Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture PDF

Grade 9 to Grade 12
German Language and
Culture
A Foundation for
Implementation

G RADE 9 T O G RADE 1 2
G ERMAN L ANGUAGE AND
C ULTURE
A Foundation for Implementation
2009
Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth
Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth Cataloguing in Publication Data
438.2421 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German language and culture :
a foundation for implementation
ISBN-13: 978-0-7711-4260-4

  1. German language—Study and teaching
    (Secondary)—English speakers. 2. German
    language—Study and teaching as a second
    language (Secondary)—Manitoba. I. Manitoba.
    Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth.
    Copyright © 2009, the Government of Manitoba, represented by the Minister of
    Education, Citizenship and Youth.
    Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth
    School Programs Division
    Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Every effort has been made to acknowledge original sources and to comply with
    copyright law. If cases are identified where this has not been done, please notify
    Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth. Errors or omissions will be corrected
    in a future edition. Sincere thanks to the authors and publishers who allowed
    their original material to be used.
    All images found in this document are copyright protected and should not be
    extracted, accessed, or reproduced for any purpose other than for their intended
    educational use in this document.
    Any websites referenced in this document are subject to change. Educators are
    advised to preview and evaluate websites and online resources before
    recommending them for student use.
    This resource is also available on the Manitoba Education, Citizenship and
    Youth website at www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/cur/languages/index.html>.
    Websites are subject to change without notice.
    C ONTENTS
    Introduction 1
    German Language and Culture: Implementation Overview 1
    Achieving the Learning Outcomes 1
    Grade 9
    Grade 10
    Grade 11
    Grade 12
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 1
    Classroom Assessment 1
    Planning for Instruction and Assessment 1
    Planning Tools
    Sample Plans
    Appendices 1
    References 1
    Contents iii

Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture PDF download

A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the
following individuals in the development of Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture: A
Foundation for Implementation.
Development Team Cathrine Froese-Klassen Director, Centre for Gifted Education,
Univeristy of Winnipeg
Former Teacher, John Taylor Collegiate
St. James-Assiniboia School Division
Heidi Reimer Freelance Educator
Tutor/Marker for Hutterian Schools,
Teacher Mediated Option, Distance Learning
Former Teacher of German, Kildonan East
Collegiate, River East-Transcona School
Division
Tony Tavares Consultant, Diversity Eduction and
International Languages
Instruction, Curriculum and Assessment Branch
Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth
Manitoba Education,
Citizenship and
Youth Staff
School Programs Division
Lee-Ila Bothe
Coordinator
Document Production Services
Educational Resources Branch
Lynn Harrison
Desktop Publisher
Document Production Services
Educational Resources Branch
Irene Klotz
Administrative Assistant
Learning Support and Technology Unit
Instruction, Curriculum, and Assessment Branch
Cheryl Prokopanko
Coordinator
Learning Support and Technology Unit
Instruction, Curriculum, and Assessment Branch
Tony Tavares
Consultant
Learning Support and Technology Unit
Instruction, Curriculum, and Assessment Branch
Acknowledgements v

G RADE 9 T O G RADE 1 2
G ERMAN L ANGUAGE AND
C ULTURE
Introduction

I NTRODUCTION
German Language in the World
German is one of the top ten languages spoken in the world. Approximately 95-100 million
people speak German as their first language. German is the official language of Germany,
where it is spoken by approximately 75 million people; Austria, where it is spoken by
approximately 7.5 million speakers; and the Principality of Liechtenstein. It is one of the
four official languages of Switzerland, and one of the three official languages of
Luxembourg and Belgium. In addition, it is an important minority or regional language in
many countries in Europe, such as Italy (where it has official recognition), France, Denmark,
the Baltic republics, Belarus, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Slovakia,
Romania, and Ukraine. It is also an important regional or minority language outside of
Europe. It is spoken in Namibia, which is a former German colony in Africa, and in the
Americas. In the U.S., the Amish and some Mennonites speak a dialect of German.
Ethnologue estimates that there are 28 million second-language speakers of German
worldwide. It is one of the twenty official languages of the European Union. .
German was once the lingua franca of central, eastern, and northern Europe. Today, it is the
second most studied language in Europe and Asia. In the United States, German is the third
most commonly taught language in schools and universities. The popularity of German is
supported by the wide availability of German television in Europe.
History of German Immigration to Manitoba
Immigrants from Germany or of German-speaking origin have played an important part in
shaping our nation and province. The first historical record of settlers of German-speaking
origin was made in 1816-17 when Lord Selkirk dispatched some 100 German-speaking
Swiss mercenaries of the de Meuron and the de Watteville regiments to help protect and
populate the Red River Settlement. Thousands more new immigrants followed and
homesteaded on the Prairies in the late 1800s, and many of them were of German origin.
These settlers often came not from Germany itself, but from Russia, the Austro-Hungarian
empires, and the Balkan countries, where German colonies had been established in the
eighteenth century.
Mennonite immigrants, primarily from the Palatinate (Germany) and from Russia
(including the region that is now Ukraine), have been an important part of the Germanspeaking community in Manitoba since 1874. By 1890, census information indicated that
12,000 Mennonites lived in southern Manitoba along with 6,000 Germans, of whom 1,600
lived in or around Winnipeg.
Today German-speaking immigrants continue to be an important component of new
arrivals to Manitoba. Since 2002, Germany has been the second most important source
country for new immigrants coming to Manitoba. In 2006, 1,620 immigrants or
approximately 16% of immigrants arriving in Manitoba were from Germany, maintaining
its status as the second top source country for immigrants to Manitoba.
Introduction 3
German Ethnicity and the German Language in Canada
People of German-speaking origin continue to play a significant role in contributing to the
diversity that is a characteristic of Canadian and Manitoban society. In the 2006 Census of
Canada, 3,179,425 individuals reported having German ethnic origins, either solely or in
part. Of these, 216,775 were from Manitoba. In the same 2006 census, 450,570 Canadians
(67,030 of whom were living in Manitoba) reported that German was their mother tongue.
German was one of the most frequently reported mother-tongue languages among first- and
second-generation Canadians from European backgrounds.
Background
In 2000, the Common Curriculum Framework for International Languages, Kindergarten to
Grade 12 was developed through the cooperative efforts of the provinces of
Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta, under the auspices of the Western Canadian
Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education. The intent of that document was to
provide a common foundation and support for the development of curricula for
international language programs.
Subsequently, drafts of Program of Studies: German Language and Culture Grade 7 to
Grade 9 and Program of Studies: German Language and Culture 10-20-30 were developed for
use in the province of Alberta. These documents provided the basis, with some
adaptations, for the WNCP German Language and Culture, Six-Year Junior/Senior High
School Program curriculum document. To support the implementation of this new
curriculum, the German Language and Culture, Six-Year Junior/ Senior High School Program:
Implementation Manual was developed collaboratively by the provinces of Alberta,
Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. The Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture: A
Foundation for Implementation is an adaptation of that manual for use in Manitoba.
Purpose
This implementation manual will assist educators as they
■ plan for instruction that supports student achievement of the learning outcomes
■ monitor student progress in achieving the learning outcomes
■ select learning resources to support their professional development
■ select student learning resources to enhance instruction and assessment
Educators, administrators, and parents may use this document in a variety of ways.
4 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
Teachers (Educators)
Classroom teachers will find theoretical information and research concepts in the
German Language and Culture: Implementation Overview. Specific programming and
classroom information are found in Achieving the (Grade 9 to Grade 12) Learning
Outcomes.
Administrators
Administrators will find essential information in the German Language and Culture:
Implementation Overview, and Achieving the (Grade 9 to Grade 12) Learning
Outcomes. These sections may be of particular value in
■ developing a programming plan for a school
■ identifying directions for professional development
■ developing school/divisional assessment policies and procedures
■ selecting professional resources
Parents
Parents may be directed to German Language and Culture: Implementation Overview
for information about German as an international language and about second language
learning in general. Achieving the (Grade 9 to Grade 12) Learning Outcomes provides
grade-specific information and insights into classroom practices.
