Its moral purity
and clarity, simplicity in a strict monotheistic creed and faith,
and comprehensive prohibition of all types of criminality,
oppression and injustice appeals to all classes and categories
of people, regardless of race, culture, education, social and
economic status. The aim of Islam is to establish the ideal
human society and brotherhood spreading general
benevolence and the divine guidance among men for their
betterment and salvation. Part of its mission is to establish
justice at all times and at all levels, to maintain amicable
relations even with potential enemies as long as there are no
open acts of hostilities, and to promote peace whenever
possible. Allah the Almighty states in the Glorious Qur’an:
It may be that God will grant love and friendship
between you and those whom you hold as enemies. For
God has power over all things; And God is Most
Forgiving, Most Merciful. God forbids you not, with
regard to those who do not fight you for your Faith nor
drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and
justly with them: for God loves those who are just. God
only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for
your Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support
others in driving you out, from turning to them for
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friendship and protection. Those who turn to them (in
these circumstances) do wrong. (60:7-9)
These verses call for peace with those that refrain from the
hostile actions mentioned.
And Allah Most Glorified said in His Majestic Qur’an:
If they incline towards peace, then incline towards
peace, and trust in God, for He is All-Hearing and AllKnowing. (8:61)
This verse states that whenever the enemy inclines towards
peace it is incumbent on the Muslims to incline towards peace.
It is hoped that researchers and scholars will investigate
Islam and its laws and principles with impartiality and
thoughtful reflection. The true beauty and awesomeness of
Islam is only evident in fuller vitality to those who live by it
and practice it, but all students can admire just laws, universal
brotherhood, noble and rational principles, and excellent
moral examples of purity, uprightness, truthfulness,
generosity, courageousness, and justice. One of the evidences
of the greatness of this Divine faith is that, regardless of the
weak support extended by the followers of Islam and the vast
war waged against it by its vicious critics and enemies; it has
resisted corruption and distorting innovations, and continues
to spread on its own merits and values in various parts of the
world. What is behind this expansion of Islam, despite the
weaknesses of the Muslims, except the inherent strength of the
truth and justice that by nature dissipates and conquers all
falsehood and injustice? In Islam people find full satisfaction
that includes both their spiritual and moral, and their physical
and practical expectations and needs.
As for the people who refuse to open their eyes, see, hear
and investigate the truth, they will undoubtedly remain mired
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in false desires, narrow biasness and ignorant prejudices. A
well-known principle is that man by nature rejects that which
he fears. He fears that which he is ignorant about, and
therefore, makes enemies of what he does not know. Allah has
described them in the Glorious Qur’an saying:
Many are the jinn and men We have made for Hellfire:
they have hearts wherewith they understand not, eyes
wherewith they see not, ears wherewith they hear not.
They are like cattle. Nay! They are even more misguided.
They are the heedless and neglectful. (7:179)
Cattle follow blindly, but at least they follow the natural
laws and instincts created by Allah for their survival while
many of men follow blindly custom and their leaders, rejecting
what Allah has revealed for man’s own benefit and salvation.
As Allah mentions:
Nay! They say: We found our fathers following a certain
religion, and we do guide ourselves by their footsteps.
(43:22)
I do hope and pray that Allah, the Exalted, will bring benefit
from what we read, hear and say. Ours is a humble effort,
presented with a pure intent, to contribute to the wealth of
human information and to advance understandings. The
writer offers, in addition, an open invitation to all those who
are interested in learning more about Islam to communicate
with him at the address given, and would be delighted to
answer all inquiries about Islam and provide additional
literature on it.
The author expresses his deep gratitude to Allah Most
Exalted for His continuing aid. Any and all shortcomings and
omissions in this booklet are his for which he takes
responsibility, and requests from all the readers forgiveness,
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and seeks the pardon and forgiveness from Allah the Most
Merciful.
May Allah’s Blessings and Mercy be upon the Prophet
Muhammad () the final Prophet and Messenger of Allah to
mankind, and may the blessings and peace of Allah also be
upon his family and companions and all those who follow
their guidance and the footprints until the Day of Judgment.
Dr.Abdurrahmaan al-Sheha
Riyadh, 11535
P.O. Box 59565
Email: [email protected]
http://www.islamland.org
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The Meaning of Islam
The word Islam means submission to Allah the Almighty,
the Creator and Lord of all creation, with the entire soul and
body, by obedience to what He commanded and prohibited in
His Revealed Law, by compliance and willful yielding of one’s
will to His Will and Judgments, and by acceptance of all that
Allah has predestined for man on earth. Allah is the Most
Beneficent and Merciful who knows all man’s rightful needs,
who enjoins all that is good and warns against all that is evil.
Thus His revealed Law is perfectly suited to the universal
needs, rights and responsibilities of man.
The Almighty Allah states in the Glorious Qur’an in relation
to the Prophet Ibraheem (Abraham) ():
Behold! His Lord said to him: Submit (aslim). He said: I
submit (aslamtu) to the Lord and Cherisher of the
Universe. (2:131)
The word “Salam” means “Peace” and is derived from the
same Arabic three-letter root SLM as the word Islam. “Salam”
is one of the Attributes of Allah, blessed be His Names and
Attributes and Exalted His Majesty, as the Qur’an states:
Allah is He, there is no other god except Him; the
Sovereign, the Holy One, the Source of Peace (and
Perfection), the Guardian of Faith, the Preserver of
Safety, the Exalted in Might, the Irresistible, the
Supreme: Glory is to Allah! High is He above the
partners they attribute to Him. (59:23)
“Salam” is also one of the names of Jannah (Paradise). The
Almighty Allah states in the Glorious:
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For them will be a Home of Peace with their Lord. He
will be their Friend, because they practiced
righteousness. (6:127)
The inhabitants of Paradise will greet each other with
“Salam” when they meet their Lord, Allah as he mentioned:
Their salutation on the Day they meet Him will be
“Peace” and He has prepared for them a generous
Reward. (35:44)
Muslims exchange the purified and noble greetings “AsSalamu Alaikum” (Peace be upon you) when they meet, when
they pass by one another, when they call one another. Even
when a Muslim enters his own home and finds no one there,
he says as-Salamu Alaikum since he offers this greeting upon
the angels who are present in that place and upon himself.
This form of greeting helps to relieve the hearts from all forms
of enmity and grudges and rancor people may keep within
them, replacing it with good will, mutual respect, tranquility,
security and happiness. Often Muslims greet one another by
saying the fuller version, which has been taught by the
Prophet of Allah: ‘As-Salamu Alaikum wa rahmatul’laah’ i.e.
“May Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon you, and His
Mercy.”
In the Prophetic traditions (hadith) we find the words of the
Messenger of Allah () which make the spreading of this
greeting from among the traits of the perfection of faith:
“You would not enter Paradise until you acquire full
faith, and you would not acquire full faith until you love
one another. Should not I guide you to an action which if
you establish among one another, you would love one
another? Spread the greeting of “Salaam” (Peace) as
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much as you can amongst yourselves (in the
community).” (Muslim)
And the Messenger of Allah () said:
“Offer food generously to others, initiate the greeting of
“peace” amongst yourselves to those whom you know
and those whom you do not know.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
The purpose of Islam is to continually seek to please Allah,
the Creator and Lord of the Universe, by universal good and
righteous deeds. Allah says in his Glorious Book, the Qur’an:
O People of the Book! There has come to you Our
Messenger revealing to you much that you used to hide
in the Book, and passing over much (that is now
unnecessary). There has come to you from Allah a light
and a clear Book by which Allah guides all who seek His
pleasure to ways of “salam” (peace and safety), leads
them out of darkness, by His Will, to the light, and
guides them to a Path that is Straight. (5:15-16)
Islam comprises the complete comprehensive meaning of
peace that includes the inner personal and spiritual peace and
the outer social peace. As the Messenger of Allah () said:
“A true Muslim is the person from whom other Muslims
feel secured against abuse and attacks from his tongue
and hands, and a true immigrant is a person who
forsakes what Allah the Almighty has declared
unlawful.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
Moreover, it includes the global vision of general universal
peace for all humanity, since its basic principles include
stability, mutual respect, and non-aggression to those who
abide peacefully to just terms, especially those who have the
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basic understanding of a revealed religion from Allah as the
basis of their civilization like the Christians and Jews.
O you who believe! Enter into “as-Silm” (the peace of
Islam by submission to Allah) completely and wholeheartedly, and do not follow the footsteps of the Satan,
for he is indeed an avowed enemy to you. (2:208)
The invitation of Islam, Allah’s universal religion, is
extended to all. Allah Most Exalted said in His Majestic Book:
Say (O Muhammad) ‘O mankind! Verily, I am sent to
you all as the Messenger of Allah… (7:158)
And He () said:
Truly the religion before Allah is Islam. (3:19)
And He () said:
And Whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will
never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be
one of the losers. (3:85)

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The Misconception that Islam was spread by Force
One misconception, promoted by the enemies of justice who
do not read of the historical sources impartially but rehash old
propaganda over and over again, is the false accusation that
Islam was spread by compulsion and coercion. Various
scriptures from the Majestic Qur’an can rebut this vile slander.
Allah Most Exalted says in His Majestic Book:
Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out
clear from Error: whoever rejects Taghoot (Satan, idols,
tyrants, etc) and believes in Allah, has grasped the most
trustworthy hand hold that never breaks. And Allah is
All-Hearing, All-Knowing. (2:256)
And He, the Most Exalted, says:
If it had been your Lord’s Will, they all would have
believed, all the people on earth! Will you then compel
mankind, against their will, to believe! (10:99)
And He, the Most Exalted, says:
Say, The Truth is from your Lord: Let him who will,
believe, and let him who will, reject and disbelieve. We
have prepared for the wrongdoers a Fire whose smoke
and flames, like the wall and roof of a tent, will
overwhelm them. If they implore for relief they will be
granted water like melted brass that will scald their
faces. How dreadful a drink! And how uncomfortable a
couch to recline on! (18:29)
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And He, the Most Exalted, says:
But if they turn away, your duty is only to preach the
Clear Message. (16:82)
And He, the Most Exalted, says:
Therefore give admonition, for you are indeed one to
admonish. But you are not one to manage the affairs.
(88:21-22)
And He, the Most Exalted, says:
Say: Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger: but if you
turn away, he is only responsible for the duty placed on
him, as you are likewise responsible for the duty placed
on you. If you obey him, you shall be on right guidance.
The Messenger’s duty is only to preach the clear
Message. (24:54)
And He, the Most Exalted, says:
If one of the pagan idolators ask you for asylum, grant it
to him, so that he may hear the word of Allah, then escort
him to where he can be secure. That is because they are
men without knowledge. (9:6)
These and many other verses of the Qur’an and teachings of
Prophetic traditions make it clear that no coercion or
compulsion in religion is allowed: no one is ever to be forced
against his will to convert to Islam. Faith must be by
knowledge and free will and based upon firm conviction in
the heart, followed by the testimony of correct words and
good deeds. A mere pronouncement on the lips of the creed of
Islam, “LA ILAHA ILLALLAH” (There is no god except Allah
(that is worthy of being worshipped) – is not enough to
confirm one as a believer, even thought, if said with the kernel
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of initial faith, one immediately becomes a Muslim. As Allah
said about the Bedouins who professed verbally without firm
conviction:
The desert Arabs say: ‘We believe.’ Say: ‘You do not yet
have real Faith, but rather say only: ‘We have submitted
to Allah (aslamna: we are Muslims),’ since Faith has not
yet entered your hearts. But if you obey Allah and His
Messenger, He will not slight you (the reward) of your
deeds: for Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.
(48:14)
It is known that someone cannot be forced to change what is
in the depths of his heart, and that one may profess with his
tongue what he does not really believe with certainty: this is
not Islam nor Islamic faith. For this reason Allah said the
following about the one compelled under torture to renounce
his faith in Islam:
Anyone who utters words of disbelief after accepting
Faith in Allah – except under compulsion while his heart
remains firm in Faith – such as one who opens his breast
to disbelief, on them is Wrath from Allah, and there will
be a dreadful Penalty for them. (16:106)
Disbelief occurs by opening the heart to disbelieve willingly,
and upon this basis, one speaks evil and commits his criminal
acts rebelling against Allah and the revealed guidance of the
Messengers and becomes an apostate after being a Muslim.
Another accusation related to the above is that Islam was
spread by force of arms and warfare. It is an established fact
that any system or government, regardless of its source,
requires a protective force to defend it adherents, preserve its
values, spread its principles, ensure a fair application of its
law, and enforce the just execution of legal penalties against
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criminals and those who rebel against the system. As reported
in the tradition of the Prophet ():
“Truly, Allah admonishes with the authority of the ruler,
more than what He admonishes with the Divine
Revelation of the Qur’an” (i.e. more by enforcing the
punishments justly than the God-consciousness from
reading scripture) (al-Hindi, Kanz-ul-Aámaal)
Let us take a glimpse of the early days of Islam and its
amazing spread over the known world to analyze the truth of
this accusation in the light of documented historical fact. The
Messenger of Allah Muhammad () after his commission from
Allah to arise and publicize his divine message, remained in
the sacred city of Makkah for thirteen years inviting his people
of the Quraish tribe and the visitors of Makkah to Islam. He
engaged every possible way to inform and convey the
message of the revelations of the Qur’an and the Sunnah,
encountering false accusations, slander, persecutions,
harassment, boycotts, threats, attacks, and brutal physical
aggression from his people. Those who believed shared in his
sufferings, and since he was not yet commanded by Allah to
meet violence and aggression with armed defense, his
followers persevered and suffered the harshest forms of
persecutions withholding their hands and adhering to the
precepts of peaceful missionary activity. Many were tortured
and some were martyred for their faith in Islam, and the
accounts of these brave souls bear testimony to the long
sufferings his followers endured in this period of severe
testing. The Prophet soothed the wounds of his companion
Ammar ibn Yasir and his parents who eventually became the
first martyrs of Islam with the words:
“Be patient, O family of Yaser! Paradise will be your
permanent abode” (Al-Hakim)
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The Prophet () allowed those of his followers that wished
to immigrate to Ethiopia to escape from this oppression and
torture. They sought refuge under the tutelage of its just ruler
of the era, the Najashi, who eventually accepted Islam. Even in
these dire circumstances Allah the Most Wise and Merciful
commanded His Messenger Muhammad () to be patient,
forbearing and tolerant with his people while propagating the
message. There are repeated examples of his exceeding mercy,
graciousness, magnanimity, and compassion in the face of this
continued violence and aggression. The Prophet and his
companions stood firm in their belief and conveyance of the
message, obeying the following command of Allah:
Therefore patiently preserve, as did all the Messengers
of inflexible purpose; and be in no haste about the
disbelievers. On the Day that they see the Punishment
promised to them, it will be as if they had not tarried
more than an hour in a single day. Your duty is but to
proclaim the Message. None shall be destroyed except
those who transgress. (46:35)
And still he would pray for their guidance saying: “O Allah!
Please guide my people as they know nothing.”
The Prophet () continued to propagate the message in
Makkah, and to seek out any tribe that would be able to
protect and aid him: he would present himself and his mission
to the visiting individuals and tribes in Makkah and at the
times of the great Arab markets and meeting places. Then it so
happened that a group of the people of the city of Yathrib,
(nowadays known as “Madinah,” City of the Prophet)
believed in the Message of Islam and gave him their pledge of
allegiance to support and defend him in the same way as they
would defend their own wealth, honor, integrity and
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household, if he were to seek refuge and immigrate with his
band of believers to their hometown. This coincided with the
persecution in Makkah reaching a grave critical stage, and the
leaders of the Quraish tribe even conspired to murder the
Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him. The
event of immigration was to be the watershed in Islamic
history, for in Madinah the Prophet’s first mosque was built,
the brotherhood of Muslims expanded and grew, and the
nascent Islamic state was established and developed under his
direct guidance.
Note that Prophet Muhammad () and his followers never
shed a drop of blood in retribution throughout these long
years of persecution and oppression in the city of Makkah
since he was not commanded to fight, but rather to be patient
and persevere. Confrontation and armed hostilities from the
Muslim side did not begin until two years after his
immigration from Makkah to Madinah, when the Quraish
tribe feared for its dominance and continued on the path of
persecution and obstruction of the message of Islam, and after
all avenues of peaceful propagation were exhausted.
Since the town of Madinah was enroute of the Quraish
tribe’s merchant caravans to Greater Syria, the first act of
confrontation occured when Allah’s Messenger () engaged a
commercial caravan lead by the Quraishi nobleman Abu
Sufyan. The Prophet () intended to impose a kind of
economic sanction on the tribe of Quriash to allow him to
peacefully propagate his faith to others in the open, and to
compensate the believers for the properties, possessions and
wealth which were unjustly confiscated by the Quraish in
Makkah before the immigration. The caravan escaped the
ambush but after learning about the incident the leaders of
Quraish prepared a relatively large and well-equipped army
to attack the Muslims. Consequently the first decisive battle
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took place at Badr, and the smaller and ill equipped Muslim
force of 313 fighters crushed the arrogant Quraish army with a
humiliating and decisive defeat.
Allah Most Exalted and Supreme, describes the just rationale
for this battle and those to follow:
(They are) those who have been expelled from their
homes unjustly, only because they say ‘Our Lord is
Allah.’ If Allah did not check one set of people by means
of another, many monasteries, churches, synagogues, and
mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated
in abundant measure, would surely have been pulled
down. Allah will certainly aid those who aid His cause.