Introduction 5
N OTES
6 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
G RADE 9 T O G RADE 12
G ERMAN L ANGUAGE AND
C ULTURE
German Language and Culture:
Implementation Overview
The Benefits of Second Language Learning 3
The Benefits of Learning German Language and Culture 5
The Second/International Language Learner 6
Brain Research and Second Language Learning 10
Considerations for Effective German Language and Culture Programs 12

I MPLEMENTATION O VERVIEW
The Benefits of Second Language Learning*
During the 1990s, there was renewed interest in language learning, especially with
regard to German and Asian languages in North America. There is now a growing
appreciation of the role that multilingual individuals can play in an increasingly diverse
society, and there is a greater understanding of the academic and cognitive benefits of
learning other languages. The last decade has seen an emerging global interest in
international languages and second language education. This has led researchers,
policymakers, educators, employers, parents, and the media to reexamine the
advantages of second or additional languages.
The 1990s have also been characterized as the “Decade of the Brain.” Increased research
on brain development throughout the 1990s has focused attention on the learning
process and developmental issues. Some of this research has analyzed the effect of
language acquisition on the brain. The results of these studies have generated media
interest in how early learning experiences, including first and second language
acquisition, promote cognitive development. Most experts agree that making it possible
for children to learn a second language early in life and beyond is entirely beneficial. A
summary of the many benefits of learning a second language follows.
Personal Benefits
An obvious advantage of knowing more than one language is having expanded access
to people and resources. Individuals who speak and read more than one language have
the ability to communicate with more people, read more literature, and benefit more
fully from travel to other countries. Introducing students to alternative ways of
expressing themselves and to different cultures gives greater depth to their
understanding of human experience by fostering an appreciation for the customs and
achievements of people beyond their own communities. Ultimately, knowing a second
language can also give people a competitive advantage in the work force by opening up
additional job opportunities.


*Adapted: http://www.languagemagazine.com/internetedition/nd99/pg23.html Kathleen M. Marcos, Assistant
Director, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics Center for Applied Linguistics. Adapted from “Second
Language Learning: Everyone Can Benefit.” K-12 Foreign Language Education: The ERIC Review, Volume 6, Issue 1,
fall 1998. http://www.accesseric.org/resources/ericreview/vol6no1/langlern.html#1
Implementation Overview 3
For many people, there’s something inherently enjoyable about successfully speaking in
another tongue. Learning a new language can be an intensely challenging and
rewarding experience.
Cognitive Benefits
Some researchers suggest that students who receive second language instruction are
more creative and better at solving complex problems than those who do not (Bamford
and Mizokawa). Other studies suggest that bilingual individuals outperform similar
monolinguals on both verbal and non-verbal tests of intelligence, which raises the
question of whether ability in more than one language enables individuals to achieve
greater intellectual flexibility (Bruck, Lambert, and Tucker; Hakuta; Weatherford).
Academic Benefits
Parents and educators sometimes express concern that learning a second language will
have a detrimental effect on students’ reading and verbal abilities in English. However,
several studies suggest the opposite. Knowing a second language, according to the latest
research on reading, can really help a child comprehend written languages faster and
possibly learn to read more easily, provided that children are exposed to stories and
literacy in both languages (Bialystok “Effects of Bilingualism”). By age four, bilingual
children have progressed more than monolingual children in understanding the
symbolic function of written language. By five, they are more advanced than
monolinguals and bilinguals who have learned only one writing system, in
understanding specific representation properties, even in English.
The positive effects of bilingualism were also documented in an American study
analyzing achievement test data of students who had participated five years or more in
“immersion” type international language programs in Fairfax County, Virginia. The
study concluded that students scored as well as or better than all comparison groups
and continued to be high academic achievers throughout their school years (Thomas,
Collier, and Abbott). Numerous other studies have also shown a positive relationship
between foreign language study and achievement in English language arts (Barik and
Swain; Genesee Learning; Swain).
4 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
Societal Benefits
Bilingualism and multilingualism have many benefits to society. Canadians who are
fluent in more than one language can enhance Canada’s economic competitiveness
abroad, maintain its political and security interests, and work to promote an
understanding of cultural diversity within our nation. For example, international trade
specialists, overseas media correspondents, diplomats, airline employees, and national
security personnel need to be familiar with other languages and cultures to do their jobs
well. Teachers, healthcare providers, customer service representatives, and law
enforcement personnel also serve their constituencies more effectively when they can
reach across languages and cultures. Developing the language abilities of the students
now in school will improve the effectiveness of the work force later.
The Benefits of Learning German Language and Culture
In this century, different languages and cultures will increasingly influence our lives and
our ability to work and collaborate with others in our global village. German is and will
continue to be an important world language, and knowing the German language and
culture will be an important aspect of national and international communication. Over
100 million people throughout the world speak German and it is one of the top
20 languages most frequently spoken as a first or additional language. Today, German is
an important second or additional language in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Europe.
German is also an important language in North America. Many Canadians and
Americans are of German-speaking origin, and German is frequently reported as a
mother tongue in both countries. In Manitoba, over 67,000 people reported German as
their mother tongue in 2006.
In Canada, our social and economic connections with the German-speaking world are
growing and developing at an exponential rate. In the last three decades, there has been
a significant increase in Canadians of German-speaking origin.
There are other reasons to consider learning German:
■ A world language: Over 100 million people speak German, and it is one of the top
ten languages most frequently spoken as a first or additional language. It is a
important language for science, politics, the arts, tourism, and business and trade in
both Europe and throughout the world.
■ Better understanding of English: English has much in common with German. English
and German both descended from the West Germanic language, though their
relationship has been obscured by the great influx of Norman French words to
English as a consequence of the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, and other
developments in the German language. Because of this relationship some English
words are identical to their German lexical counterparts, either in the spelling, in the
pronunciation, or both. In addition English has been influenced by German
immigration to North America and Germany’s impact on the sciences, literature, and
Implementation Overview 5
other areas has resulted in many English words being borrowed directly from
German. Therefore, studying German will provide insights into the English
language and vocabulary. Similarly, both German and English share Indo-European
roots, so their grammars are similar. The learning of English grammar is enhanced
by studying the grammar of another language, for that study forces you to think
about how your language is structured.
■ Knowing our neighbors: Many Canadians and other North Americans are of Germanspeaking origin. Knowing German enhances our opportunities to communicate with
our neighbours in North America and throughout the world.
■ Cultural understanding: Knowing another language gives us a window into that
culture’s way of knowing and being. In our increasingly interdependent and
connected global society, cultural understanding is critical. Knowing the German
language and culture will provide insights into how contemporary Canadian and
American culture was shaped.
■ Learning other languages: If you learn German, you will have a head start in learning
other Germanic languages, such as Frisian, Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans, Yiddish,
Danish, Faeroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish.
■ German literature, the arts, science, politics, music, and film: Germany also offers a
wealth of literature, both modern and traditional. German-language films continue
to receive praise from the film industry and viewers. German-speaking artists,
authors and writers in almost every field, and scientists have influenced the world
we live in today. Learning German provides the opportunity to delve directly into
this very important and rich artistic, cultural, and scientific heritage.
■ Employment opportunities: Canadian companies and businesses provide services or
have subsidiaries in Latin America. The reverse is also true. Many Latin American
countries are important trading partners with Canada and the United States.
German is useful for those planning a career in one of the helping professions and
any occupation that involves international trade, communications, or tourism.
■ Travel and tourism: Because there are so many German-speaking countries and
making travel arrangements to them is relatively easy, many Canadians frequently
visit German-speaking countries. While it is possible to visit German-speaking
countries and get by with English only, speaking German provides greater
opportunities to meet new people, communicate with local people, and gain insights
into the communities and cultures.
■ Easy for English speakers to learn: Because of its Latin roots, a similar alphabet, and
regular pronunciation rules, German is one of the easiest languages for an English
speaker to learn. Spelling of German words closely corresponds to their
pronunciation. Mastering German grammar may, however, present a bigger
challenge for speakers of English.
6 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
The Second/International Language Learner
Language learning is an active process that begins at birth and continues throughout
life. Language is acquired at various rates and in different ways throughout a learner’s
stages of growth, developing progressively according to individual characteristics and
criteria. Students enhance their language abilities by applying their knowledge of
language in ever new and more complex contexts with ever increasing sophistication.
They reflect on and use prior knowledge to extend and enhance their language
knowledge and understanding.
Middle/Senior Years Learners
Language and literacy development begins with the child’s earliest experiences with
language. The development of oral language, reading, writing, viewing, and
representing are interrelated processes. Early years learners actively engage in acquiring
language and constructing their own understandings of how oral and written language
works. Language learning in the early years is fostered through experience and play.