Indeed Allah is Full of Strength, Exalted in Might. (They
are) those who, if We establish them in the land,
establish regular prayer, give regular charity, enjoin the
right and forbid the wrong. And with Allah rests the end
and decision of all affairs. (22:40-41)
And Allah the Wise and Sublime says:
And why shouldn’t you fight in the cause of Allah, and
for those who, being weak, are persecuted and
oppressed? Men, women, and children, whose cry is:
‘Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are
oppressors, and raise for us, from Yourself, a protector,
and raise for us, from Yourself, a helper! (4:75)
And Allah the Exalted says:
Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do
not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors.
(2:190)
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In all the battles fought and all the victories that Allah’s
Messenger and his companions achieved within the period of
twenty-three years of the Prophet’s mission in Makkah and
then in Medinah, only three hundred and seventy five people
were killed in this fighting. In the ninth year of the Hijra
(Immigration) known as the Year of Delegations, the Prophet
() met with about a hundred various delegations from tribes
over the entire Arabian Peninsula to confer and negotiate with
the Prophet (). He met them with generosity and
magnanimity and replied to all their questions and concerns
about the Islamic Creed (Aqeedah) and Law (Shari’ah). The
majority of them were suitably impressed by the call of the
Prophet () and they accepted Islam. The Messenger of Allah
() also sent letters to the leaders of the surrounding regions
calling them to accept the Message of Allah as will be
mentioned below.
In the Prophet’s lifetime and soon afterwards, the entire
Arabian Peninsula was for the first time in its history unified
in one just and egalitarian rule of law and divine religion. The
majority of Arabs accepted Islam willfully in droves after
hearing the Qur’an, seeing the example of the Prophet in his
Sunnah (Way) and his companions, and witnessing the Islamic
system, with only a few holdouts among some Jewish and
Christian pockets, allowed to remain within the Islamic State
on their old faith by contract stipulating specific rights and
obligations and the payment of the Jizya tax in lieu of the
state’s protection and not participating in military service.
Indeed this revolutionary change was a miraculous
achievement considering the meager material means by which
it took place and its lasting worldwide effect, and Allah Most
Great gives success to whom He will.
Islam is the Religion of Peace
22
The rightly-guided Caliphs, companions and righteous
predecessors followed the example of the Prophet after his
demise, defending the Islamic State from its enemies,
conquering the surrounding tyrannical empires which
threatened their existence and spreading Islam by the zeal of
their faith and missionary activity and with their excellent
upright morals and just relations. These individuals were, by
no standards, equal in number or war equipment,
preparations, and professional military skills, to the people
they vanquished, but the vitality of their divine faith and
mission and moral superiority of their characters conquered
the common people’s hearts and minds before there was a
need to vanquish the corrupt tyrannical armies whose
oppression of the masses was unbearable.
One of the new converts (reverts) to Islam in our time,
named Basheer Ahmad, said in reflection on this issue: “One
of the most puzzling questions to me, and one of my most
serious concerns prior to accepting Islam and embracing it as
a way of life, was that we Christians claim that Islam spread
by the edge of sword. Therefore, I posed the following
question to myself: If that claim is true, why, then, do we
notice that many people, in every corner of the world, still
adhere to Islam and embrace it, join it, and accept it as a way
of life? Why do we notice people come to join Islam daily,
without any compulsion or force by anyone?” [Paraphrased
from Dr. Imad-du-Deen Khalil: “What Do They Say about Islam?” p.295]
Norman A. Daniel says on the origins of the fabrication of
this myth “… West formed a more or less invariable canon of
beliefs about Islam; it decided for itself what Islam was…
The important thing was it suited the West… it gave
Christendom self-respect in dealing with a civilization in
Islam is the Religion of Peace
23
many ways its superior.” [Islam and the West: The Making of an
Image, p. 270]
De Lacy O’Leary comments on this fallacy: “History makes
it clear, however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims
sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point
of sword upon conquered races is one of the most
fantastically absurd myths that historians have ever
repeated.” [Islam at the Crossroads, London, 1923, p. 8]
Dr. Gustav LeBon states in his book “Civilization of the
Arabs [p.127–128]: “…force was never a factor in the spread
of the Koranic teachings, and that the Arabs left those they
had subdued free to exercise their religious beliefs. If it
happened that some Christian peoples embraced Islam and
adopted Arabic as their language, it was mainly due to the
various kinds of justice on the part of the Arab victors, with
the like of which the non-Moslems were not acquainted. It
was also due to the tolerance and leniency of Islam, which
was unknown to the other religions.” [Paraphrased from Dr.Imaddu-Deen Khalil: “What Do They Say about Islam? p.314]
He also says: “…the early Caliphs… were remarkably kind
in the way they treated the peoples of Syria, Egypt, Spain
and every other country they subdued, leaving them to
practice their laws and regulations and beliefs and imposing
only a small Jizya in return for their protection and keeping
peace among them. In truth, nations have never known
merciful and tolerant conquerors like the Arabs.”
If Islam did spread as a consequence to the wars imposed on
the Muslims from those enemies threatening their survival,
and the conquests of these oppressive and corrupt regimes
Islam is the Religion of Peace
24
that followed consequently, is this unique and unknown in
history, especially when compared to other civilizations? What
is truly unique of the Islamic conquests is that they are
generally liberation from oppression, as in the famous answers
that the companions of the Prophet () gave to the Emperor of
Persia when he asked them what had brought the Muslims to
their lands, as mentioned in the history books: “Allah has sent
us to take whoever wishes from the slavery of mankind to
other men, to the servitude and worship of Allah, from the
confines of this world to the expanse (which Islam brings to
this world and the Hereafter), and from the injustice of the
ways of life (of the worldly rulers) to the justice of Islam.”
[see Ibn Katheer, Bidayah wa Nihayah].
In direct contrast to the many examples of massacres, rapes
and pillaging, and injustices in history mentioned in the
preface, we do not find comparable accounts in the history of
these early Islamic conquests.
Thomas Carlyle, in his famous series of lectures, commented
on the spread of Islam with the following words: “Much has
been said of Mahomet’s propagating his Religion by the
sword. It is no doubt far nobler what we have to boast of the
Christian Religion, that it propagated itself peaceably in the
way of preaching and conviction. Yet with all, if we take this
for an argument of the truth or falsehood of a religion, there
is a radical mistake in it. The sword indeed: but where will
you get your sword! Every new opinion, at its starting, is
precisely in a minority of one. In one man’s head alone,
there it dwells as yet. One man alone of the whole world
believes it; there is one man against all men. That he take a
sword, and try to propagate with that, will do little for him.
You must first get your sword! On the whole, a thing will
propagate itself as it can. We do not find, of the Christian
Islam is the Religion of Peace
25
Religion either, that it always disdained the sword, when
once it had got one. Charlemagne’s conversion of the Saxons
was not by preaching. I care little about the sword: I will
allow a thing to struggle for itself in this world, with any
sword or tongue or implement it has, or can lay hold of. We
will let it preach, and pamphleteer, and fight, and to the
uttermost bestir itself, and do, beak and claws, whatsoever is
in it; very sure that it will, in the long-run, conquer nothing
which does not deserve to be conquered. What is better than
itself, it cannot put away, but only what is worse. In this
great Duel, Nature herself is umpire, and can do no wrong:
the thing which is deepest-rooted in Nature, what we call
truest, that thing and not the other will be found growing
at last.” [‘Heroes, Hero Worship, and the Heroic in History,’ Lecture 2,
Friday, 8th May 1840]
In comparison to the above, let us take some passages from
the Holy Bible and read what the Jews and Christians hold as
sacred and divine guidance about the conduct of war, and
which has lead them in times of their expansions and
conquests.
We read in the Book of Deuteronomy:
“10/When thou comest nigh unto a city to fight against it,
then proclaim peace unto it.11/And it shall be, if it make
thee answer of peace, and open unto thee, then it shall be,
that all the people that is found therein shall be tributaries
unto thee, and they shall serve thee.12/And if it will make
no peace with thee, but will make war against thee, then
thou shalt besiege it: 13/And when the LORD thy God
hath delivered it into thine hands, thou shalt smite every
male thereof with the edge of the sword:14/But the women,
and the little ones, and the cattle, and all that is in the city,
even all the spoil thereof, shalt thou take unto thyself; and
Islam is the Religion of Peace
26
thou shalt eat the spoil of thine enemies, which the LORD
thy God hath given thee.15/Thus shalt thou do unto all the
cities which are very far off from thee, which are not of the
cities of these nations.16/But of the cities of these people,
which the LORD thy God doth give thee for an
inheritance, thou shalt save alive nothing that breatheth:
17/But thou shalt utterly destroy them; namely, the
Hittites, and the Amorites, the Canaanites, and the
Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites; as the LORD thy
God hath commanded thee…” [Deuteronomy 20: 10-17].
On the conquest of the city of Jericho and the fate of the
indigenous inhabitants therein we read: “The people called
and used the trumpets so the wall fell in its place, they
entered the city and murdered all its people, males, females,
children, and the old people, even the cows, goats, and
donkeys, using swords.” [Yusha’ 6/20]
In the towns of Muqeideh and Labneh, they did the same as
in Jericho. [Yusha’ 10/28].
A perplexing passage of the Gospel of Mathew on a
statement of Jesus () reads: “Think not that I am come to
send peace on earth, I came not to send peace, but a sword.”
[Matt. 10:35-37; and compare Luke 22:36]
What is this sword? Who has the authority to raise it? This is
not clear and is hotly contested. Perhaps it will be raised upon
his second coming. Until Constantine the early Christians
were a persecuted minority apparently committed to nonviolence and waiting for his imminent return, but thereafter,
when Trinitarian Christianity became the official state religion
in the era after Constantine, the sword was welded by the
State, and Christian rulers down through history conducted
Islam is the Religion of Peace
27
numerous wars and conquests in the name of religion. The
Christian principle of obedience to any authority in power is
based upon the purported statement of Jesus () to “render
unto Caesar.” This was increasingly extended by the Christian
theologians to rationalize and legitimize the right of divine
rule and then, even national and secular rule, on the basis of
Pauline doctrine as enshrined in his decree: “Everyone must
submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no
authority except that which God has established. The
authorities that exist have been established by God.” [(NIV)
Romans 13:1]
The statements and facts above will be compared with some
of the guidance from Allah’s Book, the Qur’an, and the Way of
the Prophet, the Sunnah, to provide more proofs that indeed
Islam is the religion of peace, despite the fact that some
disobedient Muslims have distorted, by word and deed, the
image of Islam, and despite the venomous propaganda,
slander and ridiculous misinformation fabricated and
distributed by the enemies of Islam in their crusades against
Islam and the Muslims.
We do not deny that aberrations and injustices took place
occasionally by some of the Muslims, but the general sweep of
historical trends is our evidence, as noted above. And along
these lines it may be pertinent to mention a couple more
examples, since they show a general pattern. The Christian
conquerors of Jerusalem slaughtered all of its Jewish and
Muslim inhabitants, whereas the re-conquest of Jerusalem by
Salahudeen al-Ayubi stands as a noteworthy example of
magnanimity and generosity. We also have the contrast of
Andalus (Muslim Spain) and Anatolia (Asia minor). The
Christians expelled the Muslims and Jews from Spain or put
them to the sword or forced them to convert to Christianity
Islam is the Religion of Peace
28
during the infamous “Inquisition,” the paradigm of the
treatment of Muslims under Christian rule. In the same era
when the Muslims mostly of Turkish stock conquered what is
now Turkey, they were comparatively much more tolerant,
and to this day the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church
remains in Istanbul (the conquered Constantine). The noted
orientalist Sir Thomas Arnold rejects this malicious
propaganda about Islam saying: “…of any organized attempt
to force the acceptance of Islam on the non-Muslim
population, or of any systematic persecution intended to
stamp out the Christian religion, we hear nothing. Had the
caliphs chosen to adopt either course of action, they might
have swept away Christianity as easily as Ferdinand and
Isabella drove Islam out of Spain, or Louis XIV made
Protestantism penal in France, or the Jews were kept out of
England for 350 years. The Eastern Churches in Asia were
entirely cut off from communion with the rest of Christendom
throughout which no one would have been found to lift a
finger on their behalf, as heretical communions. So the very
survival of these Churches to the present day is a strong proof
of the generally tolerant attitude of Muhammadan [sic]
governments towards them” [Sir Thomas W. Arnold: The Preaching of
Islam, a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith, Westminster A.
Constable & Co., London, 1896, p. 80]
The unfortunate reality of history is that European rather
than Islamic historical trends have come to dominate the
world, and that the reactions against the incessant religious
wars among the Christian sects of Europe created the seedbed
for the rise of modern European secularism, humanism,
nationalism, atheism, and godlessness, and we see that these
trends are the roots of the major political and socioeconomic
plagues ravishing mankind to this day.
Islam is the Religion of Peace
29
The Misconception that Worldly Gains were the
Aim of the Islamic Conquests
A third and related accusation is that the swift Islamic
conquests, which startled the known world and by which the
Muslim faith was able to spread East and West, were
primarily only for war booty, worldly pleasures, fame and
glory.
Let us present some facts about the biography of the Prophet
() and about Islamic principles from the historical record.
The Prophet Muhammad () at the beginning of his mission as
the Prophet and Messenger of Allah was approached by his
people in every possible way and by every possible means to
back off and abandon his Call to Islam besides their other
attempts by open persecution and oppression to thwart his
mission mentioned earlier. The Prophet () was asked by the
Quraish leaders: If you need possession and dominion over all
the Arabian Peninsula, we ensure this for you. If you need
marriage, we offer you, freely, to marry the most beautiful
virgin girl in the Arabian Peninsula”. The Prophet () was
offered excesses of wealth that no one ever dreamed of
possessing in the Arabian Peninsula, but he denied this offer
as well. The Arab leaders Quraish made all their offers with
the condition that he ceased calling to his religion of Islam and
ceased castigating and exposing as foolish their Pagan beliefs
in idols and superstitions. The Prophet’s () simple, direct and
honest reply to all their tempting and lucrative deals was full
and final rejection. One famous narration of the words of the
Prophet () is recorded as follows:
Islam is the Religion of Peace
30
“By Allah! If they were able to place the sun in my right
hand and the moon in my left hand in order to pressure
me to abandon the call for this mission, I would not. I
will never surrender, nor accept their requests, (but will
continue on my mission) until either this Call (of the
religion of Islam) becomes predominant and widely
accepted and practiced in the Arabian Peninsula, or my
head is removed of my body.” [Ibn Hisham, The Biography of
Muhammad () vol.1, p.170]
Another fact worthy of noting is that the letters that the
Prophet () sent to the prominent kings, governors and rulers
of neighboring countries were very clear in allowing them to
keep their positions of leadership, dominations, and
possessions if they accepted Islam and preserved peace and
justice.
For instance, the following famous letter to Heraclius,
Emperor of Roman & Byzantine Empire reads as follows.
“In the name of Allah, the Compassionate and Merciful
From Muhammad, who is the servant of Allah and His
Prophet to Heraclius (the ruler at that time). Peace be on
him, who follows the right path. After this, I invite you
to the fold of Islam. Therefore, if you desire security,
accept Islam. If you accept Islam, Allah shall reward you
doubly and if you refuse to do so, the responsibility for
the transgression of the entire nation shall be yours.
[Allah the Almighty says]:
Say: O People of the Book! Come to common terms as
between us and you: that we worship none but Allah;
that we associate no partners with Him; that we erect not,
from among ourselves, Lords and patrons other than
Allah. If then they turn back, say: Bear witness that we
Islam is the Religion of Peace
31
are Muslims (who submit to Allah’s Will). (3:64)” (Bukhari
& Muslim)
The companion Anas () reported that:
“Allah’s Messenger () was never approached to give a
reward to a person who accepted Islam, but condoned it.
Once, a man came and asked for something if he
accepted Islam. The Prophet () offered him (from the
Islamic treasury) a herd of sheep that was grazing in a
valley between two mountains (at Madinah). As such,
the man who received the reward went back to his
people and told them, O My people! Accept Islam, as
Muhammad () gives such rewards that the recipient
will never fear poverty. [All the people related to this
man accepted Islam and joined the Muslims]. Anas ()
continued in his report saying: ‘A man would accept
Islam only for materialistic gains, but as soon as he
would feel the sweetness of Islam the faith would
become dearer to the heart of such person, more than the
entire world and its possessions.’” (Bukhari & Muslim)
Let’s also examine the amount of wealth that the Prophet ()
left behind as inheritance after his death. Amr bin al-Harith
() reported:
“The Prophet () upon his death left no dirham or dinar
(denominations of money), slave, maid or anything else,
other than his white mule, his weapon, and a piece of
land which he had declared as a charity for Muslims.”
(Muslim)
In fact the Prophet’s personal armor was bonded to a Jew as
a pawn against a measurement of barley for his family’s food
at the time of his death. How could any sensible person, then,
Islam is the Religion of Peace
32
accuse a man like the Prophet Muhammad () of being
infatuated with materialistic gains and possessions, ephemeral
status and glory? Emperors, nationalistic leaders, their
generals and warriors seek after glory, land and booty, but the
facts above prove that the aim of the Messenger of Allah ()
was to spread the religion of Islam to mankind by peaceful
means for their benefit, and leave them alone in earning their
livelihood and fulfilling their material needs as they pleased
within the boundaries of Islam.
The companions of the Prophet () and the followers in
truth, show by example of their righteous, upright and ascetic
way of life, that they were not after worldly possessions and
the fleeting pleasures of this life.
During the Battle of Uhud, the Prophet ()
commented: “Get up to gain Paradise which is as spacious as
all the heavens and earth put together!” A man named Omair
bin al-Hemam () heard the Prophet’s () statement. As such,
this man raised the question to Allah’s Messenger (): “O
Prophet of Allah! Did you say the reward is Paradise, which is
as wide as the heavens and earth put together! The Prophet
() answered positively. The Companion said: Blessed be it!
Blessed be it! The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be
upon him, asked the man: “What urged you to say what you
said?” The man replied: ‘O Prophet of Allah! The only hope I
entertain is to be one of the dwellers of this Paradise!’ The
Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:
“Surely, you are one of the dwellers of this Paradise.” Upon
hearing such a word from the Prophet (), the man got few
dates out of his bag to eat before the fight began. But, the man
threw the dates in the air and uttered, By Allah! If I lived to
finish eating these dates it would be a very long life! He
rushed to fight the enemies of Islam with all his might until he
was killed.” (Muslim)
Islam is the Religion of Peace
33
A man called Shaddad bin al-Hadi () reported that a
Bedouin came to Allah’s Messenger () and expressed interest
in Islam. The Bedouin soon embraced Islam. The Bedouin
expressed his interest to Allah’s Messenger () to immigrate
with him to Madinah. As such, Allah’s Messenger () asked
Muslims to take care of the Bedouin, [which they did]. The
Muslims fought a battle against the pagans and as a result,
they won some war booty. Allah’s Messenger () distributed
the booty among his Companions. The Bedouin was given a
share of the booty due to his participation in the fight. The
Bedouin asked, ‘What is this for?’ Allah’s Messenger () stated,
‘This is a share of the booty for your participation in the
fight.’
The Bedouin uttered, ‘I did not give you my pledge of
allegiance for worldly gains. In fact, I followed you and
embraced Islam hoping that an arrow of the enemy would hit
my throat, then I would die, then I would be rewarded with
Paradise.’ Allah’s Messenger () commented on the statement
of the Bedouin, ‘If you are truthful with Allah, surely Allah
would fulfill your desire.’ Later on, a battle was fought, the
Bedouin was found dead with an arrow in his throat. He was
carried forward and brought before the Prophet (). Allah’s
Messenger () inquired, ‘Isn’t he the same Bedouin?’ The
people answered affirmatively. The Messenger of Allah ()
said,
‘Verily this man was truthful with Allah. Therefore,
Allah Most Exalted is Truthful with him.’
Allah’s Messenger () gave his cloak to be used as a shroud
for the martyred Bedouin. The funeral was brought forward
and they offered a funeral prayer for his soul, using the
following supplication for the soul of the martyr:
Islam is the Religion of Peace
34
“O Allah! This is Your slave-servant, who immigrated for
Your cause. He was killed as a martyr. I am a witness for
that.” (Nisaa’e)
The incident is a testimony for this man and his likes who
refused to accept his entitled share of the war booty seeking
complete sincerity in his desire for the reward from Allah
alone.
Omar bin Al-Khattab () the famous rightly-guided Caliph
and Companion of the Prophet () whose conquests reached
into vast areas in the known world including the Roman and
Persian empires, heard his stomach growl due to lack of
proper diet. Upon hearing the growl of his own stomach,
Omar () exclaimed, O My dear stomach, growl or be still! By
Allah! You will not get properly filled until all Muslims have
enough to eat (and enjoy a proper diet)” (Baihaqi in al-Sunan, 9/42]
The booty and spoils of warfare the early Muslims gained by
their conquests were sufficient to let them lead a prosperous
and gracious life, but the real motive behind the conquests
was to call other peoples to the Word of Allah and the religion
of Islam, proven by the fact that the conquered peoples were
given the freedom of choice to accept Islam as a religion and
way of life, and if they did, they would be entitled to all the
rights of the other Muslims. This equalitarian and universal
approach was unknown in the world at that time built upon
racial and national empires where some were privileged
nobles and the rest were second-class citizens at best and more
probably servants, slaves and feudal serfs. If the conquered
people rejected Islam, and remained upon the religion but
they did not declare war against the Muslims, they were
required to pay the Jizyah (“Head Tax”) a symbolic amount of
tax in exchange for the protection of their lives, properties and
wealth guaranteed and secured by the Islamic state.
Islam is the Religion of Peace
35
Additionally, payers of the head tax would enjoy all public
facilities offered and maintained by the Islamic state and were
not required to pay any additional taxes whereas Muslims, on
the other hand, were required to pay the Zakah (obligatory
charity on accumulated wealth, the sum of two and half
percent of their annually accumulated funds or a specified
amount of agricultural and husbandry produce). Zakah is
often much more than what the amount of the head tax is
annually. If the non-Muslims in a conquered land refuse to
accept either option, and choose to remain belligerent, war
would be waged against them in order to deliver the Message
of Islam to the people in general. The essential reason for
waging a war against other non-Muslims is the fact that, some
inhabitants of such non-Islamic countries may, embrace Islam,
have they known its principles and mission. For this essential
and noble objective, Allah Knows best, Islam imposes on
Muslims to wage wars in order to deliver the Message of Allah
to the non-Muslims.
One of the greatest generals of Islam, namely, Khalid bin alWaleed (); the most famous and successful general of the
early Muslims, expired while he owned only a horse, a sword,
and a servant. Where could any one find a trace of
materialistic life in the inheritance of such a great Muslim
general and warrior?
The books of the Islamic history are replete with numerous
narratives of men of this high caliber that confirm that worldly
gains were not the objective of the early Muslims, rather, they
hoped for the reward from Allah the Most Generous and
Bountiful for their sincerity in calling to Islam, the divine
religion of guidance from Allah.. As was revealed and
promised by the Prophet () like when he said:
Islam is the Religion of Peace
36
“If a single soul, male or female, is guided through you
to Islam, it is better for you than the choice red camels (of
the world, i.e. the most prized possessions of the Arabs).”
(Muslim & others)
There are many reliable accounts of early Muslims willingly
giving up their entire wealth and life savings as charity upon
their conversion to Islam. The early members of the Quraish
tribe were noteworthy in this regard. Others were deprived of
their wealth because their families boycotted them in anger for
their embracement of Islam. Others had all their possessions
confiscated upon immigration to Medina. Others were
extremely involved in the work of Islamic propagation and
gave their time and wealth to this activity. To site one
example, in the major and decisive battle of Nahawand, a
companion of the Prophet () named an-Nu’man bin Muqrin
al Mozani () offered the following supplication, “O Allah!
Honor and Glorify Your Divine religion, and make those
victorious who believe in You. ‘O Allah! Let me be the first to
be martyred in the battle. O Allah! Grant my eyes the true
pleasure to see the best conquest that grants honor and dignity
to Islam. O people! Put faith in Allah, He will certainly shower
you with His Mercy”. Do you see any materialistic greed and
desire for personal glory in this supplication? The main
objective is surely to seek the Pleasure of Allah and the sincere
wish to call others to accept Islam for their own benefit.
The Ruler of Egypt, the Muqawqis, sent his messenger to the
Muslim General, Amr bin al-Aas () who conquered Egypt.
The Muslim General was holding the Babylon fortress in siege.
The Egyptian Ruler asked his spy to report on what they
observed. They all had a consensus on their observation. They
said, “We have noticed that they prefer death over life. They
prefer to be modest and humble, rather than proud and
Islam is the Religion of Peace
37
arrogant. We have noticed that they have no interest among
them in worldly gains and possessions. They sit on the floor,
and their leader sits like one of them. No one could
differentiate between the leader and the led, the master and
the slave. They are almost alike, irrespective of their ranks.”
These and many more examples show that accumulation of
the spoils of war and self-aggrandizement were not the
objectives of early Muslims, rather the zeal of the mission of
Islam to guide mankind propelled them from their native
homeland to the surrounding areas, carrying with them the
universal message of Islam.

Islam is the Religion of Peace
38
Just War Theory and Practice in Islam
Islam, as we explained earlier, is a divine religion of
submission to Allah and His revealed guidance for man,
which seeks peace and teaches mercy. Although Islam calls for
peaceful interactions with all peoples of all countries,
engagement in war may become necessary at times as a final
remedy. Allah has limited the application of the times to go to
war to five situations. It is not called war but “Jihad”
according to Islamic terminology, meaning to strive and exert
one’s utmost effort in the cause of Allah. The essential
difference between war and Jihad is that the objective of Jihad
is to defend the Muslims and allow their right to deliver the
Islamic invitation to Islam, and to spread the universal
message of the Divine Word of Allah, Most Exalted and
Almighty. As for war, it may be for defense against
aggression, a legitimate reason within certain conditions, but
in broad and general historical terms it most often is waged as
an aggression and for unjust personal and national vendettas;
for imperial, colonial and corporate expansion and hegemony;
for the control, exploitation, plunder and theft of material and
human resources; or for mere fame, glory and arrogance.
Islam does not condone any of the war objectives and above
purposes and considers them all illegitimate and worthy of
just retribution. There are only five legitimate reasons for
Jihad, as follows:

  1. Defense against attack upon life, property, wealth and
    honor of the Muslim nation and national borders. This is
    based on the verse revealed in the Glorious Qurán:
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    39
    Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do
    not transgress limits; for Allah does not love the
    transgressors. (2:190)
    This is also based on the tradition of the Messenger of
    Allah () who said:
    “Whoever is killed while attempting to protect his
    belongings is a martyr; whoever is killed while
    attempting to protect himself is a martyr; whoever is
    killed while attempting to protect his religion is a
    martyr; and whoever is killed while attempting to protect
    his family is a martyr.”
    (Tirmidhi, Abu Da`ood, Nisaa’I & Ibn Majah)
  2. Defense against oppression or those assisting in the
    oppression of the weak and defenseless. Jihad in this type
    has a clear obligatory humanitarian objective. Allah, Most
    Majestic, states in His Glorious Qur’an:
    And why shouldn’t you fight in the cause of Allah, and
    for those who, being weak, are persecuted and
    oppressed? Men, women, and children, whose cry is:
    ‘Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are
    oppressors, and raise for us, from Yourself, a protector,
    and raise for us, from Yourself, a helper! (4:75)
    This command to resist aggression and persecution is
    also based on the verse revealed in the Glorious Qur’an:
    Those who believed, immigrated, and fought for the
    Faith, with their property and their persons, in the cause
    of Allah, as well as those who gave them asylum and aid,
    these are all friends and protectors, one of another. As to
    those who believed, but did not immigrate (in the cause
    of Allah); you do not owe them the duty of protection
    until they come into exile; but if they seek your aid in
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    40
    religion, it is your duty to help them, except against a
    people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance.
    And remember that Allah sees all that you do. (8:72)
  3. In retaliation to the breach and violation of solemnly
    concluded covenants, pacts and treaties. This is based on
    the verse revealed in the Glorious Qur’an that states:
    But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and
    taunt you for your Faith, fight the chiefs of disbelief: for
    their oaths are nothing to them: that they will henceforth
    be restrained. Will you not fight people who violated
    their oaths, plotted to expel the Messenger, and took the
    aggressive by being the first to assault you? Do you fear
    them? Nay! It is Allah Whom you should more justly
    fear, if you truly believe! (9:12-13)
  4. Disciplinary actions against those Muslims who aggress
    and start hostilities without any just cause, and continue
    obstinately on the path of aggression as Allah the
    Almighty states:
    If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel,
    make peace between them: but if one of the parties
    transgresses beyond bounds against the other, then fight
    against the one that transgresses until it complies with
    the Command of Allah. If it complies, make peace
    between them with justice, and be just and fair: for Allah
    loves those who are just and fair. (49:9)
    This type of jihad proves that the purpose of jihad is
    always for law and justice since it is waged even against
    Muslim criminals.
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    41
  5. For the spread of the religion of Islam when peaceful
    means are impossible. This type is only in the last resort
    after a series of peaceful contacts proves to the Muslim
    ruler that peaceful means have become impossible. The
    first step is an invitation to allow the peaceful preaching of
    Islam, following the practice (sunnah) of the Prophet ()
    when, as mentioned above, he had sent letters to the
    surrounding rulers inviting them to Islam. If the ruler
    refused this invitation, he and his people are offered the
    option of becoming dhimmees, that is, people of the
    protected non-Muslim community governed by its own
    religious laws but obliged to abide by the general Islamic
    laws to maintain law, order and security, and to pay the
    Jizya tax in lieu of performing military service. Only when
    the non-Muslims refused these conditions were their
    grounds for the commencement of open battle for the fact
    that they oppose the peaceful propagation of Islam. The
    Muslims are required to wage Jihad against those who not
    only reject Islam’s universal message for mankind that
    Allah alone is worthy of worship and Prophet Muhammad
    () is His Messenger but also stop or curtail the spread of
    this universal message and its propagation by peaceful
    means. Islam is the universal faith and religion of Allah,
    the Creator And Lord – Sustainer of mankind, and
    therefore is not for any specific people but for all men who
    should be able to learn about Islam and have the chance to
    submit to Allah willfully: acceptance of Islam and
    conversion is not the mission or objective that Muslims
    seek because guidance is only in the Hands of Allah, Most
    Wise and Sublime. All people must have a chance to hear
    about the goodness, justice, brotherhood, love, equality
    and peace and all that Islam teaches. The Benevolent and
    Almighty Lord of Man states in His Glorious Qur’an:
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    42
    And fight them until there is no more temptation, strife
    or oppression, and there prevails justice and faith in
    Allah altogether and everywhere. But if they cease,
    verily, Allah sees all that they do. (8:39)
    If at any time the enemies of Islam and the Muslims cease
    their hostilities and aggressions and sue for or accept just
    terms of peace, Muslims are obliged to stop the state of war,
    start negotiations, and it becomes unlawful for them to pursue
    any course of warfare against them. Allah, the Wise and
    Omniscient said:
    Except those who join a group between whom and you
    there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you
    with hearts restraining them from fighting you as well as
    fighting their own people. If Allah had willed, He could
    have given them power over you, and they would have
    fought you: therefore if they withdraw from you and do
    not fight you but instead send you guarantees of peace,
    then Allah has opened no way for you (to continue the
    war against them). (4:90)
    The causes of legitimate warfare are thus identified above,
    and other verses in this context are as follows:
    Allah, the Great, said:
    They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months.
    Say: ‘Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a
    greater (transgression) in the sight of Allah is to prevent
    mankind from following the Way of Allah, to disbelieve
    in Him, to prevent access to the Holy Mosque (in
    Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants and fitnah
    (temptation, worship of idols, and civil strife) is worse
    than killing. (2:217)
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    43
    Allah, the Great, says:
    And fight them until there is no more fitnah (disbelief
    and worshipping others besides Allah) and (all and
    every kind of) worship is for Allah. But if they cease, let
    there be no transgression except against the tyrants.
    (2:193)
    Allah, the Exalted, says:
    Those who believe fight in the Way of Allah, and those
    who disbelieve fight in the Way of Taghoot (Satan, idols,
    tyrants). So fight you against the followers of Satan:
    Indeed the plot of Satan is feeble. (4:76)
    All other types of wars, as mentioned above, resulting in
    destruction and great loss of life and property, are banned and
    declared unlawful and aggression in Islam. Wars waged to
    arrogantly demonstrate force and supposed superiority, as
    with those rationalized as pre-emptive strikes, are also
    prohibited in Islam. As Allah, the Exalted, says:
    And be not like those who started from their homes in
    arrogance and insolence and to be seen of men, and to
    hinder men from the path of Allah: for indeed Allah
    encompasses around all that they do. (8:47)
    Although Islam permits fighting for the necessary reasons
    mentioned above, it lays down strict rules and regulations for
    the conduct of warfare on both the leaders and the soldiers,
    the “mujahideen,” and directs all to observe the noble Islamic
    manners and ethics even in this most difficult of times. The
    Muslim fighters are permitted to target and kill only those
    who fight against them or assist and support other fighters in
    the battlefield. As for the elderly people, minors, women, sick,
    wounded, or those who isolate and seclude themselves in
    worship by belief in non-violence, all these categories of
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    44
    people who are non-combatants are not to be targeted, killed,
    molested or even bothered in any manner by Muslim fighters.
    It is prohibited to kill an enemy soldier fighting against
    Muslims wounded and fallen on a battlefield as well. Islam
    bans mutilation of the bodies and cadavers of all killed
    enemies. Furthermore, Islam bans the killing of the enemies’
    animals, and the destruction of their agriculture and dwellings
    and infrastructure, except in certain circumstances necessary
    for the immediate battle. Additionally, Islam prohibits
    intentional pollution of the water sources of the enemies and
    their wells. Islam considers all the aforementioned items as
    acts leading to the disruption of the society and unnecessary
    hardship on the common people.
    Jihad in Islam is a means to allow the peaceful spread of the
    Word of Allah and the message of Islam. As Allah states in His
    Glorious Qur’an, the intention of this life for a Muslim is to
    seek the life of the Hereafter through good deeds:
    But seek with that which Allah has bestowed upon you,
    the Home of the Hereafter, and do not forget your due
    portion in this World. Do good as Allah has been good to
    you, and do not seek occasions for mischief in the land.
    Indeed Allah does not love those who do mischief.