Social interaction is also a vital part of the students’ social, emotional, intellectual, and
linguistic development.
The middle years may be an especially significant and challenging time for both learners
and teachers. Myriam Met argues the following:
Middle school students are characterized by a number of developmental changes—physical,
social, emotional, and cognitive. These changes and the feelings they bring about have
implications for language instruction and learning. Great care should be exercised in
activities that require students to generate physical descriptions or comparisons. Students
may feel awkward about their appearance, may be reluctant to stand before the class for
individual presentations, and should be allowed more sheltered opportunities such as small
group or student-teacher interaction. The need for movement necessitates activities that
physically engage students. Hands-on materials and manipulatives provide opportunities for
movement while addressing the needs of kinesthetic and tactile learners. Group work allows
students to move about the room. In middle school classrooms, it is not unusual to see
small groups of students stretched out or seated on the floor.
Piaget has suggested that the middle years are the time children move from the stage of
concrete to formal operations. How new concepts are acquired will be influenced by
maturational development. The difficulty many middle school students experience in
mastering abstract grammar concepts may not be as much a reflection of aptitude as of
cognitive maturity. These students will benefit more from concrete experiences, such as
vocabulary presented through direct experiences, manipulation of real objects, and pictures,
all set in a meaningful context. (“Middle Schools” 2–3)
Middle and senior years learners need many of the same classroom and school supports
that create a welcoming and motivating learning environment for younger learners.
However, there are some significant differences between older second language learners
and younger ones. First, there is evidence from brain research that older second
language learners use related but different parts of their brain to learn a second
language. This suggests a different learning process, one that is more dependent on the
Implementation Overview 7
student’s first language. Research suggests that older learners are able to “transfer”
many first language skills to their second or additional language (Curtiss; Johnson and
Newport).
However, their first language will influence skills in the new language in terms of
accent, intonation, and other factors. This does not mean that older students will be less
able to become proficient in the additional language, only that some aspects of their first
or dominant language will carry over into their second language. Equally important is
the overall exposure and opportunity to use the language in everyday situations. The
more time devoted to language learning the greater the proficiency achieved (Curtain
and Pesola).
Factors That Influence Multilingual Development
It is important that teachers and parents recognize that there are a number of personal
factors or individual characteristics which affect learners and their capacity to learn an
additional language. These factors are beyond the control of the teacher or school, but
are important to consider as they are one of the reasons learners will acquire language at
different paces. Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa identifies ten key factors that have an
impact on individual learners. The ten key factors include aptitude, timing, motivation,
strategy, consistency, opportunity, the linguistic relationship between the languages,
siblings, gender, and hand-use. For the purpose of this document we will look at nine of
the factors which are most relevant for language learners in senior years settings.
Aptitude: Every individual is born with a certain aptitude for different life skills.
Aptitude is based on inherited genes. While teachers cannot influence how much
aptitude a learner has, they can make the most of what does exist, and shore it up by
using the other nine factors.
Timing: This refers to the windows of opportunity in a person’s life when second
language learning is facilitated by various factors. Research has shown that the
preschool years and the period up to approximately age 12 are a particularly important
period in children’s linguistic development. During this period and especially during
the first three years of life, the foundations for thinking, language, vision, attitudes,
aptitudes, and other characteristics are laid down. Since 50 percent of the ability to learn
is developed in the first years of life and another 30 percent by age eight, early
childhood development programs have the opportunity to encourage early learning and
development. This does not mean, however, that 50 to 80 percent of one’s intelligence,
wisdom, or knowledge is formed during early childhood. It simply means that during
the first few years of life, children form their main learning pathways in the brain
(Bloom). There are six main pathways to the brain. They include learning by sight,
sound, taste, touch, smell, and doing (Dryden and Vos). Later in life, everything an
individual learns will grow from the information gained during these early years.
Between four and seven years old is a wonderful window for learning new languages.
Learners who enter German Language and Culture programs with bilingual or
multilingual early childhood and school experiences may initially have an advantage or
8 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
progress more rapidly than monolingual children. The learning of an additional
language in the senior years may be more challenging for certain learners. However, it is
equally important to recognize that older learners benefit from their increased
knowledge and experience of the world, as well as their first language literacy and
language skills. Older learners have a more extensive and well-developed range of first
language skills which they can apply to their second language learning.
The debate over whether it is better to begin learning a second language at an early age
or to wait until students are more mature has not been resolved. There is, however,
some evidence in support of starting second language learning early. As indicated
earlier there is evidence that there are some differences in the brain processes between
learning a second language as a young learner and as an older learner. Students who
begin learning at an earlier age have a greater exposure to the language over time. Older
learners are more likely to reflect aspects of their first language, especially in their oral
production in terms of intonation, register, and rhythm of speech. Although the
increased cognitive abilities of older students may, in part, compensate for the reduced
amount of time spent on language learning in the case of late entry, students cannot be
expected to attain the same level of skill and knowledge as those who begin in
kindergarten or grade one.
Motivation: Learners’ preparedness for learning international languages is partially
dependent on their motivation, which includes both positive and negative, as well as
internal and external factors, such as how a student feels about the language being
learned, and the attitude of other significant persons such as parents and peers. A
positive relationship with the language teacher facilitates communication and motivates
students.
Strategy: In her study, Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa found that families who had a welldeveloped plan that provided for good language learning opportunities were more
successful in developing bilingual language skills. In a school setting, it is equally
important that an effective instructional plan is in place for the implementation of
German Language and Culture curricula.
Consistency: It is critical that second language learners are exposed to language learning
opportunities in a consistent and continuous fashion. In a school setting this translates
into the importance of scheduling German Language and Culture curricula to provide
for well-sequenced and consistent language learning opportunities.
Opportunity: A student may have a great motivation to learn an additional language, but
if they do not have the opportunity to practise it in meaningful situations, they will
never truly become proficient. It is important that sufficient time be allocated for
German Language and Culture during the school day. Students and parents can
supplement and enhance classroom language learning experiences by seeking out or
building opportunities for language learning in the home and in the community, as well
as participating in related extra-curricular activities sponsored by schools.
Implementation Overview 9
The Linguistic Relationship between Languages: This simply means whether or not the
language being learned and those that the learner is already fluent in share a common
historical root. For example, German and English share roots, as do other Germanic
languages, such as Dutch, Swedish, Danish, and Norwegian. If the learner’s first
language shares roots with the second language, then the second language is easier to
learn due to the similarity of grammar, vocabulary, and sound systems and the fact that
learners may more easily transfer their first language skills. It is important that teachers
be aware of the linguistic diversity present in the classroom and the language skills of
students. Such knowledge will enable teachers to respond to learner needs and
characteristics much more effectively and will assist in assessing student learning.
Gender: There is evidence that women and men approach language learning from
different parts of the brain. Men tend to localize language in the brain to a rather small
and specific area and are relatively literal in their appraisal of conversations, whereas
women tend to have their language skills spread out over a wider area of the brain,
giving greater importance to things such as intonation, facial movements, and body
language. Teachers need to consider gender differences in planning for instruction. It is
important to use a variety of instructional approaches that respond to diverse student
characteristics.
Hand-Use: Most people have their main language area of the brain in the left frontal and
parietal lobes, but unexplainably, a small percentage (30%) of those who write with their
left hand and 5% of those who write with their right hand may actually have language
spread out over a greater area. This is not to say that this special group are better at
international languages than others, but rather that they may favour different teaching
methods.
While all ten factors affect all learners, they will do so in different ways. Such
individuality is what gives researchers and educators awe at the human capacity for
language, and what challenges policy makers and administrators to re-think an
individual approach to language education.
Brain Research and Second Language Learning
Brain research has provided greater insights into how language learning happens or is
processed in the brain and the significance for second language teaching. Researchers
have conceptualized the brain as being composed of four distinct elements: the reptile
brain, the emotional brain, the “little brain,” and the thinking brain (Jensen; Dryden and
Vos; MacLean). The brain stem, sometimes called the reptile brain, controls many of our
body’s involuntary functions such as breathing. The mammalian or emotional brain is
located in the center of the brain and stores memory. Therefore, learning is easier if it is
made emotional or fun. In fact, the door to learning is emotion (Jensen; MacLean; Dryden
and Vos).