    (28:77)
    From among the many teachings and guidance from Allah’s
    Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, to the
    mujahideen, are the following:
    The Messenger of Allah () stated that there is only one
    legitimate intention for jihad, when he said:
    “He who strives and fights in order to make the Word of
    Allah the Most Supreme is the one who strives and
    fights for the cause of Allah.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    45
    When a woman was found killed in one of these battles, the
    Messenger of Allah mentioned that this one was not fighting
    and forbade the killing of women and children. (Muslim)
    He also gave the following instructions:
    “Begin your fight with the Name of Allah against those
    who declare the state of disbelief in Allah. Fight against
    them, but do not breach your contracts or covenants. Do
    not mutilate the bodies of the fighters killed. Do not kill
    a newly born baby.” (Muslim)
    And he said:
    “Go forward in the name of God. Do not kill an elderly
    person, nor a child, nor a woman, and do not exceed the
    bounds.” (Malik & Abu Dawood)
    The eminent companion, Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq () the first
    Muslim Caliph of the Islamic State, gave the following advice
    to the Muslim army he deputed saying: “Wait before you
    leave. I would like to give you the following advices: Do not
    betray or act treacherously; Do not steal from the war booty
    before its proper and lawful distribution; Do not breach
    your pledges and covenants with your enemies; Do not
    mutilate the bodies of the killed fighters; Do not kill a little,
    minor child, a woman, or an elderly man; Do not cut or burn
    a palm tree [or any other tree for any reason]; Do not cut a
    fruit-bearing tree; Do not slaughter a sheep, a cow or a
    camel, except for your food; You may come across people
    who seclude themselves for the worship of God, leave them
    alone. Do not bother them or cause any disruption to their
    lives. [Reported by at-Tabari, Vol.3, p.226, and others]
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    46
    Similarly, Muslims must declare war prior to the beginning
    of the fight. This is because Muslims are neither betrayers, nor
    dishonest fighters. Islam imposes some of the best of war
    ethics and morals onto the Muslim fighters. Islam requires full
    adherence to justice and no oppression to the fighting enemies.
    Omar bin Abdul-Aziz, may Allah have mercy on him, one of
    the early Umayyad Muslim Caliphs, was approached by a
    delegation of fighters of the city of Samarqand who
    complained about the Muslim leader, Qutaibah, who had
    taken them by a surprise attack. The Caliph sent a letter to the
    governor of the concerned area commanding him to assign a
    judge to investigate this matter, and if the judge deemed that
    Muslims should get out of the city and leave it for any breach
    of trust, they must comply with the judgment. The governor of
    Samarqand assigned a judge named Jomai’ bin Hader al-Baji
    who passed his verdict that Muslims should leave the city
    which they had conquered. The Muslim army commander
    must first declare war openly and with a proper proclamation,
    prior to invading the land and launching their attack upon the
    people of Samarqand, give them a chance to prepare
    themselves for the fight and to know the reasons for the attack.
    The people of Samarqand seeing the just dealing of the
    Muslims, decided against restarting hostilities and accepted
    the terms of Islamic rule. [see “Futuh-al-Buldan” Countries of the
    Conquests, by Balathuri, p.428]
    As with reference to captives and prisoners, always a
    sensitive and divisive subject between warring parties, Islam
    strictly forbids intimidation, torture, mutilation, or starving
    them to death. Indeed, feeding them is a virtue the reward of
    which is with Allah as he says:
    And they feed, for the love of Allah, the indigent, the
    orphan, and the captive, (Saying): We feed you for the
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    47
    sake of Allah alone, and we do not desire from you
    reward nor thanks. (76:8-9)
    The Islamic leader reserves the full freedom to release the
    prisoners of war free without ransom, set terms for their
    ransom, or release them in exchange for the release of Muslim
    prisoners of war. This is based on the verse revealed in the
    Glorious Qur’an:
    Therefore, when you meet the disbelievers (in warfare),
    smite at their necks. At length, when you have
    thoroughly subdued them, bind a firm bond (on them if
    captured alive). Thereafter (you may dispose of them)
    either by your generosity or through ransom — until the
    war lays down its burdens (by peace treaty). Thus (you
    are commanded), but if it had been Allah’s Will, He
    could certainly have exacted retribution from them
    (Himself); but (He lets you fight) in order to test you,
    some by means of the others. Those who are slain in the
    way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost. (47:4)
    As for the defeated non-Muslim residents of the conquered
    countries, the people of the Book like the Christians and Jews,
    were treated with respect, and their integrity, dignity and
    honor was maintained, their wealth and properties secured
    from aggression and unjust confiscation. They and their
    women were never molested or unduly humiliated in any
    manner, way or means. The homes and dwellings for their
    families were left unharmed. In summery they were dealt with
    fairly and justly. Their originally divine faith was honored and
    dignified, and if they chose to remain upon it they were
    responsible to respect and obey the Islamic tenants and
    religion, and maintain obedience to the public good, security
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    48
    and rule of equitable law. This is based on many verses and
    teachings, including what Allah said as follows:
    (They are) those who, if We establish them in the land,
    establish regular prayer and give regular charity, enjoin
    the right and forbid wrong: with Allah rests the end (and
    decision) of (all) affairs. (22:41)
    One of the best evidences reflecting these teachings is the
    example set by Omar bin al-Khattab () the second Muslim
    Caliph of the Islamic State, and the conqueror of the Roman
    and Persian empires, to the inhabitants of Jerusalem Aelia
    upon entering it as victorious. Tabari reported that he wrote to
    them as follows:
    “In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate and Most
    Gracious. This is the covenant of security granted by the
    servant of Allah, ‘Omar the Commander of the Faithful, to
    the people of Aelia. He, hereby, guarantees the security of
    their persons and property, their churches and crosses, the
    little and the great and all adherents of the Christian
    religion. It is prohibited that their churches be inhibited or
    demolished or diminished as regards with the church itself
    or its domain. Nor may their crosses be impaired or any of
    their properties in any manner. They should not be coerced
    to abandon their faith and none of them may be harmed.
    No Jews are permitted to live with them in Aelia. Upon the
    people of Aelia falls the obligation to pay the jizya, as is
    the case with the people of Mada’in, as well as evict from
    their midst the Byzantine. Whoever of these who leaves
    Aelia will be granted security of person and property until
    he reaches his destination. Whoever decides to stay in
    Aelia will also be granted the same, and share with the
    people of Aelia in their rights and pay jizya. The same
    applies to the people of Aelia as well as to any other
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    49
    person. Those who would like to march with the
    Byzantines may go and those who would like to return to
    their people will not be bound to pay anything until they
    reap their harvest. Allah attests to the content of this treaty,
    and so do His Prophet, his successors and the believers.
    This is witnessed by Khalid Ibn Al-Walid, ‘Amr Ibn Al-
    ‘Aas, Abdur-Rahman Ibn Al-‘Awf and Mu’awiyah Ibn Abi
    Sufyan. Executed in the year 15 Hijri.”
    Surely, there is nothing comparable in recorded history of
    mankind. We believe that this is the best form of nobility,
    justice and tolerance from the conqueror’s side towards the
    vanquished. Most conquerors strip the defeated people from
    all rights, freedoms and honor, including the right to a decent
    life, subjugating them to labor as slaves or second-class
    citizens and serve the conquerors’ interests. Omar bin alKhattab () could have easily dictated harsh terms and
    conditions against the defeated Christians and Jews at the
    time, but followed the lead of the Prophet Muhammad () in
    his generosity and magnanimity when he conquered Makkah
    after years of dealing with their treacherous warfare of the
    Medinan period and the bitter persecution of the Makkan
    period of his mission. This justice aimed at the noble goal of
    propagating the word of Allah and not gaining personal or
    national advantage. These examples, among others, illustrate
    the justice, tolerance, and beauty of Islam, the divinely
    revealed religion of Allah for universal and just peace. The
    laws of Allah, the Almighty, must apply to all people without
    any exception or favoritism.
    Non-Muslims living under the Islamic rule are obligated to
    pay the Jizyah (so called head tax) which is a minimal,
    symbolic amount imposed on the non-Muslim residents who
    willingly choose to maintain their previous faith and life
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    50
    under the government of the Islamic State. The basis of this is
    found in the verse of Allah:
    Fight against those who do not believe in Allah, nor in
    the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden
    by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the
    religion of truth, from among the people of the Scripture,
    until they pay the jizya with willing submission and feel
    themselves subdued. (9:29)
    This tax is of three types as calculated by the currency of the
    time:
    · The head tax of the rich and the affluent people. This is
    estimated as forty-eight dirhams of silver taken from
    each individual annually.
    · The head tax of the middle-class individuals such as
    merchants, businessmen, and farmers. This is
    estimated as twenty-four dirhams of silver taken from
    each individual annually.
    · The head tax taken from the laborers and craftsmen
    who are in business. This is estimated as twelve
    dirhams of silver taken from each individual annually.
    The Jizya tax is imposed on the non-Muslims living in the
    Islamic State as a sign of submission to the Islamic State, as a
    symbolic payment for the guarantee that their honor, integrity,
    wealth and life will be protected by the Islamic government
    against external enemies and internal violations, and because
    they are exempted from serving in the military. This
    protection includes all rights and obligations as specified and
    agreed upon contractually. In comparison Muslims have
    additional duties, including the obligation to serve in the
    military when required, and to pay the Zakah (obligatory
    alms) and other forms of sadaqah (charity).
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    51
    Khalid bin al-Waleed () one of the most renowned Muslim
    war generals, in one of his contractual pledges to the nonMuslims living in the Islamic State said: “I have given you
    my pledge of trust to accept your head tax and in return, to
    protect you against all possible odds (that we protect
    ourselves against). If we succeed in offering you the
    protection we would take the head tax. If not, then you
    would not have to pay it until we can provide you such
    protection.” (Balathuri’s history)
    L. Veccia Vaglieri, in her book entitled “Defending Islam”
    says: “Conquered people by Islamic governments were
    given full freedom to maintain and preserve their faith and
    traditions provided that individuals who elected this option
    and did not accept Islam as a way of life, would pay a fair
    head tax to the Islamic government. Head tax was less than
    what Muslims paid to their government. Non Muslims,
    residing under Islamic ruled state, paid such tax in exchange
    for the general blanket protection offered by the Islamic
    government extended for its own people.”
    One must remember that the three types of the jizya tax
    calculated above were for the earning members whereas other
    classes of the non-Muslims — namely the poor, needy, minors,
    women, the monks, priests, or rabbis, the permanently
    disabled, and the blind — were exempted entirely from the
    payment of this head tax, and their protection, needs and
    general welfare was undertaken free of cost by the Islamic
    Treasury.
    For example, Omar bin al-Khattab () was sitting once when
    an old Jew passed by asking people to give him charity. Omar
    asked about the welfare of the individual and was informed
    that the man was living as a non-Muslim under the rule of the
    Islamic state and protection, paying head tax. Omar ()
    declared: “We have not been fair to you! We have imposed
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    52
    head tax on you and charged you such tax when you were
    young and able, and now we are not providing you with the
    proper social care and welfare (when you are old and
    disabled).”
    As a result, Omar took the man to his own home, fed him
    and offered him proper clothing. And thereafter he
    commanded the Muslim Treasurer: ‘Look into the case of this
    man, and those of similar situation, and give them a sufficient
    income from the Islamic Treasury, along with their families.
    Allah, the Almighty, stated in His Qur’an
    Alms are for the poor and destitute; the needy; those
    employed to administer the (funds); those whose hearts
    have been (recently) reconciled (to the truth); those in
    bondage; and in debt; in the cause of Allah; and for the
    wayfarer: (thus it is) ordained by Allah, and Allah is full
    of knowledge and wisdom. (9:60)
    The poor are the Muslims. The needy are the People of the
    Book.” [Abu Yousef, al-Kharaj, p.126]
    In Khalid bin al-Waleed’s pledge, may Allah be pleased with
    him, to the non-Muslims of al-Heerah, in Iraq, the following
    was written: “Any non-Muslim living under the protection
    of the Islamic state who grows old and becomes unable to
    work, or becomes a terminal patient, or becomes broke and
    bankrupt in such a manner that he would be entitled for
    charity by his own people’s faith, will no longer be required
    to pay the head tax. Such individuals will be provided for
    their essential needs from the Islamic Treasury, along with
    their families” [Abu Yousef, Al-Kharaj, p.144]
    Lis Lictenstadter, a German scholar, in her book titled,
    “Islam and the Modern Age, states: “The option given to the
    people of Persia and Rome or the West, during the time of the
    spread of Islam, was not to be killed by the sword or accept
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    53
    Islam. In fact, the option was either to accept Islam as a way of
    life, or else to pay the head tax (in exchange for protection).
    This is a praiseworthy plan which was applied later on in
    England during the rein of Queen Elizabeth.” [Islam and Modern
    Age, p. 67. See also, Ahmad Shalabi, Comparative Religious Studies, vol. 3,
    p.174]
    Non-Muslims living under the rule of the Islamic state are
    fully entitled for full protection and respect for their rights.
    Allah the Almighty states in the Glorious Qur’an:
    It may be that God will grant love and friendship
    between you and those whom you hold as enemies. For
    God has power over all things; And God is Most
    Forgiving, Most Merciful. God forbids you not, with
    regard to those who do not fight you for your Faith nor
    drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and
    justly with them: for God loves those who are just. God
    only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for
    your Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support
    others in driving you out, from turning to them for
    friendship and protection. Those who turn to them (in
    these circumstances) do wrong. (60:7-9)
    The Messenger of Allah () said:
    “The one who wrongs a covenanter or impairs his right
    or overworks him or forcibly takes something from him,
    I will be his prosecutor on the Day of Judgment.”
    (Abu Dawood & Nasa’ee)
    The Messenger of Allah () said:
    “The one who kills a covenanter will never smell the
    scent of heaven and its scent is found at the distance of
    forty years.” (Bukhari)
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    54
    In summery we quote from Will Durant about this much
    maligned jizya, who quotes from the orientalist Welldiorant:
    “The people of dhimma: Christians, Zaradishts, Jews and
    Sabi’a; enjoyed a degree of tolerance during the Umayyad rule
    which can never be assimilated to Christian countries
    nowadays. They were free to practice their rituals. They
    maintained their churches and synagogues and the only
    obligation was that they should wear a special color and pay
    tax for every person pro rata on his income. This sum ranged
    between two and four dinars. This tax was exclusively levied
    on non-Muslims who can go to war. However priests, women,
    children, slaves, elderly men, the disabled, the blind and the
    destitute were exempted from the tax. Dhimmis were
    exempted from military service in return. They were also
    exempted from zakat which is 2.5% of the annual income and
    the government was bound to protect them.” [History of
    Civilization, vol.12, p131]
    
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    55
    Islamic Principles Enjoin Mercy and Condemn
    Aggression
    The Divine religion of Islam is a religion of peace, mercy,
    tolerance, kindness and benevolence. It stands upright against
    all brutality, wanton violence, and viciousness in order to
    promote and protect justice and peace. Allah, the Most
    Benevolent urged all Muslims to follow the pattern of Allah’s
    Messenger () as follows:
    It is part of the Mercy of Allah that you deal gently with
    them. Were you severe or harsh-hearted, they would
    have broken away from about you. So pass over their
    faults, and ask for Allah’s forgiveness for them; and
    consult them in the affairs. Then, when you have taken a
    decision, put your trust in Allah. For Allah loves those
    who put their trust in Him. (3:159)
    Allah the Wise and Sublime characterizes the mission of
    Muhammad () as a mercy to all, when He said Most Exalted:
    We have not sent you but as a Mercy for all creation.
    (21:108)
    The teachings of Islam call all Muslims to show mercy and
    kindness to every innocent and poor person. The Prophet of
    Allah () said:
    “The merciful and kind people will receive the Mercy of
    the Merciful Lord, Allah, the Almighty. Be merciful to
    people on earth, and Allah, the Almighty, Who is in
    Heaven, will grant you His Mercy.” (Tirmidthi)
    and in another version he said:
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    56
    “Allah, the Almighty, would be Merciful to the merciful
    people. Be merciful to those on earth, and the One in
    Heaven would be Merciful to you.”
    (Tirmidthi & Abu Dawood)
    Allah’s Messenger () said:
    “Being kind to others is good in every matter, and if
    kindness is removed (from the hearts of people) the
    situation becomes bad and worst” (Muslim)
    The Messenger of Allah, may the peace and blessing of Allah
    be upon him said: “He who is deprived of forbearance and
    gentleness is, in fact, deprived of all good.” [Reported by
    Muslim].
    The Prophet () said:
    “Whenever forbearance is added to something, it adorns
    it; and whenever it is withdrawn from something, it
    leaves it defective.” (Muslim)
    The Messenger of Allah () said to Ashaj Abdul-Qais, may
    Allah be pleased with him:
    “You possess two qualities that Allah loves: clemency
    and tolerance.” (Muslim)
    Furthermore, Islam requires that mercy and kind treatment
    should be meted out to all people, even to the enemies of the
    Muslims captured during the jihad, as in the command of the
    Prophet of Allah’s Messenger () when he said: “Be kind and
    merciful to the captives” [see Al-Mu’jammal-Kabeer, The Grand
    Dictionary of Hadith. 22/393].
    If the Prophet () commanded this command to Muslims
    concerning the hostile enemies who are fighting against them,
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    then the treatment towards the peaceful people would
    naturally be even better.
    Never is any life to be taken unjustly. As Allah said:
    Nor take life, -which Allah has made sacred-, except for
    just cause. And, if anyone is slain wrongfully, We have
    given his heir authority (to demand Qisas or to forgive):
    but let him not exceed bounds in the matter of taking
    life; for he is helped (by the law). (17:33)
    More on this topic will be presented below, but here let us
    note that Islamic mercy and kindness, not to mention the
    prohibition of taking life unjustly, is not limited to human
    beings but includes animals and all living creatures as well.
    The Prophet of Allah, may the peace and blessings of Allah
    be upon him, noticed someone shooting a little bird for fun
    and then leaving it to die for no reason, whereupon he said:
    “This little bird would supplicate its case before Allah
    the Almighty on the Day of Judgment, saying ‘O My
    Lord! This man killed me for no reason to benefit by my
    death (like hunting for food which is allowed).’”
    (Ahmed & Nasa’ee)
    The companion Abdullah ibn Omar () is reported to have
    passed by a group of young men from the tribe of Quraish
    who had captured a bird and set it up as a shooting target. He
    said: ‘Who placed this bird as a shooting target? May Allah’s
    Curse descend on the person who did this! The Messenger of
    Allah () said:
    “Allah the Almighty curses the person who captures and sets
    any living creature as a shooting target” (Bukhari & Muslim)
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    Allah’s Messenger () commanded Muslims to show
    kindness in every action, even when slaughtering an animal,
    by the words:
    “Allah, the Almighty, prescribes perfection in every
    action. If you kill, be perfect in your killing. If you
    slaughter an animal for meat, perfect your act of
    slaughtering. Sharpen your knife and be good, kind, and
    merciful to the animal you are about to slaughter. Give
    the slaughtered animal the best comfort you can while
    being slaughtered.” (Muslim)
    The Messenger of Allah () said:
    “While a man was on a trip in the wilderness he became
    extremely thirsty. He searched for water and found a
    well and managed to go to the bottom of the well to get
    to the water. Since he had nothing to reach the bottom
    from the top where the water was he suffered a great deal
    to reach down but eventually managed to quench his
    thirst and came out of the well. Upon reaching the
    surface he found a dog with his tongue stretched out
    from severe thirst. The man thought to himself: ‘This dog
    is certainly suffering the same hardship I suffered from
    his severe thirst.’ Therefore the man went down the well
    again, holding one of his shoes by his teeth, filled the
    shoe with water and brought it back up to the thirsty
    dog. The dog drank and went away. Allah, the Almighty,
    appreciated the action of this man and forgave his
    previous sins.”
    One of the audience, who heard the statement of the Prophet
    () enquired, O Messenger of Allah! Would we be rewarded
    for being kind and merciful to animals? Allah’s Messenger ()
    asserted:
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    “Truly there is a blessed reward for being kind and
    merciful to every living creature that has a moist liver.”
    (Bukhari)
    Conversely a woman deserved the penalty and the wrath of
    Allah, the Almighty, and was to become one of the dwellers of
    the Fire of Hell, as a result of her cruelty to a cat. Allah’s
    Messenger () is reported to have said:
    “A certain woman would become a dweller of the Fire of
    Hell as a result of cruel treatment of a cat. She tied the cat
    up and did not offer it food nor let it eat food from its
    surroundings” (Bukhari & Muslim)
    The list of the Prophet’s () commands to Muslims to be
    kind, merciful, and kindhearted even to animals is endless. We
    only cited above few examples. Some other examples are as
    under:
    Allah’s Messenger () said while passing by a donkey that
    had been tattooed on its face:
    “May Allah’s Curse descend on the person who placed
    this tattoo on the face of the donkey.” (Muslim)
    Allah’s Messenger () is reported to have said while passing
    by a camel that appeared extremely thin from hunger:
    “Be mindful and honor the Commandments of Allah
    concerning these animals, which can’t express their
    needs by speech. Ride them while you keep them in
    good shape, and slaughter and eat them while you keep
    them in good shape.” (Abu Da`ood)
    If such was the mercy and kindness to animals and living
    creatures, what about the human being, who is given
    preference, honor and respect over all other creatures of
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    Allah’s creation? The Omniscient and Almighty Allah honored
    man above all others, and enumerated His bounties to
    mankind:
    We have honored the sons of Adam and provided them
    with transport on land and sea, given them for
    sustenance things good and pure, and conferred on them
    special favors, making them to be above a greater part of
    Our Creation. (17:70)
    Indeed by obedience to Allah and the guidance revealed to
    His Messengers, man is honored, but by disobedience he falls
    into disgrace and dishonors himself by shameful and
    obnoxious deeds.
    
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    Islamic General Principles Champion
    Comprehensive Peace
    For peace to be true and comprehensive it must encompass
    all spheres of human activity fulfilling the needs of life in a
    balanced and just manner. Islamic laws and teachings include
    the following principles, legal precepts and guidance —
    presented as examples only — all of which aim at promoting
    such a universal and just peace.
    -> Respect for the human life
    Islam values all human life, and for its protection imposes
    the death penalty [Qisaas] for premeditated and intentional
    murder of an innocent soul. Accidental and unintentional
    killing has a different penalty, which is called “Diyyah” (bloodmoney), defined as a pre-determined sum of money, given to
    the heirs of the person killed, as a compensation money. This
    blood-money is by no means an equal for the loss of the
    person killed, but it is rather a financial compensation for the
    harm they suffer as a result of the loss of their loved one.
    Atonement (kaffarah) is to be performed by the killer by
    emancipation of a slave, or observing a continuous fast for two
    consecutive months to expiate the sin of his mistake. If the
    murderer cannot observe this fast for a legitimate reason, he is
    obliged to feed sixty poor people a reasonably sufficient meal.
    This atonement is an act of worship by which the sinner seeks
    pardon and forgiveness from Allah Most Merciful for his
    unintentional sin of killing a human soul. All this is done to
    demonstrate the sacredness of the human life. Islam prescribes
    the severe penalty for killing a human soul intentionally since
    if a potential killer realizes that he or she will be killed in
    retaliation and penalty for the crime, perhaps they will think
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    twice before committing murder. If the penalty were anything
    less than strict retribution, the criminals would continue
    boldly in their crimes. The same applies to all capital and
    corporal punishments, called Hudood (boundaries) in Islam.
    Capital punishments in Islam are efficient and effective just
    penalties and successful deterrents for a very essential and
    noble reason to preserve and maintain security of the human
    life, as Allah, the Most wise and Almighty states in His
    Glorious Qur’an:
    In Qisaas (Law of Equality in Retribution) there is Life
    for you, O men of understanding, that you may restrain
    yourselves (from transgression). (2:179)
    And Allah Most Beneficent said:
    On that account: We ordained for the Children of Israel
    that if any one slew a person – unless it be for murder or
    for spreading mischief in the land – it would be as if he
    slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it
    would be as if he saved the life of the whole people.
    Then although there came to them Our prophets with
    clear signs, yet, even after that, many of them continued
    to commit excesses in the land. (5:32)
    Furthermore, the hardened unrepentant criminal is
    threatened with the everlasting penalty in the Hellfire, a
    permanent abode of humiliation and endless torture, under
    the Wrath of Allah, the Almighty, in the Hereafter. Allah, the
    Wise and Almighty states:
    If a man kills a Believer intentionally, his recompense is
    Hell, to abide therein (forever), and the wrath and the
    curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful penalty is
    prepared for him. (4:93)
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    Abu Bakrah () narrated: “I heard Allah’s Messenger ()
    saying:
    “When two Muslims fight (meet) each other with their
    swords, both the murderer as well as the murdered will
    go to Hell-fire.” I said: “O Allah’s Messenger! It is all right
    for the murderer, but what about the murdered one?
    Allah’s Messenger replied: “He surely had the intention
    to kill his companion.’” (Bukhari)
    Of course if one sincerely repents then Allah’s Mercy and
    Forgiveness encompasses all sinners.
    -> Equality of human status
    All humans are innately equal and this applies to both male
    and female alike. When Allah, the Almighty, created the first
    human, Adam, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, —
    our great grandfather and the father for entire humanity — he
    also created our grandmother Eve. Thus humanity is
    essentially one family and of one race from this honorable
    couple. Humans became distinguished thereafter by their
    belief and obedience or their disbelief and disobedience. Allah,
    the Almighty, states in the Glorious Qur’an:
    O Mankind! Reverence your Guardian-Lord, who
    created you from a single Person and created its mate,
    and from the two of them scattered countless men and
    women; fear Allah, through Whom you demand your
    mutual rights, and reverence the wombs (that bore you),
    for Allah is ever watchful over you. (4:1)
    The Messenger of Allah () said:
    “All people are the children of Adam and Adam is
    created from the dust.” (Ahmed)
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    Since dust is of different colors and traits, man also
    developed into different colors and traits.
    The Prophet Muhammad () said:
    “Allah has relieved you from the burden of ignorance
    with its pride in the fathers and the ancestors. You are all
    from Adam, and Adam is from dust. There is no
    difference between an Arab and a non-Arab, nor
    between a black man and a red man except in piety.”
    (Abu Dawood)
    All humans initially believed in the common faith of Islamic
    monotheism as revealed to Adam, and spoke the same
    common language. As Allah the Almighty states in His
    Magnificent Qur’an:
    Mankind was but one Ummah (nation and community)
    but differed (later). Had it not been for a (definite) Word
    that went forth before from your Lord, their differences
    would have been settled between them. (10:19)
    Consequently man began to differ and the reasons for their
    differences include: multiplication of their numbers;
    emigrations to various areas of the earth; divergence of colors
    and other features of the human subgroups developing
    through time by environmental stimulus etc; development of
    local languages and dialects and many other factors.
    Since Islam regards each human being, regardless of race,
    color, language, creed, faith, religion, or home country on an
    equal footing with other human beings in the trait of
    humanity, all human beings are equal before the Laws of
    Allah, the Almighty:
    O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a
    male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes,
    that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise
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    each other). Verily the most honored of you in the sight
    of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And
    Allah has full Knowledge and is well-acquainted (with
    all things). (49:13)
    And in the traditions we read that Aishah, Allah be pleased
    with her, reported: The Quraish were much worried about the
    case of a Makhzumiyah woman who had committed theft and
    wondered who should intercede for her with Messenger of
    Allah (). Some said Usamah bin Zaid () was his beloved
    and thus he may dare do so. So Usamah () spoke to him
    about that matter, and the Prophet () said to him,
    “Are you interceding when one of the penal codes
    ordained by Allah has been violated?” Then he got up
    and addressed the people saying: “The people before you
    were ruined because when a noble person amongst them
    committed theft, they would leave him, but if a weak
    person amongst them committed theft, they would
    execute the legal punishment on him. By Allah, were
    Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, to commit the
    theft, I would have cut off her hand.’” (Bukhari & Muslim)
    All human beings are also equal in terms of basic freedom
    and responsibilities. Omar bin al-Khattab () made an
    eloquent statement on this fact some fourteen centuries ago
    when he declared to a sinning Muslim who arrogantly had
    wronged a non-Muslim: “Have you enslaved some people
    though their own mothers gave birth to them free?” Therefore,
    every human being, in the sight of Islam, is entitled to the
    following types of freedom, mentioned in brief examples as
    follows:
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  • Freedom of thought and opinion. Allah’s Messenger,
    peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, commanded the
    Muslims, to declare the truth, express honest opinion, and
    refrain from intimidating others as he is reported to have said:
    “A person who knows the truth and does not declare it,
    is a mute devil” (Tirmidhi)
  • Freedom of access to benefit from the wealth, minerals,
    and natural resources of the earth. The Almighty Allah states:
    It is He Who has made the earth manageable for you, so
    traverse through its tracts and enjoy of the Sustenance
    which He furnishes. (You will return) unto Him for the
    Resurrection. (67:15)
  • Freedom of access to lawful income and ownership. Islam
    encourages all to work in beneficial trades and have a free
    access to lawful income. For instance in inheritance Allah, the
    Almighty, states:
    From what is left by parents and those nearest related,
    there is a share for men and a share for women, whether
    the property be small or large, a determinate share. (4:7)
  • Freedom of learning and teaching. Islam advocates the
    freedom of learning for every member in the society. The
    Messenger of Allah () said:
    “Seeking knowledge is an obligatory duty upon every
    Muslim” (Baihaqi)
    In fact, Islam classifies the act of monopolizing essential,
    useful and Islamic knowledge, concealing it from others, and
    not sharing it with them, an unforgivable act that renders the
    doer to be the recipient of the Wrath of Allah, the Almighty,
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    and His Penalty. Allah’s Messenger () is reported to have
    said:
    “A knowledgeable person who is asked to share his
    knowledge with others but refuses to do so and hides his
    information would have a harness of fire put on him on
    the Day of Judgment” (Abu Dawood & Tirmidthi)
  • Freedom of access to entitlement for leadership position
    in the society, if he possesses the necessary qualifications.
    Ability and efficiency are the main criteria required for
    holding leadership position in the Islamic society, as opposed
    to color and race, for instance. Allah’s Messenger () is
    reported to have said:
    “If a person is assigned the charge of the Muslim affairs,
    then appoints a person on favoritism irrespective of his
    qualifications, he would deserve the Wrath and Curse of
    Allah. Allah, the Almighty, would not accept any of his
    actions and such a person would be in the Hellfire”
    (Hakim)
    Many more freedoms are guaranteed in the Islamic system,
    only some are mentioned above by way of examples.
    Freedom is often a misused word, since real freedom cannot
    be achieved if man is a slave to his base desires – or a servant
    of the desires of others – and seeks to fulfill them by any
    immoral and unlawful means. The man is allured to this false
    freedom by the enticement of the Satan, the avowed enemy of
    all mankind, who in his jealous rage, hates the human race and
    has given his committed oath to Allah to wait with his troops
    in ambush to strike with their arsenal of weapons whenever
    and wherever possible. Allah, the Almighty said:
    O Children of Adam! Let not Satan seduce you in the
    same manner as he made your parents to be expelled
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    from the Paradise, stripping them of their garments to
    expose their shame. Indeed he and his tribe watch you
    from a position where you cannot see them (to entrap
    you). Indeed, We have made the Evil Ones friends only
    to those who disbelieve. (7:27)
    -> The unity and inviolability of the religion of Allah for
    all humans
    As the universal and eternal religion of Allah for all men,
    Islam aims at eliminating all aspects of tribalism, nationalism,
    racism and party spirit leading to conflict. Islam is the religion
    of Allah that was taught to all men in its essentials of
    monotheism even though particulars of the law and guidance
    may vary according to man’s circumstances. The same basic
    message was given from Prophet Adam until the final
    Messenger Muhammad ().
    Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Qur’an:
    (Allah) has established for you the same religion that
    He has enjoined on Noah – (similar to) that which We
    have sent by inspiration to you – and that which We
    enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: namely, that
    you should remain steadfast in Religion, and make no
    divisions therein. The (way) to which you call them is
    severe on those who worship other than Allah. Indeed
    Allah chooses to Himself those whom He pleases, and
    guides to Himself those who turn (to Him). (42:13)
    Allah, the Almighty, also states:
    We have sent revelation to you as We sent it to Noah
    and the Messengers after him: We sent revelation to
    Abraham, Isma’il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, to Jesus,
    Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave
    the Psalms. Of some Messengers We have already told
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    you the story and of others We have not, and to Moses
    Allah spoke directly. The Messengers gave good news as
    well as warning, so that mankind – after the coming of
    the Messengers – should have no plea against Allah: for
    Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise. (4:163-165)
    And Allah the Sublime says:
    That was the argument and reasoning about Us which
    We gave to Abraham (to use) against his people: We raise
    whom We will, degree after degree: for thy Lord is full of
    wisdom and knowledge. We gave him Isaac and Jacob:
    all We guided: and before him We guided Noah, and
    among his progeny, David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses
    and Aaron: thus do We reward those who do good: And
    Zachariah and John, and Jesus and Elias: all are in the
    ranks of the Righteous. (6:83-6)
    The Lord sustainer of Man, Allah, the Omniscient and
    Almighty, sent them all with the same call:
    O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other god
    but Him. (11:50, 61, 84…)
    Allah, the Almighty also says:
    Say: We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us,
    and to Abraham, Ishma’il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes,
    and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to all
    the Prophets from their Lord: we make no difference
    between one and another of them: and we submit to
    Allah (in Islam). (2:136)
    As such, each and every Muslim is obligated by faith and
    creed: to believe in all the Prophets and Messengers; to believe
    in the Divine Books and Scriptures revealed and sent down to
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    them; to respect and honor every Divine Law revealed by
    Allah, the Almighty, to any previous people; to believe in the
    brotherhood of the previous followers of the Book who
    welcomed the Mission of Muhammad (). The Message of
    Islam which was brought by Muhammad () is the Final
    Divine Message to mankind, as Allah said:
    Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but
    (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Last of the
    Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things.