10 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
Where does thinking about the language we are learning take place? Our cortex, or
thinking brain, includes the motor cortex and the sensory cortex. Within the cortex, there
are many kinds of intelligence centers. Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner (Frames
and speech) has spent many years analyzing the human brain and its impact on
education, including language learning. Gardner says that we have several types of
intelligence:
Linguistic Intelligence: The ability to read, write, and communicate with words.
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence: The ability to reason and calculate.
Musical Intelligence: The musical ability highly developed by composers and top
musicians.
Visual-Spatial Intelligence: The ability to master position in space. This intelligence is used
by architects, painters, and pilots.
Visual Intelligence: The ability to memorize visually and use the imagination.
Kinesthetic Intelligence: The physical intelligence used by dancers and athletes.
Social Intelligence: The ability to relate to others, used by salespeople and motivators.
Introspective Intelligence: The ability to know one’s inner feelings, wants, and needs.
Natural Intelligence: The ability to learn by exploring nature.
Implications for Language Learning
The implications of brain research and multiple intelligence theory to second language
teaching are many.

  1. Learning is experiential: We learn by engaging in real hands-on activities and tasks.
  2. Learning uses all senses: Reinforce learning with pictures and sounds, learn by
    touching, learn by tasting, and learn by smelling (Dryden and Rose).
  3. Learning should be fun: The more fun it is to learn a language, the more one will want
    to continue. Learning while playing is an effective way to learn because it creates
    emotional attachments, and emotion is the door to learning (Jensen; Dryden and
    Vos; Dryden and Rose).
  4. Learning is best when in a relaxed but challenging state: Avoid stress. Research shows
    that 80 percent of learning problems are stress- related (Stokes and Whiteside).
  5. Learning through music and rhythm: Music is an effective way to learn a new
    language. Often one can remember the songs learned in early childhood. We do so
    because lyrics combined with music are easier to learn (Lozanov; Campbell; Brewer
    and Campbell).
    Implementation Overview 11
  6. Learning through action: Learning activities that use the body and the mind together
    are powerful tools for learning. While traditionally, we encouraged students to sit
    all day long, we now know that we learn more when we move as we learn. Utilize
    learning strategies that include physical interaction and encourage students to
    dance and move to the rhythm when learning a second or third language (Gardner
    Frames; Doman; Dryden and Vos).
  7. Learning by engaging with others: Having students practise a language by talking to
    each other over a meal, for example, is a great way to learn (Gardner Frames;
    Dryden and Vos).
  8. Learning by reflecting: It is important to let children take time to “simmer.” There is a
    silent stage to language learning. First children absorb the language. Later they
    begin to speak (Krashen Fundamentals).
  9. Learning by linking: “The more you link, the more you learn” (Vos). Anything can be
    linked when learning a second language, including numbers and new vocabulary
    words (Dryden and Vos). For example, link numbers and words in a playful way
    (Dryden and Rose). Reciting the numbers from one to ten in German in rhythm is
    an effective way to begin language learning—“eins, zwei, drei, vier, fünf, sechs, sieben,
    acht, neun, zehn.”
  10. Learning uses the whole world as the classroom: Real life experiences and
    situations engage learners, and bring meaning and context to the learning process
    (Dryden and Vos).
    Considerations for Effective German Language and Culture Programs
    International language programs are complex and multifaceted, providing a rich
    environment for the learning of language and culture.
    Effective international languages learning environments are those in which
    ■ the individual and collective needs of students are met
    ■ there is a supportive climate that encourages risk-taking and choice
    ■ diversity in learning styles and needs are accommodated
    ■ connections to prior knowledge and experiences are made
    ■ there is exposure to a wide range of excellent models of authentic language
    ■ use of the German language is emphasized
    ■ quality multimedia, print, human, and other resources are available and applied in a
    supportive, meaningful, and purposeful manner
    German Language and Culture courses strive to provide a rich language learning
    environment, stressing communicative competence, high academic achievement, and
    enriched cultural experiences that maximize student opportunities for learning.
    12 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    Time
    The amount of time allocated to German Language and Culture courses across western
    Canada may vary. Generally, these are optional courses or subjects. For the purpose of
    this Manitoba document, we have assumed that students at each grade level will
    experience 110 hours of classroom-based German language and culture instruction.
    If the amount of time is reduced, then the expected level of achievement should be
    adjusted accordingly.
    When planning for instructional time in German Language and Culture, administrators
    and teachers should carefully consider the impact of scheduling on the linguistic
    development of the students. In the middle years and senior years settings, it is
    recommended that German Language and Culture courses be scheduled to ensure
    maximum continuity of exposure to the language throughout the school year. If students
    lose contact with the language for long periods of time, whether on a weekly or a yearly
    basis, added time must be taken to review previously-learned material that may have
    been forgotten. Students benefit from using the language on a daily basis.
    Prior Knowledge
    The German Language and Culture curriculum assumes that the students will have
    limited or no previous knowledge of the German language upon entry into the program.
    In situations where the majority of students do have previous knowledge of the German
    language, schools may offer an accelerated program or may assess students and plan
    courses to suit the students’ individual needs. In all cases, students’ language levels
    should be assessed and programs adapted when necessary to meet individual language
    learning needs.
    Students who already have a second language, particularly one that is related to the
    German language, will often learn additional languages more quickly and more easily
    than those beginning their study of a second language.
    Class Groupings
    In some situations, students from two grades may have to be combined into one German
    class. As well, many classrooms will contain students at the same grade level with
    varying proficiency levels. By organizing the classroom activities around a task or a
    content-related project, students of different ages and different levels of ability can be
    accommodated in a single classroom. Although all students will be working on similar
    tasks or projects, expectations will be different for each grade or sub-group. Careful
    planning from year to year and across grade levels will ensure that students experience
    a variety of learning activities on a broad range of topics.
    Implementation Overview 13
    Opportunities for Language Use and Real-Life Applications
    Proficiency-based instruction, which focuses on what students can do with what they
    know, is critical. Classroom activities that engage students in meaningful and
    purposeful language use should predominate. Reports suggest that in middle schools
    where proficiency-based approaches are used, a larger and more diverse population of
    students experience success (Met “Middle Schools”).
    Students will be more successful language learners if they have opportunities to use the
    language for authentic and meaningful communication in a broad range of contexts. In
    addition, the curriculum supports and encourages the real-life application of language
    learning through meaningful contact with fluent speakers of German and authentic
    German texts, such as newspapers, magazines, electronic communications, and
    multimedia resources.
    While it is important to have a rich language environment in the classroom, it is also
    important to attempt to provide co-curricular and extra-curricular activities during
    which students have the opportunity to use and develop their German language skills.
    Such school- and community-sponsored activities as language camps, visits to cultural
    facilities, pen pals, plays and performances, language clubs, school visits, and exchanges
    are important. It is also important to encourage students to continue the development of
    their German-language skills by using the language for personal enjoyment, listening to
    music, attending German cultural events and performances, and accessing and using
    self-study resources.
    Choice of Topics and Tasks
    The choice of learning topics and tasks should be guided by the needs, interests, and
    daily experiences of the students, as well as the recommended areas of experience. In the
    curriculum, different areas of experience and themes are suggested as possible
    organizers to guide the choice of tasks. The recommended areas of experience are
    reflected in the learning activities which form part of the next section, Achieving the
    Learning Outcomes.
    Language of Instruction
    It is expected that classes will take place in the German language in order to maximize
    exposure to the language. German language should dominate classroom interaction,
    whether the teacher or the students are speaking. Learners will sometimes use their first
    language, especially in the early stages of learning, but will move to the German
    language as they gain more skill and knowledge. There may be some situations where a
    few minutes of class time will be used for reflection on the learning process in English or
    for the development of cultural understanding or skills.
    14 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    Program Support
    Effective German Language and Culture classes depend heavily on collaboration among
    a range of stakeholders. Students, parents and parental organizations, teachers, school
    administration, central administration, ministries of education, members of the local
    community, members of German-speaking communities, post-secondary institutions,
    German cultural institutions, and other stakeholders all play crucial roles in supporting
    German language courses. Special attention needs to be paid to ensure that the
    opportunities for collaboration are maximized.
    Resources
    Planning lessons and assembling resources for German Language and Culture means
    more than finding a good text with accompanying workbook and audiotapes. As much
    as possible, students should work with all kinds of authentic audio and print materials
    and resources, including documents and texts that were designed for German speakers
    as well as materials prepared for second language learners. These resources should also
    be appropriate for the age, the developmental level, and the linguistic level of the
    students. Textbooks and materials should set accessible goals that provide learners with
    a sense of accomplishment and closure.
    Other important characteristics of effective learning resources are:
    ■ Materials should be flexible enough to accommodate the diversity found in
    schools—a variety of learning styles, interests, abilities, attention spans, and
    backgrounds.
    ■ Activities should reinforce positive aspects of students’ self-image.
    ■ Learning should be made concrete through contextualized vocabulary presentations
    and the extensive use of visuals such as pictured vocabulary, videos, and charts.
    ■ Exercises and activities should include hands-on student involvement, whether
    through the use of manipulatives or other forms of physical interaction.
    ■ Instructional experiences should emphasize the development of understanding
    rather than the decontextualized memorization of vocabulary lists and grammar
    rules.
    ■ Abstract concepts should be made accessible through concrete experience and
    scaffolding of complex tasks.
    ■ Interaction with peers should be integrated into these materials to provide for the
    cognitive and social benefits of pair and group work.
    ■ Materials should be seen by students as relevant to their interests. (Met “Middle
    Schools”)
    Implementation Overview 15
    The Role of the Teacher
    The teacher is the key to success in the German classroom. Effective teaching demands a
    broad range of teacher knowledge and skills both in the German language and in second
    language pedagogy.
    German Language and Culture teachers must be proficient speakers of the language,
    have a good understanding of German culture, and possess a strong background in a
    variety of second language teaching methodologies. In addition, teachers will benefit
    from experience, professional development, and expertise in
    ■ responding to diversity in the classroom and using multilevel groupings
    ■ cooperative learning and student-centred learning
    ■ multi-media and computer-assisted learning
    ■ resource-based language learning
    Teachers should continue to engage in professional development in order to maintain or
    improve their proficiency in the German language and keep their teaching skills current.
    The classroom climate created by the teacher cannot be over-emphasized. Students will
    respond positively to an encouraging teacher and a warm, supportive, and accepting
    learning environment. Clear expectations and strong classroom management skills are
    necessary to allow students to perform to their potential.
    Student Motivation
    When students value their learning, believe they can succeed, and feel in control of the
    learning process, they develop motivation, or the desire to learn. Teachers can foster
    students’ motivation to learn by
    ■ instilling in each student a belief that s/he can learn
    ■ helping students become aware of their own learning processes, and teaching them
    strategies for monitoring and enhancing these processes
    ■ assigning tasks and materials of appropriate difficulty, and making sure that
    students receive the necessary instruction, modelling, and guided practice to be
    successful
    ■ communicating assessment processes clearly so that students understand the criteria
    by which progress and achievement are measured
    ■ helping students set realistic goals to enhance their learning
    ■ helping students celebrate their own and classmates’ learning progress and
    achievements within the school community and the broader community
    ■ ensuring that instruction is embedded in meaningful learning events and
    experiences
    16 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    ■ modelling personal enjoyment of German language learning, and communicating
    the value of learning another language for later success in the world beyond the
    classroom
    ■ involving students in the choice of themes, topics, resources, and activities around
    which learning experiences will take place, to foster a sense of ownership
    ■ creating inclusive, risk-free classroom communities where curiosity is fostered and
    active involvement in the learning process is valued and shared
    ■ providing uninterrupted time for sustained engagement with appropriate German
    print and non-print resources
    ■ providing collaborative learning experiences that enable students to exchange ideas
    and perspectives, develop a sense of purpose, and build a sense of community
    The Physical Environment
    The German Language and Culture classroom is the main instructional area in the
    school where German language teaching and learning occur. Its size, design, and
    contents should be able to accommodate a variety of language learning activities. Of
    course, a permanent location is preferred whether it is a special language room shared
    by several teachers or the German teacher’s own classroom. This will provide learners
    with a sense of stability and familiarity; reduce the German teacher’s preparation time,
    as all materials can be displayed in the classroom as necessary and stored in one
    location; and eliminate the inconvenience of transporting instructional materials. The
    physical layout of the room is best determined by the German Language and Culture
    teacher.
    Implementation Overview 17
    N OTES
    18 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    G RADE 9 T O G RADE 1 2
    G ERMAN L ANGUAGE AND
    C ULTURE
    Achieving the Learning Outcomes
    Contents 3
    Guide to Reading the Columns 3
    Integration of Outcomes 4
    Create a Context for Using Specific Learning Outcomes 5
    Use Learning Outcomes and Strategies Recursively 5
    The Four General Learning Outcomes 5
    Grade 9
    Grade 10
    Grade 11
    Grade 12

A CHIEVING THE L EARNING O UTCOMES
Contents
The Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture: A Foundation for Implementation
identifies the prescribed general and specific learning outcomes by grade from the first
to the fourth year. In addition, it provides suggestions for instruction, assessment, and
the selection of learning resources to assist educators as they work with students to
achieve the prescribed learning outcomes.
Guide to Reading the Columns
The General Learning Outcome, which is the same from Grade 9 to Grade 12, is listed at
the top of the first page.
Column one on each page cites the heading for a cluster of specific learning outcomes in
bold print, and the heading for the specific learning outcome in italics. The specific
learning outcome is highlighted by an asterisk.
Column two includes examples of teaching and learning activities that help to illustrate
the intent of the specific learning outcome, under the heading Suggestions for
Instruction. German language samples of student materials related to the specific
learning outcome may be included.
Column three includes suggestions for classroom assessment under the heading
Suggestions for Assessment.
Column four provides suggestions for resources that German Language and Culture
program teachers have used or reviewed in the development of this document and in
their classrooms. These resources are listed under the heading Suggested Learning
Resources. All resources listed can be found in either the References section of this
document or in Appendix C found on page Appendices – 13. Further information on
some of these resources can be found in the annotated bibliography of learning
resources found at .
Achieving the Learning Outcomes 3
Integration of Learning Outcomes
The German Language and Culture documents (Framework and Foundation for
Implementation) assume that the general and specific learning outcomes will be delivered
in an integrated manner, even though the curriculum document itself is divided into
numbered sections. Although the Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture: A
Foundation for Implementation contains four-column sections, the four-column section
treats each specific learning outcome separately to provide suggestions specific to that
learning outcome. In the classroom, single learning outcomes are rarely taught in
isolation. Effective integrated German Language and Culture learning experiences
typically address many learning outcomes simultaneously. Teaching vocabulary or
grammar points in isolation is not an effective method. Activities designed to develop
specific skills related to the form of the language should always be embedded in
meaningful contexts where students will see the purpose for learning the skill and will
have immediate opportunities to use the particular form in their own productions.
4 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
Applications • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.3 get things done
1.3.1 Guide Actions of Others
✤ make a variety of simple
requests
➤ Divide the class into groups. Have each group learn a
game played in the German-speaking world (e.g.,
Kartenspiele, Stille Post, Verbenpantomime, Montagsmaler).
Have each group teach the class the game it has learned,
using as many German expressions as possible (e.g., Du
bist dran, die Würfel). As an extension, have students invite
community members to participate in a German Day,
when the games could be played (BC Resource Package, 42).
➤ Have students describe in written form all of the activities
they carry out in a given situation (e.g., a shopping trip
that involves stops at various types of stores).
➤ Present the expressions required for managing turn taking
and requesting help. Provide students with a list and
involve students in demonstrating each item.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
10 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.3.2 State Personal Actions
✤ express ability or
inability to do something
1.3.3 Manage Group Actions
✤ manage turn taking
✤ ask for help
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 11
➤ When students teach one another games they have
learned, encourage them to use German as much as
possible. Establish criteria for group feedback such as the
following:
• demonstration is clear and easy to follow
• demonstration was successful; the other students
learned the game
• language associated with the activity is used accurately
• comparisons to familiar games or activities help to
develop understanding
➤ When students describe activities in written form, look for
evidence that they are able to
• use a variety of action verbs
• conjugate verbs correctly with the third person singular
• use descriptors to enhance their written text
➤ In subsequent activities, look for evidence that students are
using appropriate expressions.
Create a Context for Using Specific Learning Outcomes
The specific learning outcomes listed in the four columns are not intended to be taught
in the order in which they are written. Teachers are encouraged to select specific
learning outcomes, both within a general learning outcome and across all four general
learning outcomes, and to organize these learning outcomes into logical sequences for
instructional activities. German Language and Culture instruction and assessment
should always occur within meaningful literacy contexts. Teachers develop authentic
instruction and assessment focused on specific learning outcomes while developing
themes, inquiries, genre studies, projects, tasks, and other learning experiences.