    (33:40)
    Thus the final Divine Message of Islam as revealed to the
    Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon
    him, abrogates all previous messages. Abrogation by no
    means is a denial of the previous messages but that they are
    no longer in effect: henceforth only Islam is the religion
    acceptable to Allah, the Supreme Lord, as the Most Wise and
    Omnipotent said:
    If anyone desires a religion other than Islam
    (submission to Allah), never will it be accepted of him;
    and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who
    have lost. (3:85)
    Islam urges the followers of previous Divine Messages to
    believe in the Message of Islam, as revealed upon Muhammad,
    peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, as Allah, the
    Almighty, said:
    So if they believe in the same as you believe in, then
    they have been [rightly] guided; but if they turn away,
    they are only in dissension, and Allah will be sufficient
    for you against them. And He is the Hearing, the
    Knowing.. (2:137)
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    And Allah, Most Great and Majestic said:
    Those who deny Allah and His Messengers, and who
    wish to separate Allah from His Messengers, saying: ‘We
    believe in some but reject others’, And who wish to take
    a course midway: They are in truth disbelievers; and We
    have prepared for disbelievers a humiliating
    Punishment. (4:150-151)
    All forms of disbelief are categorically castigated by Allah:
    As for those who divide their religion and break up into
    sects, you should have no part in them in the least: their
    affair is with Allah: He will in the end tell them the truth
    of all that they did. He that does good shall have (the
    reward) ten times as much to his credit: he that does evil
    shall only be recompensed according to his evil: no
    wrong shall be done unto (any of) them. Say: “Verily, my
    Lord hath guided me to a Way that is straight, a religion
    of right, the Path (trod) by Abraham, the true in faith,
    and he (certainly) did not associate other gods with
    Allah. Say: Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice,
    my life and my death, are (all) for Allah, the Lord and
    Sustainer of the Worlds; He has no partner: this am I
    commanded, and I am the first of those who submit to
    Allah (in Islam). (6:159-163)
    Islam also urges its followers to respect the feelings of those
    who differ with them in religion and condemns offensive
    language against those who differ with Muslims in faith as
    Allah commands:
    Do not revile those whom they call upon besides Allah,
    lest they revile Allah in their ignorance out of spite. Thus
    have We made alluring to each people its own doings. In
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    the end will they return to their Lord, and we shall then
    tell them the truth of all that they did. (6:108)
    Islam, therefore, commands Muslims to attract the nonMuslims towards their Faith with the beauty of its precepts, by
    the guidance of comely examples and behavior, as opposed to
    the Guidance that only Allah bestows on whom He will. The
    Almighty and Most Majestic said in the Qur’an:
    Say, The Truth is from your Lord: Let him who will,
    believe and let him who will, reject and disbelieve: for
    the wrong-doers We have prepared a Fire whose (smoke
    and flames), are like the wall and roof of a tent, will hem
    them in: if they implore relief they will be granted water
    like melted brass, that will scald their faces: How
    dreadful the drink! How uncomfortable a couch to
    recline on! (18:29)
    Islam enunciates justice and dispenses it even to its Nonbelievers. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Qur’an:
    Now then, for that (reason) call (them to the Faith), and
    stand steadfast as you art commanded, nor follow their
    vain desires; but say: ‘I believe in the Book which Allah
    has sent down; and I am commanded to judge justly
    between you. Allah is our Lord and your Lord: for us (is
    the responsibility for) our deeds, and for you (is the
    responsibility for) your deeds, there is no contention
    between you and us (in this). Allah will bring us
    together, and to Him is (our) final goal. (42:15)
    Islam gave man the full freedom of choice in terms of faith.
    They may accept or reject any faith or belief. Islam gave the
    freedom to the People of the Book and previous Scriptures to
    maintain their faith and practices. Islam forbids the
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    dismantling of the churches and synagogues. Islam prohibits
    the breaking and destruction of the cross of the Christians.
    Allah’s Messenger () is reported to have said concerning the
    people of the previous Scriptures:
    “Leave them alone in terms of faith” (Tabari)
    Islam gave the people of the previous Scriptures the rights as
    their law dictates, and to eat, drink and wear what their
    religion permits them to do. Islam also entitles the people of
    the previous Scriptures to practice the practices of their
    religion insofar as marriage, marital relationship, divorce and
    other relations are concerned.
    To demonstrate a practical example, Omar bin al-Khattab
    () the second Caliph, applied such provisions when he came
    to the Resurrection Church in Jerusalem, and the time for
    Muslims’ prayer entered. Omar () left the Church, went
    outside, and offered the prayer outside the Church, and
    informed the priest of the church, “Had I offered my prayer
    inside the Church, some Muslims could have claimed in the
    future that The Church is a place where Omar offered his
    prayer and taken that as an excuse to destroy the Church, and
    erect a Mosque, in its place.” [Reported from the History of Imam Ibn
    Jareer at-Tabari]
    Similarly, Omar () offered a pledge of trust as follows,
    “This is a pledge of security offered by Omar bin al-Khattab;
    the Leader of the Believers, to the inhabitants of Ilea, in terms
    of Peace. Omar gives them his pledge to have security and
    peace with their lives, wealth, churches, crosses and all their
    denominations. Their churches are not to be occupied,
    destroyed, reduced in size, nor to limit the Christian owned
    properties surrounding the churches. The crosses are not to be
    tampered with. The wealth of the Christians should not be
    encroached upon or possessed unlawfully, and that Christians
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    will not be forced or compelled against their own will [i.e. to
    accept Islam].” [Reported from the History of Imam Ibn Jareer at-Tabari]
    -> Encouragement of fruitful cooperation between
    Muslims and the People of the Book (Jews and Christians)
    Cooperation is based on mutual interest and respect, and
    oriented to serve the best interests of the human society at
    large. Allah, the Wise the Almighty states as a general rule:
    Aid one another in righteousness and piety, and do not
    aid one another in sin and rancor: and fear Allah, for
    indeed Allah is strict in punishment. (5:2)
    Islam exhorts upon its followers to have a meaningful and
    sincere dialogue with those who differ with their religion, as
    Allah, Most Wise orders:
    And do not dispute with the People of the Book, except
    with means better, unless it be with those of them who
    inflict wrong and injury; and say: ‘We believe in the
    Revelation which has come down to us and in that which
    came down to you; our God and your God is One; and it
    is to Him that we submit (in Islam). (29:46)
    In fact, the approach that Islam pursued to call people of
    other Faiths is a constructive and objective dialogue that
    brings people together to the Word of Allah, the Almighty,
    and to His Divine Message and Teachings, as Allah said:
    Say: O People of the Book! Come to common terms of
    agreement between us and you: that we worship none
    but Allah; that we associate no partners with Him; that
    we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords and patrons
    other than Allah. If then they turn back, say: ‘Bear
    witness that we submit to Allah (in Islam). (3:64)
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    -> Sincerity and purity in advising others
    All of the Messengers of Allah gave sincere advice to their
    peoples, and sincere advice and purity of intentions are the
    distinguishing features of Islam. The Prophet, peace and
    blessings of Allah be upon him, said, as narrated by Abu
    Hurairah ():
    “Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be
    upon him, once inquired, ‘Who, amongst you, would
    carry the following words of wisdom, act upon them, and
    teach them to others who would also act upon them?’
    Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, answered
    positively. Upon that Allah’s Messenger, peace and
    blessings of Allah be upon him, held the hand of Abu
    Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, and counted
    five items, as follows: 1) Avoid all that is declared by
    Allah prohibited, thus you become the best worshipper
    of Allah, the Almighty; 2) Accept what had been
    predestined for you by Allah, thus you would be the
    richest man; 3) Be good to your neighbor, thus you would
    be characterized as a Believer; 4) Like for others what you
    like for yourself, thus you would be characterized as a
    Muslim; 5) Lessen your laughter, since too much laughter
    would cause the heart to die.” (Tirmidthi)
    Islam calls upon all Muslims to tender a meaningful, and
    sincere free advice to all people.
    This point is based on a statement of Allah’s Messenger
    ():
    “Islam is the religion of advice. The people inquired,
    ‘O Prophet of Allah! To whom should advice be
    offered? Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings of
    Allah be upon him, said: To Allah, to His Book, to His
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    76
    Prophet, to the leaders of the Muslims, and to the
    general body of Muslims” (Muslim)
    In explanation of this tradition, we can say: A pure advice
    to Allah, the Almighty is to worship Him Alone,
    wholeheartedly; to reject and discard any rival set up to
    Allah, in idolatry; to commemorate the remembrance of
    Allah, the Almighty, by His Beautiful Attributes and Blessed
    Names; to accept fully that Allah alone is in charge of all the
    affairs of all creatures; to believe that whatever Allah, the
    Almighty, wills, would happen and whatever He does not,
    would never take place; and to follow the Commandments
    of Allah, and cease all actions that He forbade. A pure advice
    about Allah’s Book is to firmly believe in the Divine
    Scripture to His Messenger, Muhammad (); to accept all
    the laws therein. A pure advice about Allah’s Prophet is to
    obey what he enjoined, shun away from what he refrained,
    believe his statements, love and respect him, and respond to
    his call, practices and instructions, and propagate them
    amongst people. A pure advice about Muslims’ leadership is
    to obey the leaders as long as they do not call for, or impose
    any rules that disobey the commands of Allah and His
    Prophet (); to assist them by guiding them to all the good
    points; not to rebel and fight against them so long as they
    apply Islam and its rules throughout their government
    agencies; and to offer them mature and the most pure advice
    kindly and gently. A pure advice for general Muslims is to
    guide them to the best in both their religious and worldly
    affairs; to assist them achieve their goals; to prevent any
    inconvenience against them; and to like for them what one
    likes for himself, and to hate to cause them any harm as one
    would hate to cause harm to his own soul.
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    -> Enjoining the good and forbidding the evil
    Muslims are commanded to pursue every appropriate
    means that lead to enjoining good and forbidding evil, based
    on one’s ability, knowledge, and position of authority, in order
    to secure peace, tranquility and stability in the society and
    community and counter against oppression, corruption and
    the spread of the “Law of the Jungle.”
    Allah, the Wise the Almighty states:
    Aid one another in righteousness and piety, and do not
    aid one another in sin and rancor: and fear Allah, for
    indeed Allah is strict in punishment. (5:2)
    Allah’s Messenger () said,
    “Whoever sees evil should correct it by his hand; if not
    capable then let him correct it by his tongue; if one is not
    even capable of that then at least one should disapprove
    of it in his heart,” (Muslim)
    The Messenger () made a simile about those who do wrong
    and harm others by their sins:
    “The example of those who observe the boundaries of
    Allah and those who do not is like a group of people
    who traveled in a ship. The sailors of the ship decided to
    split the riders so a portion of them rode on the upper
    deck while the other portion rode the lower deck. When
    the people of the lower deck wanted to get water from
    the river, they had to go to the upper deck and ask them.
    The occupants of the lower deck of the ship decided to
    drill a hole in the wall of their portion of the ship. If the
    people of the upper deck permitted them to execute their
    plan they would all sink and drown in the water. But if
    the people of the upper deck refused to let them drill a
    hole and restricted them they would all be saved”
    (Bukhari)
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    78
    Allah the Omnipotent and Omniscient informs us that His
    Wrath descended upon previous nations as a result of their
    negligence to enjoin good and forbid evil:
    Nor did they forbid one another the inequities which
    they used to committ: evil indeed were the deeds which
    they did. (5:79)
    -> Islamic forms of worship encourage brotherhood and
    egalitarian values
    All forms of worship in Islam are egalitarian in nature and
    promote brotherhood and peace. The shahadah (testimony of
    faith), salat, (prayer) zakat (alms and charity), saum (fasting),
    hajj (pilgrimage), amr bil-ma’roof wa nahi ‘anil-munkar
    (commanding the good and prohibiting the evil), jihad
    (exertion and struggle) are obligatory equally upon all those
    Muslims who are able to fulfill the requirements according to
    their abilities. To become a Muslim the simple rite is to declare
    the testimony of faith: LA ILAHA ILLALLAH
    MUHAMMAD-UR-RASULULLAH (there is no god except
    Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah). In
    congregational prayer Muslims stand next to each other in
    rows without any class or other distinctions between them.
    Zakah promotes generosity and social cohesiveness between
    the richer and the poorer segments of the society. Fasting
    promotes realization of the basic needs of all humans, and
    control of these most basic physical desires. Hajj is the grand
    equalizer since all clothe themselves in simple white cloth and
    perform the same rituals in remembrance of the Prophet
    Abraham () and glorification of the sacred precincts of
    Makkah. Commanding the good and prohibiting the evil and
    “Jihad” is by definition for the promotion and preservation of
    all that is good, wholesome and decent and combating of that
    which is all evil and morally corrupt.
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    79
    -> Necessity of all to seek beneficial knowledge
    The Omniscient Allah states:
    Is one who worships devoutly during the hours of the
    night prostrating himself or standing (in adoration), who
    takes heed of the Hereafter, and who places his hope in
    the Mercy of his Lord, (like one who does not)? Say: Are
    those equal, those who know and those who do not
    know? It is those who are endured with understanding
    that receive admonition. (39:9)
    Allah’s Messenger () said:
    “Seeking knowledge is obligatory for every Muslim.”
    (Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, & Baihaqi)
    -> Environmental protection and preservation
    Islam commands Muslims to protect and preserve the
    environment and warns against wanton destruction and
    pollution.
    The general rule is as Allah says:
    Do not commit mischief on the earth after it has been
    set in order, and call on Him (Allah in prayer) with fear
    and longing: for the Mercy of Allah is always near to
    those who do good. (7:56)
    Also, Allah, the Almighty, states:
    There is the type of man whose speech about this
    world’s life may dazzle you, and he calls Allah to witness
    about what is in his heart; yet he is the most contentious
    of enemies. When he turns his back, his aim is to spread
    mischief everywhere through the earth and destroy crops
    and cattle. But Allah does not love mischief. (2:205-5)
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
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    The most precious natural resources of clean pure water, air
    and fertile land are protected for the general good and utility.
    For instance, the Prophet () commanded for water
    conservation and preservation by asking the Muslims not to
    waste water during washing and ablution even when one is
    utilizing running river water, and he forbade washing of the
    parts of the body while making ablutions, more than three
    times saying:
    “Whoever increases on that (more than three) does
    injustice and wrong.” (Nasa’ee)
    And Allah’s Messenger () forbade people to urinate in
    stagnant water. (Muslim)
    Islam also forbids people to place any excrement, refuge, or
    garbage in the middle of the public passages, or in the choice
    shady places which people use for rest and recreation.
    -> Social Welfare including support of orphans, the needy
    and destitute
    Allah the Exalted and Almighty said:
    Give full measure when you measure, and weigh with a
    scale balance that is straight; that is the most fitting and
    the most advantageous in the final determination. (17:35)
    The Messenger of Allah () said:
    “The orphan’s sponsor and I are in Paradise like these
    (and he held his two fingers, the index and the middle
    fingers, together, indicating how close they are).”
    (Tirmidthi)
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    81
    The Messenger of Allah () said:
    “By Allah! One would not become a Believer until he
    likes for his brother what he likes for his own self”
    (Muslim)
    -> Principles of Endowment
    Endowments in Islam are of two types:
    Private Endowment: This type is dedicated to the progeny
    of the person who offers such endowment. The progeny and
    family members of the grantor would be well off, and they
    would not need to ask others to donate to them. This type has
    a stipulation, however, that the funds of the endowment
    would be given to the public interest charitable work upon the
    death of the last person of the progeny of the donor.
    Public and General Endowment: This type is dedicated to
    charitable works, such as: building hospitals, schools, roads,
    public libraries, mosques, community centers, orphanages,
    elderly homes and other beneficial projects of general public
    interest for the community and the society at large.
    
    Islam is the Religion of Peace
    82
    Islamic Morals Promote Comprehensive Peace
    The entire code of Islamic ethics seeks to promote and
    maintain peace, security and happiness in the society at large.
    This code enjoins brotherhood and all beneficial things that
    promote peace and forbids all types of actions that instigate
    evil and implant hatred and rancor in the hearts and minds of
    people. Accordingly if the members of the society apply the
    Islamic code of ethics, they would enjoy the peace, security,
    tranquility and happiness for which they naturally strive and
    yearn. All values of the Islamic morality produce a better
    person and an upright human being with noble traits of
    character admired universally: truthfulness, fairness, courage,
    generosity, patience, perseverance, kindness, and
    courteousness.