Use Learning Outcomes and Strategies Recursively
Many aspects of language arts are recursive and need to be revisited repeatedly through
the use of a variety of materials and strategies. Questioning, for example, can be used
repeatedly in many different contexts. Learning outcomes can be introduced using one
strategy, and then revisited and extended, using different strategies or different topics,
until students have achieved the particular learning outcomes.
The Four General Learning Outcomes
Achieving the Learning Outcomes 5
Applications
Students will use German in a variety of situations and for a variety
of purposes to
• impart and receive information
• express emotions and personal perspectives
• get things done
• extend their knowledge of the world
• use the language for imaginative purposes and personal enjoyment
• form, maintain, and change interpersonal relationships
Language Competence
Students will use German effectively and competently to
• attend to form
• interpret and produce oral texts
• interpret and produce written texts
• apply knowledge of the sociocultural context
• apply knowledge of how text is organized, structured, and
sequenced
Global Citizenship
Students will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to be
effective global citizens, through the exploration of the cultures of
the German-speaking world to
• study historical and contemporary elements of German-speaking
cultures
• affirm diversity
• explore personal and career opportunities
Strategies
Students will know and use various strategies to maximize the
effectiveness of learning and communication:
• language learning strategies
• language use strategies
• general learning strategies
Applications
Students will use German in a variety of situations and for a variety of purposes.
The specific learning outcomes under the heading Applications deal with what the
students will be able to do with the German language, that is, the functions they will be
able to perform and the contexts in which they will be able to operate. This functional
competence, also called actional competence, is important for a content-based or taskbased approach to language learning where students are constantly engaged in
meaningful tasks (Celce-Murcia, Dörnyei, and Thurrell).
Different models of communicative competence have organized language functions in a
variety of ways. The organizational structure chosen here reflects the needs and interests
of students in a classroom where activities are focused on meaning and are interactive.
For example, the strand entitled manage group actions has been included to ensure that
students acquire the language necessary to function independently in small groups,
since this is an effective way of organizing second language classrooms. The strands
under the cluster heading to extend their knowledge of the world will accommodate a
content-based approach to language learning where students learn content from another
subject area as they learn the German language.
The level of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and discourse competence that students will
exhibit when carrying out the functions is defined in the specific learning outcomes for
Language Competence for each course. To know how well students will be able to
perform the specific function, the Applications learning outcomes must be read in
conjunction with the Language Competence learning outcomes.
Language Competence
Students will use German effectively and competently.
Language competence is a broad term that includes linguistic or grammatical
competence, discourse competence, sociolinguistic or sociocultural competence, and
what might be called textual competence. The specific learning outcomes under
Language Competence deal with knowledge of the German language and the ability to
use that knowledge to interpret and produce meaningful texts appropriate to the
situation in which they are used. Language competence is best developed in the context
of activities or tasks where the language is used for real purposes, in other words, in
practical applications.
Although the learning outcomes isolate individual aspects, language competence should
be developed through learning activities that focus on meaningful uses of the German
language and on language in context. Tasks will be chosen based on the needs, interests,
and experiences of students. The vocabulary, grammar structures, text forms, and social
conventions necessary to carry out a task will be taught, practised, and assessed as
students are involved in various aspects of the task itself, not in isolation.
6 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
Strategic competence is often closely associated with language competence, since
students need to learn ways to compensate for low proficiency in the early stages of
learning if they are to engage in authentic language use from the beginning. This
component is included in the language use strategies in the Strategies section.
Global Citizenship
Students will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to be effective global citizens,
through the exploration of the cultures of the German-speaking world.
The learning outcomes for Global Citizenship deal with a broad range of knowledge,
skills, and attitudes needed to be effective global citizens—in other words, with the
development of intercultural competence. The concept of global citizenship
encompasses citizenship at all levels, from the local school and community to Canada
and the world.
Developing cultural knowledge and skills is a lifelong process. Knowledge of one’s own
culture is acquired over a lifetime. Cultures change over time. Within any national
group, there may be a dominant culture or cultures and a number of minority cultures.
Rather than try to develop an extensive bank of knowledge about the German-speaking
cultures, it is more important for students to learn the processes and methods of
accessing and analyzing cultural practices. Students will gain cultural knowledge in the
process of developing these skills. In this way, if they encounter elements of the
German-speaking cultures they have not learned about in class, they will have the skills
and abilities to deal with them effectively and appropriately.
The affirm diversity heading covers knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are developed
as a result of bringing other languages and cultures into relationship with one’s own.
There is a natural tendency, when learning a new language and culture, to compare it
with what is familiar. Many students leave a second language learning experience with a
heightened awareness and knowledge of their own language and culture. They will also
be able to make some generalizations about languages and cultures based on their
experiences and those of their classmates who may have a variety of cultural
backgrounds. This will provide students with an understanding of diversity within both
a global and a Canadian context.
Achieving the Learning Outcomes 7
Strategies
Students will know and use various strategies to maximize the effectiveness of learning
and communication.
Under the Strategies heading are specific learning outcomes that will help students learn
and communicate more effectively. Strategic competence has long been recognized as an
important component of communicative competence. The learning outcomes that follow
deal not only with compensation and repair strategies, important in the early stages of
language learning when proficiency is low, but also with strategies for language
learning, language use in a broad sense, as well as general learning strategies that help
students acquire content. Although people may use strategies unconsciously, the
learning outcomes deal only with the conscious use of strategies.
The strategies that students choose depend on the task they are engaged in as well as on
other factors, such as their preferred learning style, personality, age, attitude, and
cultural background. Strategies that work well for one person may not be effective for
another person or may not be suitable in a different situation. For this reason it is not
particularly useful to say that students should be aware of, or able to use, a specific
strategy in a particular course. Consequently, the specific learning outcomes describe the
students’ knowledge of and ability to use general types of strategies. The specific
strategies provided in the suggested activity are not prescriptive but are provided as an
illustration of how the general strategies in the specific learning outcomes might be
developed.
Teachers need to know and be able to demonstrate a broad range of strategies from
which students are then able to choose in order to communicate effectively. Strategies of
all kinds are best taught in the context of learning activities where students can apply
them immediately and then reflect on their use.
8 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
G RADE 9 T O G RADE 1 2
G ERMAN L ANGUAGE AND
C ULTURE
Grade 9
Applications 3
Language Compentence 19
Global Citizenship 47
Strategies 61

APPLICATIONS
GRADE 9
Applications
impart and receive
information
express emotions and
personal perspectives
extend their knowledge
of the world
get things done
use the language for
imaginative purposes
and personal enjoyment form, maintain, and change interpersonal relationships
Students will use German in
a variety of situations and for
a variety of purposes.
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
Grade 9 5
General Learning Outcome 1: Students will use German in a variety of situations
and for a variety of purposes.
The specific learning outcomes under the heading Applications deal with what the
students will be able to do with the German language, that is, the functions they
will be able to perform and the contexts in which they will be able to operate. This
functional competence, also called actional competence, is important for a contentbased or task-based approach to language learning where students are constantly
engaged in meaningful tasks (Celce-Murcia, Dörnyei, and Thurrell).
The functions are grouped under six cluster headings—see the illustration on the
preceding page. Under each of these headings, there are one or more strands. Each
strand deals with a specific language function (e.g., share factual information).
Students at any grade level will be able to share factual information. Beginning
learners will do this in very simple ways (e.g., “This is my dog.”). As students gain
more knowledge and experience, they will broaden the range of subjects they can
deal with, they will learn to share information in writing as well as orally, and they
will be able to handle formal and informal situations.
Different models of communicative competence have organized language functions
in a variety of ways. The organizational structure chosen here reflects the needs and
interests of students in a classroom where activities are focused on meaning and are
interactive. For example, the strand entitled manage group actions has been
included to ensure that students acquire the language necessary to function
independently in small groups, since this is an effective way of organizing second
language classrooms. The strands under the cluster heading to extend their
knowledge of the world will accommodate a content-based approach to language
learning where students learn content from another subject area as they learn the
German language.
The level of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and discourse competence that students will
exhibit when carrying out the functions is defined in the specific learning outcomes
for Language Competence for each course. To know how well students will be able
to perform the specific function, the Applications learning outcomes must be read in
conjunction with the Language Competence learning outcomes.