    The essential criterion of the Islamic morality is to eradicate
    all the harmful and obnoxious actions, attitudes and behaviors
    which displease Allah the Almighty, Creator and LordSustainer of mankind, and are therefore declared unlawful. If
    a Muslim practices any of the forbidden acts he would expose
    himself to either punishment in this world by the specified
    punishments of the Islamic law, or the Wrath of Allah, the
    Omnipotent and Irresistible in the Hereafter,
    As the modern Arab poet Amir ash-Shu’araash-Shauki declared in verse, explaining that nations of people are naught but their morals and characters. If the morals of the nation cease the nation ceases!  Islam is the Religion of Peace 83 Islam Enjoins Believers to Observe the Following Moral Obligations and Recommendations to Promote Peace -> Islam enjoins truth Allah the Exalted and Almighty said: O you who believe! Fear God and be with those who are truthful. (9:119) Allah the Exalted and Almighty said: And he who brings the Truth and he who confirms and supports it - such are the men who are god fearing. (39:33) -> Islam enjoins justice Allah, the Exalted and Almighty said: Allah commands justice, the doing of good, and generosity to kith and kin, and He forbids all shameful deeds, injustice and rebellion: He instructs you, that you may receive admonition. (16:90) Justice and fairness are commanded and required in all situations, when one is happy and satisfied, and when one is upset and unsatisfied, with Muslims and with non-Muslims alike. Allah the Exalted and Almighty said: O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to Piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-aware with all that you do. (5:8) Islam is the Religion of Peace 84 And He, the Exalted, says: O you who believe! Stand out for justice, as witnesses to Allah, and even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be against rich or poor… (4:134) -> Islam enjoins altruism Philanthropy and benevolence are the results of sincere altruism, and the companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him were especially noteworthy of this trait, offering their help and assistance to others solely for the Pleasure of Allah. Allah the Exalted and Almighty says: And do good. Truly Allah loves those who do good. (2:195) Allah, the Exalted, said: But those who, before them, had homes (in Medina) and had adopted the Faith, show their affection to such as came to them for refuge, and entertain no desire in their hearts for things given to the (latter), but give them preference over themselves, even though poverty was their (own lot). And those saved from the covetousness of their own souls; they are the ones that achieve prosperity. (59:9) Allah's Messenger () said: “Do favors for those who deserve to have them done for them and also for those who do not deserve to have them done for them. If the doer did the favor for those who deserve it, it is fine and good, and if not, the doer himself is one of those who are worthy for favors” (Tirmidthi) Islam is the Religion of Peace 85 -> Islam enjoins brotherhood Allah, the Exalted, says: Verily the believers are but brothers… (49:10) The Messenger of Allah () said: “Do not envy one another; do not inflate prices by overbidding against one another; do not hate one another; do not harbor malice against one another; and do not enter into commercial transaction when others have entered into that (transaction); but be you, O slaves of Allah, as brothers. A Muslim is the brother of another Muslim; he neither oppresses him nor does he look down upon him, nor does he humiliate him. Piety is here, (and he pointed to his chest three times). It is enough evil for a Muslim to hold his brother Muslim in contempt. All things of a Muslim are inviolable for his brother-in-faith: his blood, his property and his honor.” (Muslim) The Messenger of Allah () said: "A Muslim is a brother to a Muslim. He should neither deceive him nor lie to him, nor leave him without assistance. Everything belonging to a Muslim is inviolable for a Muslim; his honor, his blood and property. Piety is here (and he pointed out to his chest thrice). It is enough for a Muslim to commit evil by despising his Muslim brother." (Tirmidthi) -> Islam enjoins the maintenance of righteous company Muslims are advised to gain good company and avoid bad company. The Prophet of Allah () said: “The example of good and evil companions is like that of a person who is carrying musk and the blacksmith who Islam is the Religion of Peace 86 is blowing the fire of his furnace. The carrier of musk would either give you some of it or you may buy some from him or at least you would receive the smell of perfume from him. As for the blacksmith who is blowing fire, you may either burn your clothes, be disturbed with the sparks of his fire, or the least you would receive is bad odor coming from him and his place of work” (Bukhari & Muslim) -> Islam enjoins reconciliation and peace making Reconciliation is enjoined at all times and especially when there is a serious rift in relationship that may lead to increased conflict. Allah the Almighty and Exalted said: The Believers are but brothers so make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers; and fear God, that you may receive Mercy. (49:10) Allah, the Almighty and Exalted, says: In most of their secret talks there is no good; but if one exhorts to a deed of charity or justice or reconciliation between men, (then secrecy is permissible): to him who does this, seeking the good Pleasure of Allah, We shall soon give a reward of the highest value. (4:114) -> Islam enjoins maintaining a good character and morals. Good morals and virtues are essential for a better society. Allah's Messenger () said: “Amongst the best Believers are the persons with the best of morals and characteristics and those who are most kind to their families.” (Tirmidthi) And he () said: Islam is the Religion of Peace 87 “I was sent only to perfect the good conduct” and in another report “to perfect the noble of conduct.” (Malik, Ahmad & al-Bazzar) -> Islam enjoins generosity. Generosity brings people closer to each other and enables the generous to gain the love and affection of others. Allah's Messenger () said: “Allah, the Almighty, loves two traits; to be good to others and to be generous to them. Similarly, Allah, the Almighty, hates two traits; to be mean to others and to be miser to people. [On the other hand,] If Allah, the Almighty, favors a person, He would employ him to assist others achieve their goals and fulfill their needs. ” (Bukhari & Muslim) The criterion of generosity in Islam is mentioned in the verse of the Glorious Qur’an: Do not tie your hand to your neck (like a niggard), nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach (being extravagant) so that you become blameworthy and destitute. (17:29) The criterion is set to restrict people from exceeding limits. Allah, the Almighty said: And render to the kindred their due rights, as to those in need and want, and to the wayfarer: but do not squander your wealth in the manner of a spendthrift. Verily spendthrifts are brothers of the Evil Ones; and the Evil One is Ungrateful to his Lord. (17:26-7) Islam is the Religion of Peace 88 -> Islam enjoins on Muslims to hide mistakes and omissions of others The Prophet of Allah () said: “Whosoever alleviates a Believer's hardship of this world, Allah, the Almighty, would alleviate his hardship and difficulty of the Day of Judgment. Whosoever eases the terms on [a financially] stranded person, Allah, the Almighty, would ease his difficulties in both this world and the Hereafter. Whosoever hides the defects of a Muslim in this world, Allah, the Almighty, would hide the defects of that person both in this world and in the Hereafter. Allah, the Almighty, would continue to assist a slave-servant so long as such a person is extending his help and assistance to his Muslim brethren.” (Muslim) -> Islam enjoins upon patience. People are encouraged to be patient in order to perform their religious and mundane duties and to avoid all evils. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Qur’an: Now await in patience the Command of thy Lord: for verily you are in Our eyes: and celebrate the praises of thy Lord while you stand forth. (52:48) Islam also urges and encourages Muslims to be patient on what they have been predestined for such as fear, poverty, hunger, lack of resources, terminal illness, etc. Allah the Almighty and Exalted said: Be sure that We shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods or lives, or the fruits (of your toil), but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere. Who say, when afflicted with calamity: ‘To Allah we belong, and to Him is our return.’ They are Islam is the Religion of Peace 89 those on whom (descend) blessings from their Lord, and Mercy, and they are the ones that receive guidance. (2:155-7) Allah the Almighty and Exalted illustrates the reward of the patient people as follows in the Glorious Qur’an: Say: O My servants who believe! Fear your Lord. Good is (the reward) for those who do good in this world. Spacious is Allah's earth! Those who patiently persevere will truly receive a reward without measure! (3:10) Part of mercy and forgiveness is to control the temper and forgive others even though one is capable of taking revenge, which strengthens the relationships and ties amongst people and creates a better atmosphere within the society. Allah promises a great reward for controlling one's temper. Allah, the Almighty, states in the Glorious Qur’an: Be quick in the race for forgiveness from your Lord, and for a Garden whose width is that (of the whole) of the heavens and of the earth, prepared for the righteous. Those who spend (for Allah’s sake), whether in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain anger and pardon; for Allah loves those who do good. (3:133-4) Also, Allah, the Almighty, commands Muslims to practice righteousness at all times and in all circumstances and not to return evil when mistreated with evil acts. Allah the Almighty and Exalted said: Goodness and Evil are not equal. Repel Evil with that which is better; then it will be that the one between whom and you there was hatred will become as if he were your friend and intimate! (41:34) Islam is the Religion of Peace 90 The above examples are mere glimpses of what Islam commands Muslims to comply with in their personal and public lives for the Pleasure of Allah. The Book of Allah, the Qur’an, and the Sunnah of Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, provide additional commands and details related to these and other high and noble morals.  Islam is the Religion of Peace 91 Examples of Acts Prohibited in Islam which help Promote Peace Islam has denounced and condemned vehemently the following acts and strictly prohibited their practice in the path of promoting peace and security in the society, and eradicating or curtailing wrath, hatred, rancor, greed, and resentment which are the root causes of conflicts and violence. -> Polytheism and Idolatry Polytheism and idolatry inevitably cause conflict as clans, tribes and peoples compete and vie for recognition, status, dominance and tribute for their idols and associated ideologies and mythologies. If all people worshipped Allah the one and only God then the greatest root of violence would be eradicated. Allah the Most Majestic said: And ask those of Our messengers whom we sent before you, 'Did we make other deities to be worshipped besides Allah? (43:45) Allah the Most Glorious said: And We did not send a messenger before you, except that We revealed to him that there is no god worthy of worship except Me, so worship Me. (21:25) Allah the Most Almighty and Majestic said: And verily, We have sent among every community a Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allah (alone), and avoid taghoot (Satan, idols, tyrants). (16:36) Islam is the Religion of Peace 92 Allah, the Exalted, said: Those who believe fight in the way of Allah, and those who disbelieve fight in the way of taghoot (Satan, idols, tyrants). So fight against the followers of Satan: Indeed the plot of Satan is feeble. (4:76) -> Sorcery and magic of all types. This prohibition is based on the numerous evidences like the saying of Allah: But neither of these two (angels (Haroot and Maroot) taught anyone (sorcery) till they had said (warning them): ‘Indeed, we are a trial, so do not disbelieve. (2:102) And in the hadith of Allah's Messenger (): “Avoid the seven destructive things. People inquired: O Prophet of Allah! ‘What are these destructive things?’ He said: “They are: associating others in the worship of Allah; sorcery and magic of all types; killing an innocent soul without any legitimate reason; dealing with interest and usury; eating up and abusing the orphan's funds; fleeing from the battlefield; falsely accusing innocent female believers with fornication, adultery, or moral corruption.” (Bukhari & Muslim) -> Aggression and oppression. Allah () said: The blame is only against those who oppress men with wrongdoing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice; for such people there will be a grievous penalty. (42:42) Islam is the Religion of Peace 93 Allah, the Almighty and Exalted stated Say: The things that my Lord hath indeed forbidden are: shameful deeds, whether open or secret; sins and trespasses against truth or justice; assigning of partners to Allah for which He hath given no authority; and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge. (7:33) Allah, the Almighty also said: If one amongst the pagans polytheists ask you for asylum, grant it to him so that he may hear the Word of Allah; and then escort him to where he can be secure. That is because they are men without knowledge. (9:6) The Messenger of Allah () said: "Beware of injustice, for oppression will be darkness on the Day of Resurrection; and beware of stinginess because it doomed those who were before you. It incited them to shed blood and treat the unlawful as lawful." (Muslim) The Messenger of Allah () said: “Allah inspired me: Be humble so as no one oppresses another, and no one brags with pride over another.” (Muslim) Allah’s Messenger () said: “Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, said: ‘My servants, I have made oppression unlawful for Me and unlawful for you, so do not commit oppression against one another...’” (Muslim) Islam is the Religion of Peace 94 Islam urges to support both the oppressed and the oppressor by stopping the source of oppression. Allah's Messenger () said: “Support and come to the aid of your brother whether he is oppressed or, he is the oppressor.” A man who heard this inquired, I can understand supporting my brother if he is oppressed, but what about if he is the oppressor? Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asserted, “Support him by stopping him from his oppression: that is the way to support (in truth) the oppressor” (Bukhari) All lawful members of the society, regardless of creed or faith are entitled to full protection of their rights to life, property and wealth. For instance the Messenger of Allah () said: “He who kills (unlawfully) a non-Muslim residing under Islamic rule, would not smell the fragrance of Paradise. The fragrance of Paradise can be smelled at a distance of forty years.” (Bukhari) -> Unkind treatment towards parents, children and kindred. This is based on the verse revealed: Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be kind to parents. And if one or both of them attain old age in thy life, say not to them a word of contempt, nor repel them, but address them in terms of honor. And, out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility, and say: My Lord! Bestow on them thy Mercy just as they cherished me in childhood. (17:23-24) Islam is the Religion of Peace 95 And the Messenger of Allah () said: “The happiness and dismay of Allah is from the parents’ happiness and dismay with their child, and the unhappiness and dismay of Allah is from the unhappiness and dismay of parents from their children.” (Tirmidthi) Islam teaches benevolence towards all kindred. This is based on the verse revealed in the Glorious Qur’an, Then, is it to be expected of you, if you were put in authority, that you will do mischief, in the land, and break your ties with kith and kin? Such are the men whom Allah has cursed for He has made them deaf and has blinded their sight. (47:22-3) This is also based on the tradition of the Prophet of Allah (): “A person breaking family ties will not enter Paradise” (Bukhari & Muslim) Breaking ties with family and the kindred implies many things: absence of mutual exchange of visits; carelessness towards the needy relatives; and indifference to extend financial and social assistance to the destitute family members. Islam appreciates the charity from the rich to the destitute. A charitable donation from a rich family member to a needy family member carries a double reward since it is both charity, on the one hand, and a type of re-establishment of bonds between family members. If a person is poor and is unable to extend financial support to relatives, Allah rewards even his visit, care and affection since they are a Islam is the Religion of Peace 96 type of charity and are good deeds. Allah's Messenger () said: “Establish a good rapport with your family members and immediate relatives, even by as little as greeting them and asking about their affairs and health.” (Bazzar & Tabrani) -> Adultery, fornication, slander etc It is a known fact that much conflict, fighting and murder takes place due to “love triangles” wherein people fight over their legal or illegal sexual partners. Islam has cut all the pathways to illegal sexual relations to preserve the chastity and purity of the people of the society, and to prevent conflict, illegitimate children and abortion. Allah the Exalted and Almighty said: Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil way, opening the road (to many other evils). (17:32) And He said: Those who slander chaste women, indiscreet but believing, are cursed in this life and in the Hereafter: for them is a grievous Penalty. (24:23) And Allah the Exalted and Almighty said: Those who love (to see) abhorrent acts broadcast among the Believers, will have a grievous Penalty in this life and in the Hereafter: Allah knows, and you do not know. (24:19) The Prophet of Allah () convinced a young man of the illegality of illicit sexual relations in the following conversation: Islam is the Religion of Peace 97 “A young man came to the Messenger of Allah () and asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah, permit me (with special license) to commit fornication (and adultery).’ The people started to rebuke him harshly but the Prophet sat close to him and asked: ‘Would you like it for your mother?’ He replied ‘No, by Allah, may Allah make me a sacrifice for you!’ The Messenger of Allah () said: ‘And thus the people do not like it for their mothers.’ He said: ‘Would you like it for your daughter?’ ‘No’ he replied. The Messenger of Allah () said: ‘And thus the people do not like it for their daughters.’ He said: ‘Would you like it for your paternal aunt?’ ‘No’ he replied. The Messenger of Allah () said: ‘And thus the people do not like it for their paternal aunts.’ He said: ‘Would you like it for your maternal aunt?’ ‘No’ he replied. The Messenger of Allah () said: ‘And thus the people do not like it for their maternal aunts.’ Then the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, put his hand on the youth and said: ‘O Allah forgive his sin and purify his heart and make him chaste (fortify his abstinence from sexual sins).” [Reported by Imam Ahmad from the tradition narrated by Abu Umamah.] Here we find an example of the Messenger of Allah () patiently convincing this man by analogies about the injustice of double standards: since no one wants his ownself to be exploited and abused, then how should he allow himself to exploit others. The golden rule, as it is called, is expressed in the famous tradition of the Messenger (): “None of you believes until he loves for his brother that which he loves for himself.” (Bukhari & Muslim) Islam is the Religion of Peace 98 -> Intoxicants and Gambling As it is well known, intoxicated individuals are more likely to commit violent crimes than sober individuals. Gambling is also the cause of much conflict. Allah the Almighty states: O you who believe! Intoxicants, gambling, and divination by arrows, are an abomination of Satan's handiwork: avoid all such (abominations) that you may prosper. Satan's plan is but to excite enmity and hatred between you, with intoxicants and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of God, and from prayer: will you not then abstain? (5:90-91) -> Stealing, robbery, unlawful acquisition of property and wealth Such acts are bound to create hatred and resentment, and provoke conflicts in the society, leading to insecurity and chaos. The Messenger of Allah () said: “Whoever takes a right of a Muslim, Allah, the Almighty, would cause him to dwell in the Fire of Hell on the Day of Judgment and restrict him from entering Paradise. One of the Companions who was present at the time inquired, 'O Prophet of Allah! What if the item that a person takes was negligible? Allah's Messenger () said: “Even if the item is as insignificant as a wooden tooth brush (from an Arak tree branches)” (Muslim) -> Monopoly and hording The Prophet () said: “Only a sinner monopolizes (the food and other items of public need)” (Muslim) Islam is the Religion of Peace 99 -> Misuse of the wealth and the assets of an orphan. Orphans are weak and incapable of managing their funds. An orphan’s guardian is responsible to manage wisely the finance and the affairs of his guarded orphan to the best of his ability. Allah warns saying: Those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, eat up a fire into their own bodies: they will soon be enduring a blazing fire. (4:10) -> Abuse of authority A Muslim ruler or any person in a position of authority must be just and honest with his people and must not do wrong to them or betray them in any way. As Allah said: Think not that Allah is heedless of the deeds of those who do wrong. He only gives them respite against a Day when the eyes will stare in horror. (14:42-43) Allah's Messenger () said: “If Allah entrusted a person with an authority but the person entrusted did not offer his best possible advice to his constituents, such person would not be allowed to enter Paradise” (Bukhari) -> Torture The companion Hesham ibn Hakim ibn Hizam once passed by a group of Nabatcans in the Levant who were made to stay in the sun. He said: What’s wrong with these people? They said: They are imprisoned because they did not pay the jizya. Hesham said: "I witness that I have heard the Messenger of Allah () saying: "Allah tortures those who torture people in this lifetime." He said: "And their ruler ‘Umair Ibn Sa’ d at the time was in Islam is the Religion of Peace 100 Palestine, so he went to him and informed him who in turn passed his orders so they were discharged." (Muslim) -> False testimonies and oaths False testimonies are major sins. In fact, if a person intentionally insists on false testimonies on a regular basis, he would be considered out of the realm of Islam. Allah the Almighty, states: Those who do not witness falsehood, and, if they pass by futility, pass by it with honorable (avoidance). (25:72) Allah's Messenger () said: “Should I inform you about the most heinous sins? The Companions said yes. Allah's Messenger () said: (The most heinous sins are) to associate others in worshipping Allah, and to be bad and disobedient to your parents. Allah's Messenger () was leaning on the floor, then he sat straight and said: “…and to give a false statement and to give a false testimony.” Allah's Messenger kept repeating the last statement until the Companions wished that he would quit repeating it.” (Bukhari) This type of oath is intentional and made to secure some unlawful gains. This oath is called ghamoos (immersing) since it immerses the oath taker in the Fire of Hell. Allah, the Almighty states: As for those who sell the faith they owe to Allah and their own sacredly pledged word for a small price, they shall have no portion in the Hereafter. Allah will not speak to them or look at them on the Day of Judgment, nor will He cleanse them (of sins): they shall have a grievous Penalty. (3:77) Islam is the Religion of Peace 101 This is also based on the tradition of Allah's Messenger (): “Whosoever takes the right of another Muslim by his right hand (i.e. by the false oath) would be entitled for the Fire of Hell and would be deprived the entry of Paradise.” A man raised a question as to even if the thing that he takes from his Muslim brother's rights is negligible? Allah's Messenger () said: Even if the right of the Muslim brother was a tooth brush (from the branch of the Arak tree)” (Muslim) -> Betrayal and breach of trust in contracts. Islam enjoins upon Muslims to be truthful. Islam commands to fulfill promises and warns against breaking promises and dishonoring contracts. Islam stresses on fulfilling all trusts to the right people and warns against denying even an insignificant amount entrusted to a person as a trust. Allah the Almighty states: O you who believe! Betray not the trust of Allah and the Messenger, nor misappropriate knowingly things entrusted to you. (8:27) Islam declares keeping secrets as one of the acts of trust. Allah's Messenger () said: “If a person said something to another person, then turned away, such a statement becomes a trust to the listener” (Tirmidthi & Abu Dawood) Similarly, Islam categorized seeking a consultation, as a trust as well. Allah's Messenger () said: “A consulted person is entrusted (i.e. with whatever he hears from the person seeking his consultation and honest opinion and advice)” (Tirmidthi & Abu Dawood) Islam is the Religion of Peace 102 Islam promotes trustworthiness. Allah's Messenger () said: “There is no faith for a person who is untrustworthy. There is no religion for a person who breaches his pledge of allegiance.” (Ahmed & Baihaqi) The Prophet () said: “If a person possesses four vices, he would be categorized as a full hypocrite. And if one possesses any one vice of the four, he would be partially a hypocrite unless he cures himself from the vice: to lie whenever he speaks; to break the promise; to betray the trust; to breach a covenant.” (Bukhari & Muslim) According to another narration reported by Muslim: “A person would be categorized as such even if he maintains his daily prayers, observes the fast of Ramadan, and claims that he is a Muslim.” -> Slander and backbiting Backbiting is to mention things about people that they hate to be known even though such facts are true. This kind of act jeopardizes the honor and dignity of the person attacked, breeds hatred and disdain among people, which may lead to violence. Slander includes publishing false news and libel. Allah the Almighty states: Woe to every (kind of) scandal-monger and backbiter. (104:1) The Messenger of Allah () said: “Do you know what is backbiting? The Companions present at the time said, Allah and His Messenger know best! Allah's Messenger () said: “It is to mention Islam is the Religion of Peace 103 something behind the back of a person, which he despises for others to know about him.” One of the companions inquired, O Prophet of Allah! What if the point raised behind his back truly exists in him, would this still be categorized as an act of backbiting? Allah's Messenger () replied: “Backbiting is to mention a vice that exists in him whereas if he doesn’t have such a vice, then it is slandering” (Muslim) -> Name-calling and mocking others Allah said in the Glorious Qur’an: O you who believe! Let not some men among you mock others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor let some women mock others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by offensive nicknames: evil indeed is a name connoting wickedness after one has believed: and those who do not desist are (indeed) doing wrong. (49:11) -> Hatred, contempt and resentment against others. Such vices provoke acting in revenge in many possible ways. Allah's Messenger () was asked: “O Prophet of Allah! Who is the best type of man? Allah's Messenger () said: “Every warm hearted person, and every true person.” The Companions who were present raised a question to Allah's Messenger () saying, O Prophet of Allah! We know the true person, but what about the warm-hearted person? Allah's Messenger () said: “He is the pious, pure person, the sinless one, with no oppression or transgression on the rights of others, a person who possesses no hatred or envy in his heart for others” (Tirmidthi) Islam is the Religion of Peace 104 The Messenger of Allah () illustrated the results of envy as follows: “Envy and jealousy eat up the good deeds as the fire eats up the wood” (Abu Dawood) -> Social boycott (unless under strict conditions) Allah's Messenger () said: “Do not boycott one another, do not turn your backs on each other, do not hate one another, do not envy one another: all of you should be (true) slave-servants of Allah like brethrens. A Muslim is not allowed to boycott his Muslim brethren for more than three (days)” (Bukhari & Muslim) And in another version of the narration: “A Muslim is not permitted to boycott his Muslim brother for a period exceeding three nights, upon meeting one another, each one swerving to a different direction and shunning each other. The best of the two is the one who initiates the greeting to the other.” -> Cursing and abusive language Allah's Messenger () said: “People who curse would not be permitted to be witnesses or interceders on the Day of Judgment” (Muslim) Islam prohibits even cursing enemies and encourages a Muslim to pray for the guidance of such people to the Right and Straight Path. This is based on Allah's Messenger () who was once asked: “O Prophet of Allah! Shouldn’t you pray against pagans and idol worshippers? He said: Islam is the Religion of Peace 105 “I am only commissioned as a mercy (for mankind) and I was not commissioned to curse others” [Reported by Muslim] -> Stinginess and miserliness Islam considers wealth as a trust that Allah entrusted to man for a specific period of his lifetime to be used wisely and spent in accordance with Allah’s commands: for living expenses and essential needs, for charity and for righteous deeds. The Messenger of Allah () said: “A treacherous, stingy and miserly person who brags time and again about his donation and assistance to other needy and poor individuals, would never enter Paradise” (Tirmidthi) Allah's Messenger () is also reported to have warned about disastrous consequences of a society where miserliness becomes a common practice, saying: “Beware of oppression. Oppression is darkness on the Day of Judgment. Beware of greed and miserliness, as it destroyed people before you. Greed and miserliness compelled people (before you) to shed the blood of their own people and pushed them to make lawful what was unlawful and forbidden.” (Muslim) -> Extravagance and lavish spending. Allah has commanded a Muslim to abstain from being lavish. Eat and drink, but waste not by excess; Verily He loves not the excessive. (7:31) Islam is the Religion of Peace 106 Allah the Almighty states: And render to the kindred their due rights, and (also) to those in want, and to the wayfarer: and do not squander (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift. Verily, spendthrifts are brothers of the devils; and the Satan is ungrateful to his Lord (Himself). (17:26-27) Allah's Messenger () said: “Allah, the Almighty, prohibits you from being disobedient to your mothers, from declining to give the poor and needy for the cause of Allah, from asking people charity if you do not truly need it, and from burying girls alive. Allah also dislikes for you to be rumor mongering, to often ask people to give you, and to waste funds foolishly.” (Bukhari & Muslim) -> Exaggeration and extremism Allah, the Almighty states: Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put you to difficulties. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; that perhaps you will be grateful. (2:185) Allah's Messenger () said: “Offer glad tidings and do not chase people away. Ease the life of people and do not make it difficult and unbearable for them.” (Bukhari & Muslim) Allah's Messenger () said: “Beware of going beyond the bounds of the religion. The people before you were destroyed by going to extremes in the religion.” (Nisaae, Ibn Maajah, Ibn Khuzaimah & al-Haakim)
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    -> Arrogance and false pride.
    Allah, the Almighty said:
    And do not puff your cheek (in pride) at men, nor walk
    in insolence through the earth; for God does not love an
    arrogant boaster. And be moderate in thy pace, and lower
    thy voice; for the harshest of sounds without doubt is the
    braying of the ass. (31:18-19)
    Allah’s Messenger () said:
    “A person, whose heart contains an atom weight of
    arrogance, would not enter Paradise.” One of the
    Companions who was present at the time, asked Allah’s
    Messenger (): “O Prophet of Allah! One of us likes to
    wear good clothes and good shoes [so is that arrogance?]
    Allah’s Messenger () said: “Arrogance is to deny the
    truth and to have contempt towards others” (Muslim)
    Allah’s Messenger () also said:
    “Allah would not look on the Day of Judgment at the
    one who drags his clothes in arrogance.” (Bukhari &
    Muslim)
    -> All unjust acts leading to disputes, quarrels and feuds
    among people.
    Allah the Almighty states:
    And hold fast, all together, by the Rope which Allah
    (stretches out for you), and be not divided among
    yourselves. And remember with gratitude Allah’s favor
    on you, for you were enemies and He joined your hearts
    in love so that by His Grace you became brethren. And
    you were on the brink of the Pit of Fire, and He saved
    you from it. Thus Allah makes His Signs clear to you that
    you may be guided. (3:103)
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    Similarly, Islam bans all forms of suspicion and evil
    thoughts about others. Allah, the Almighty and Majestic
    states:
    O you who believe! Avoid suspicion as much as you
    can, for suspicion in some cases is a sin: and spy not on
    each other, nor speak ill of each other behind their backs.
    Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead
    brother? Nay, but you would abhor it. And fear Allah: for
    Allah is Oft Returning, Most Merciful. (49:12)
    Allah’s Messenger () said:
    “Avoid suspicion as suspicion (leads to) the most
    untruthful speech one could ever make.” (Bukhari)
    -> Misrepresentation of facts and false reporting
    Allah the Almighty, said:
    O you who believe! If a wicked person comes to you
    with any news, ascertain the truth of it lest you harm
    people unwittingly and afterwards become full of
    repentance for what you have done. (49:6)
    -> Fits of Rage, Temper tantrums, and use of offensive
    and abusive language.
    Thus a Muslim is ordered to always control anger. Allah the
    Almighty and Majestic states:
    “Those who avoid the greater crimes and shameful deeds
    and even when they are angry, they forgive.” (42:37)
    The Messenger of Allah said ():
    “The strong man is not the one who wrestles, but the
    strong man is in fact the one who controls himself in a fit
    of rage.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
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    Allah’s Messenger () said:
    “A Believer is not a person who attacks the integrity of
    others, curses others, uses foul language and is
    unpleasant in his speech with others.” (Tirmidthi)
    Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, reported:
    A man asked the Prophet () to give him advice, and he
    said: “Do not get angry.” The man repeated that several
    times and he replied (every time): “Do not get angry.”
    (Bukhari)
    -> Glee and malicious joy over the sufferings of others.
    Allah’s Messenger () said:
    “Do not demonstrate any happiness upon seeing your
    brother’s tragedy. Allah would be Merciful to the latter
    and afflict you with such problems.” (Tirmidthi)
    -> Undue interference with things that do not concern
    him
    Allah’s Messenger () said:
    “One of the signs of being a good Muslim is to leave that
    which does not concern him.” [Reported by Tirmidhi]
    -> Unjust ruling and sentences
    Laws are derived from the Qur’an and Sunnah and thus
    there are no legislators except Allah in Islam. Therefore a
    judge is entrusted with interpreting the law and applying it
    justly in all individual cases, and if he becomes unjust in his
    verdicts, he is betraying the sacred trust. The Wise and
    Sublime states,
    “…and whosoever does not judge by what Allah hath
    revealed, then indeed, they are the disbelievers.” (5:44)
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    This is also based on the Hadith of Allah’s Messenger ():
    “The judges are three, two of which are the dwellers of
    the Hellfire and one is in Paradise. A judge who knows
    the truth and judges accordingly would be dwelling in
    Paradise. A judge who knows the truth but purposely
    deviates from it would be dwelling in the Hellfire. The
    judge who passes his sentence without possessing
    appropriate knowledge would be dwelling in the
    Hellfire.” One of the Companions, who was present at the
    time raised the following question, “What is the sin of the
    judge who was not truly aware of the truth and reality of
    the case? Allah’s Messenger () commented, His sin is that
    he should not function as a judge until he is
    knowledgeable.” (Hakim)
    -> Spying on others
    Islam bans spying on others by all means as mentioned by
    Allah:
    O you who believe! Avoid suspicion as much as you can
    for suspicion in some cases is a sin, and spy not on each
    other, nor speak ill of each other behind their backs.
    Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead
    brother? Nay, but you would abhor it. And fear Allah: for
    Allah is Oft Returning, Most Merciful. (49:12)
    Allah’s Messenger () said:
    “A person who listens in onto the conversation of others
    who hate him to listen in would have molten lead
    poured into his ears on the Day of Judgment” (Bukhari)
    -> Spreading the mistakes of others, and slandering
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    A tattle-tale breaks up amiable relationships between people
    and breeds animosity, and creates a situation of chaos in the
    society. Allah, the Almighty states
    Heed not the type of despicable man, ready with oaths,
    a slanderer, going about with calumnies. (68:10-11)
    The Messenger of Allah () said,
    “A slanderer would not be allowed to enter Paradise.”
    (Bukhari & Muslim)
    One of the sure results of slander is the spread of rumors,
    hatred and anger among members of the community. As such,
    this may lead to murders or a disorder in the community.
    Islam neither accepts nor condones such situation.
    -> Exploitation of others, especially the easily victimized
    like the destitute or elderly.
    Islam aims to establish a well-integrated society with solid
    fraternal bonds. Allah the Almighty and Majestic said:
    Serve Allah, and join not any partners with Him; and do
    good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need,
    neighbors who are near and neighbors who are strangers,
    the Companion by your side, the way-farer (ye meet) and
    what your right hands possess: for Allah does not love
    the arrogant, the vainglorious. (4:36)
    -> Inconveniences to others, especially neighbors
    The Messenger of Allah () said:
    “By Allah! A person would not become a [full] Believer!
    By Allah! A person would not become a [full] Believer!
    [Repeating the same phrase twice.] The Companions
    asked, ‘O Prophet of Allah! Who is this person?’ Allah’s
    Messenger () commented, He is the one with whom a
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    person whose neighbor is neither safe nor secure against
    [all of his] harms and evils.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
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    Conclusion
    Islam builds the foundation for friendly relationships
    between men on the principles of public and mutual interests
    of all the parties concerned. Never is there to be any
    compulsion or force for the acceptance of Islam. Islam wishes
    well for all regardless of color, creed, geographic location and
    nationality. Its laws and principles promote universal modes
    of righteousness, benevolence and justice. Muslims are
    commanded to love for the cause of Allah and hate for the
    cause of Allah, and never for any other special interests,
    worldly desires or whims. One does not love or hate the
    person per say, but loves the good and hates the evil shown by
    the behavior of that person. Allah the Almighty states:
    Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; but turn
    away from the ignorant. (7:199)
    Islam brings people from the darkness of ignorance and
    injustice, to the true light of guidance and justice. Allah the
    Wise and Sublime states:
    Allah is the Protector and Ally of those who have faith:
    He leads them from the depths of darkness into the light.
    The disbelievers are the patrons and allies of the taghoot
    (Satan, idols, tyrants): from light they lead them into the
    depths of darkness. They will be Companions of the Fire
    to dwell therein (forever). (2:257)
    Islam educates all Muslims to be peaceful, forgiving, patient
    and caring. Islam seeks all means to establish social justice in
    the society and protect the rights of all citizens of the Islamic
    state and encompasses them all in its welfare system. Islam
    exhorts upon Muslims to be good to others without expecting
    a favor rather seeking the reward from Allah, their Lord Most
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    Bountiful. Islam educates Muslims to respect and honor the
    divine instructions and laws so that every member in the
    society feels secure, safe and peaceful, except those who, by
    their criminal activities, deserve to be punished with justice for
    transgression. Islam educates Muslims to be selfless and to like
    for others as they wish for themselves so that the entire society
    benefits: the old are to be kind to the young and minor; the
    young are to be merciful, respectful and helpful to the old; the
    rich to be generous to the poor; all should seek to aid the
    needy. Islam aims for the ideal society wherein the statement
    of Allah’s Messenger () would be fulfilled:
    “The example of the believers in their love and affection
    to one another is like that of the organs of one body. If
    one organ aches, the rest of the body becomes feverish,
    and is affected.”
    We hope that this booklet helps as a guide for the seekers of
    the truth, those who would seek to achieve the bliss in
    Paradise, seekers of the true salvation from the Hellfire and its
    everlasting and humiliating torture, and the honorable abode
    of Paradise.
    Since we all know that death is the final destiny of every
    living being, the crucial question is: what happens after death?
    Muslims like all believers in scriptures believe in the
    Resurrection after death wherein all will meet just rewards or
    punishments in an eternal life, either in the bliss of Gardens of
    Paradise or the blazing fires of Hell. As for those who sincerely
    accept Islam as a way of life, they surely took the safe path
    that leads to happiness and the bliss after death. As for those
    who commit evil acts in this world against innocent people
    and without any just basis, they would be punished and
    penalized for what they have committed against innocent
    people. However, if one commits any act of disobedience
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    against the Commandments of Allah, the Almighty; it is
    totally up to the Will and Mercy of Allah. If He Wishes to
    torture the evildoer by His justice, there is no one to intercede
    on his behalf unless Allah permits. And if Allah wishes to
    pardon such an evildoer, He would do so out of His Mercy
    and Generosity.
    As for those who turn away from Islam, or turn their backs
    to it and die as non- Muslims, we do believe that such people
    would stay in the Fire of Hell eternally.
    Therefore, we urge every sensible, thoughtful and respective
    human being to seek true salvation for his soul by correct
    actions and based on the Mercy of Allah, Most Merciful. We
    encourage every person to seek the Right and Straight Path
    that leads to Paradise; that is the Path of Allah; the Path of
    Islam; the total submission to Allah. This is the Path that leads
    to happiness for eternity. Allah the Almighty says of those
    enemies who spread false propaganda against Islam:
    Their intention is to extinguish Allah’s Light by their
    mouths: but Allah will complete (the revelation of) His
    Light, even though the disbelievers may detest (it). (61:8)
    The Messenger of Allah () said:
    “By the One in Whose Hand the soul of Muhammad is!
    No member of this nation (to be called), no Jew or
    Christian who hears of me and does not believe in what I
    was sent with, but he will be of the people of the Fire.”
    (Muslim)
    
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    All Praise is due to Allah alone, the Rubb of the Worlds
    And may Allah exalt the mention of His Prophet and his household and
    render him safe from every derogatory thing
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