APPLICATIONS
Applications • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
General Learning Outcome 1:
Applications
Students will use German in a
variety of situations and for a
variety of purposes.
1.1 receive and impart
information
1.1.1 Share Factual Information
✤ understand and respond
to simple questions
✤ identify activities and
events
✤ describe people, places,
and things
➤ Form groups and give each student a city map, subway
map, or a train or bus schedule written in German.
Suggest that each group plan a journey. Then ask each
group member to record travel details in a note for a
friend who will meet the group at a particular destination
(BC Resource Package, 46).
➤ Ask students in pairs to role-play making arrangements
for meetings with friends. Have partners ask each other
questions to elicit information regarding times, places, and
dates, using the following patterns (BC Resource Package,
28):
• An welchem Tag?
• Welche Uhrzeit?
• Wo?
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
6 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
(continued)


*Reprinted (or adapted) from the Spanish 5 to 12 Integrated Resource Package
(1997). Used with permission of the Ministry of Education, Province of British
Columbia. All future references to BC Resource Package fall under this
permission statement.
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ After students have worked in groups to prepare travel
details, have them exchange their plans with other groups,
who then provide feedback about the extent to which
• the information is clear
• the sequence of instructions is logical
• key details such as departure and arrival times are
included
➤ Observe role-playing activities for evidence that students
are increasingly able to
• make themselves understood in German
• use learned patterns and vocabulary
• take risks to add details or unfamiliar language
• use strategies such as non-verbal communication and
visual props to support their messages
• be accurate
(See role-play assessment criteria in Classroom
Assessment, p. 11.)
Grade 9 7
Applications • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.2 express emotions and
personal perspectives
1.2.1 Share Ideas, Thoughts,
Opinions, Preferences
✤ ask for and identify
favourite people, places,
or things
✤ express a personal
reaction to a variety of
situations
➤ Post a series of pictures in the categories of persons,
places, and objects. Have students visit each site and select
their favourite and least favourite from each station.
Discuss their choices as a class.
➤ Provide simple conflict scenarios between friends, as well
as basic expressions used to describe emotions and
feelings. Have students role-play a scenario in which a
problem is defined and a solution is offered. For example,
a student has stolen another student’s homework
assignment.
➤ Provide each student with a picture of various people
expressing different emotions. Have students interact with
their classmates without looking at each other’s pages in
order to respond to the question: “How does your
character feel today?” (“Wie fühlt sich .”)
Students illustrate the emotions of their character, based
on oral responses to the question.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
8 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.2.2 Share Emotions, Feelings
✤ identify and use
expression for a variety
of emotions
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 9
➤ When students visit the various stations and discuss
choices, later, look for evidence that they
• are able to express their selections
• interact with each other
• use German
➤ When students prepare a role play based on simple
problem and solution, using emotions, look for evidence
that students are increasingly able to
• inquire about and express emotions and feelings
• make themselves understood in German
• use learned patterns and vocabulary
• take risks to add details or use unfamiliar language
• use strategies such as non-verbal communication and
visual props to support their messages
• recognize and respond to familiar words and patterns
(See role-play assessment criteria in Classroom
Assessment, p. 11.)
➤ When students interact to find emotions of others, look for
evidence that they
• interact with several classmates
• use German throughout the activity
• illustrate emotions effectively
Applications • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.3 get things done
1.3.1 Guide Actions of Others
✤ make a variety of simple
requests
➤ Divide the class into groups. Have each group learn a
game played in the German-speaking world (e.g.,
Kartenspiele, Stille Post, Verbenpantomime, Montagsmaler).
Have each group teach the class the game it has learned,
using as many German expressions as possible (e.g., Du
bist dran, die Würfel). As an extension, have students invite
community members to participate in a German Day,
when the games could be played (BC Resource Package, 42).
➤ Have students describe in written form all of the activities
they carry out in a given situation (e.g., a shopping trip
that involves stops at various types of stores).
➤ Present the expressions required for managing turn taking
and requesting help. Provide students with a list and
involve students in demonstrating each item.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
10 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.3.2 State Personal Actions
✤ express ability or
inability to do something
1.3.3 Manage Group Actions
✤ manage turn taking
✤ ask for help
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 11
➤ When students teach one another games they have
learned, encourage them to use German as much as
possible. Establish criteria for group feedback such as the
following:
• demonstration is clear and easy to follow
• demonstration was successful; the other students
learned the game
• language associated with the activity is used accurately
• comparisons to familiar games or activities help to
develop understanding
➤ When students describe activities in written form, look for
evidence that they are able to
• use a variety of action verbs
• conjugate verbs correctly with the third person singular
• use descriptors to enhance their written text
➤ In subsequent activities, look for evidence that students are
using appropriate expressions.
Applications • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.4 form, maintain, and change
interpersonal relationships
1.4.1 Manage Personal Relationships
✤ make and respond to
requests for personal
information
✤ apologize and refuse
politely
➤ Students role-play inviting someone to a movie or a party.
The person already has plans, so that person apologizes
and declines politely.
➤ Have students do a personal interview with a partner.
➤ Have students work in pairs or in small groups to identify
the important qualities of a good friend. Have students
decide on the top three qualities of a good friend. Discuss
with the class and come to a consensus as a whole class.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
12 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.5 extend their knowledge of
the world
1.5.1 Discover and Explore
✤ ask basic questions to
gain knowledge and
clarify understanding
1.5.2 Gather and Organize
Information
✤ organize and categorize
simple information
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 13
➤ Observe role-playing activities for evidence that students
are able to
• use appropriate language to initiate interaction
• use appropriate language to decline politely
(See role-play assessment criteria in Classroom
Assessment, p. 11.)
➤ When students work in pairs or small groups to identify
the important qualities of a good friend, look for evidence
that they are able to
• organize and categorize (qualities of a friend)
• use a variety of adjectives with correct gender
• use basic comparative expressions such as wichtiger als,
nicht so wichtig wie
Applications • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.5 extend their knowledge of
the world (continued)
1.5.3 Explore Opinions and Values
✤ recognize differences of
opinion
➤ Form groups of four and have each group discuss the
purchase of a gift for a friend, family member, or teacher.
Ask groups to arrive at a consensus on their gift choices
and state reasons to support them (BC Resource Package,
52).
➤ Have students watch a video about a problematic situation
in a restaurant. Have students identify the problem and
discuss possible solutions.
➤ Provide students with several humorous expressions
related to food and restaurants. Have students either use
these expressions in a role play or have them illustrate the
expressions. Display the illustrations in the class and have
students guess which expression corresponds with each
illustration (e.g., Das ist mir Wurst/egal.).
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
14 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.6 for imaginative purposes
and personal enjoyment
1.6.1 Humour/Fun
✤ use German for fun
(e.g., songs)
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 15
➤ When students participate in interactions such as
discussing the purchase of a gift, look for evidence that
they are able to
• present their opinions
• respond appropriately to questions and cues from others
• include reasons, details, and examples to support their
views
• use appropriate vocabulary and structures
➤ When students watch a video and work to identify the
problem and possible solutions, observe their ability to
• participate in the discussion
• recognize the problem
• offer logical solutions with justifications
➤ When students illustrate humorous expressions related to
food, look for evidence that students are able to
• create an illustration that corresponds with the meaning
of the expression
• create a visually appealing illustration
• take risks to be original and creative
Applications • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.6 for imaginative purposes
and personal enjoyment
(continued)
1.6.2 Creative/Aesthetic Purposes
✤ use German creatively
(e.g., acrostic poetry)
➤ Have students create an Imbissmarkt (Food Court) in class.
Have students work in groups to prepare a menu for their
mini-restaurant, as well as possible food samples.
➤ Invite students to participate in an outing to a restaurant.
➤ Have students watch a German movies, read a piece in
German, or travel to a German-speaking area/country.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
16 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.6.3 Personal Enjoyment
✤ use German for personal
enjoyment (e.g., make a
collection of pictures or
artifacts related to
German cultures)
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 17
➤ When students participate in an outing to a German
restaurant, look for evidence that they
• have a positive attitude
• use German
• use vocabulary related to food and restaurants
➤ When students work in groups to organize a menu and
Imbissmarkt, look for evidence that they are
• participating actively
• making an effort to use German
➤ When students create their own menu for a minirestaurant as part of a food court, establish criteria with
students before they begin. Criteria might include the
following
• menu is organized in a typical menu format
• vocabulary related to food and menus is incorporated
• correct use of illustrations to enhance understanding
➤ After having watched a movie, read a piece in German, or
travelled to a German-speaking country, students evaluate
the experience. Students answer questions such as, “What
did I like or dislike, and why?”
Applications • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
18 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
N OTES
LANGUAGE
COMPETENCE
GRADE 9
Language Competence
attend to form
interpret and produce
written texts
interpret and produce
oral texts
apply knowledge of how text is
organized, structured, and
sequenced apply knowledge of the sociocultural context
Students will use German
effectively and
competently.
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
Grade 9 21
General Learning Outcome 2: Students will use German effectively and
competently.
Language competence is a broad term that includes linguistic or grammatical
competence, discourse competence, sociolinguistic or sociocultural competence, and
what might be called textual competence. The specific learning outcomes under
Language Competence deal with knowledge of the German language and the ability
to use that knowledge to interpret and produce meaningful texts appropriate to the
situation in which they are used. Language competence is best developed in the
context of activities or tasks where the language is used for real purposes, in other
words, in practical applications.
The various components of language competence are grouped under four cluster
headings—see the illustration on the preceding page. Under each of these headings
there are several strands. Each strand deals with a single aspect of language
competence. For example, under the cluster heading attend to form, there is a
strand for phonology (pronunciation, stress, intonation), orthography (spelling,
mechanical features), lexicon (vocabulary words and phrases), and grammatical
elements (syntax and morphology).
Although the learning outcomes isolate these individual aspects, language
competence should be developed through learning activities that focus on
meaningful uses of the German language and on language in context. Tasks will be
chosen based on the needs, interests, and experiences of students. The vocabulary,
grammar structures, text forms, and social conventions necessary to carry out a task
will be taught, practised, and assessed as students are involved in various aspects of
the task itself, not in isolation.
Strategic competence is often closely associated with language competence, since
students need to learn ways to compensate for low proficiency in the early stages of
learning if they are to engage in authentic language use from the beginning. This
component is included in the language use strategies in the Strategies section.
LANGUAGE COMPETENCE
Language Competence • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
22 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
General Learning Outcome 2:
Language Competence
Students will understand and
produce German effectively and
competently in spoken and
written forms.
2.1 interpret and produce oral
texts
2.1.1 Aural Interpretation
✤ understand the main
points of a variety of oral
texts on familiar topics, in
guided situations
➤ Have students form groups of four. Provide students with
a song, excerpt from a conversation, or TV/radio
advertisement.
Have students first discuss what kind of information they
might be hearing in the upcoming text, based on their
knowledge of what is found in a radio or TV
advertisement, etc. Then have students listen to the
excerpt and take notes. Students then discuss in their
groups what they understood and what strategies they
might use to understand the information they were unable
to glean after the first listening. Provide students with one
or two strategies. Play the excerpt two or three times and
discuss with students what they were able to understand
and the strategies they used to help their understanding.
➤ Read a simple short story to students. After listening to
the story, students write a sentence or draw a picture that
interprets what they have understood. In groups or as a
class, discuss the interpretations. Read the story out loud a
final time and have students respond to comprehension
questions in written form.
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 23
➤ As students work in groups to understand short texts, look
for evidence that they are able to
• listen for key words
• use key words and context to create meaning
• use listening strategies to aid in understanding
➤ When students illustrate what they have understood about
a simple short story, look for evidence that they are able to
• explain their drawings to their group or to the class as a
whole
• make connections between the story and their sentence
or drawing
Language Competence • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
24 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
2.1 interpret and produce oral
texts (continued)
2.1.2 Oral Production
✤ produce short, simple
oral texts, using familiar
structures, in a variety of
guided situations
➤ Provide students with several situations related to themes
studied in class (e.g., going to a restaurant, meeting a
friend, etc.). Have students create a simple storybook
using one of the scenarios. Students must illustrate the
book and prepare a cassette (soundtrack), in which they
read the story, to accompany the book. Students then
present the storybook, with accompanying soundtrack, to
the class. Provide students with a story map to help them
organize their ideas, as well as checklists for self and peer
assessment.
➤ Provide students with videos or reading materials that
portray market scenes in a German-speaking region. Then
have students in pairs role-play visits to markets or stores.
Ask students to take turns playing customer and vendor.
Encourage students to discuss the articles being bought
and the prices they are willing to pay (BC Resource Package,
36).
2.1.3 Interactive Fluency
✤ interact, using a
combination of phrases
and simple sentences, in
guided situations
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 25
➤ When students prepare a storybook with an accompanying
soundtrack, provide students with a story map to help
them organize their ideas as well as checklists for self and
peer assessment.
An Oral Presentation Checklist might include the
following:
• story makes sense/has meaning
• pronunciation and intonation are generally accurate
• expression is used to enhance communication of ideas
A Representation Checklist might include the following:
• soundtrack is effective in representing feelings and
themes of story
• good use of music and/or sound effects to support story
• illustrations correspond to written text and to music/
sound effects
➤ When students role-play visits to markets or stores in
German-speaking regions or replying to classified ads,
note the extent to which they are able to
• provide clear messages
• use appropriate patterns and frames for giving
directions, prices, and descriptions
• adjust and clarify when miscommunication occurs
• use intonation, miming, gestures, and body language to
support communication
• speak clearly and smoothly, using approximate German
pronunciation
(See role-play assessment criteria in Classroom
Assessment, p. 11.)
Language Competence • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
26 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
2.1 interpret and produce oral
texts (continued)
2.1.3 Interactive Fluency (continued)
✤ interact, using a
combination of phrases
and simple sentences, in
guided situations
➤ Have students role-play a variety of situations outlined on
scenario cards they draw. For example, a tourist wants to
cash a traveller’s cheque at 1:50 p.m., but the bank refuses
to cash it because closing time is 2:00 p.m.; a group of
business people discover they are on the wrong bus (BC
Resource Package, 58).
➤ Invite students to role-play a variety of common
situations, allowing time for preparation but not for
memorizing a script. Situations might include telephoning
for take-out food, renting a video, purchasing a ticket (BC
Resource Package, 60).
➤ Ask students to examine the classified section of a
German-language newspaper to find items they need or
want to purchase (e.g., computers, mountain bikes, sports
equipment). Students then role-play and reply to the
advertisements, refer to specific information in them, and
ask relevant questions (BC Resource Package, 62).
➤ Have students work individually or in groups to respond
to questions from the short stories series Easy German
Reader.
➤ Have students form groups of three or four. Provide
students with a simple text that has been divided into
three or four sections. (Each section may be only three or
four sentences in length.) For the first part of the activity,
give each group a section of the text. Each member of the
group has the same part of the text. Students read their
section of the text together and discuss. Students then
regroup into new groups where each member of the group
has a different part of the text (jigsaw). Students read text
together, put it into the correct order, and then present the
main ideas of the text. They may either illustrate, present
an oral summary, or prepare a written summary.
2.2 interpret and produce
written texts, graphics, and
images
2.2.1 Written Interpretation
✤ understand the main
points of a variety of
written texts on familiar
topics, in guided
situations
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
German Easy Reader Series, EMC
Publishing
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 27
➤ When students role-play with minimum preparation, look
for evidence that
• language is understandable and appropriate to the
context
• statements are logical and relate to the situation
• reactions, including intonation, are appropriate
• speech is reasonably fluid
• strategies are used effectively to clarify meaning and
sustain interaction
(See role-play assessment criteria in Classroom
Assessment, p. 11.)
➤ When students respond to questions from a series, look for
evidence that they are able to answer questions in one
word or in a short sentence.
➤ When students participate in a jigsaw activity to
understand a simple text, look for evidence that they are
able to
• discuss the information within the text with group
members, providing main ideas
• present the main ideas of the text in an organized and
logical sequence
Language Competence • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
28 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
2.2 interpret and produce
written texts, graphics, and
images (continued)
2.2.2 Written Production
✤ produce short, simple
written texts, using
familiar structures, in a
variety of guided
situations
➤ Provide students with pictures that accompany a simple
story. Allow students to create their own simple story
individually or in groups, based on the pictures provided.
Provide students with a story map to help them organize
their ideas.
➤ After the completion of their own versions of the story,
read to students the actual story that accompanies the
pictures.
➤ Have students create a comic strip. Students can present
their story as a power point presentation or they may
dramatize their story.
2.2.3 Viewing
✤ derive meaning from a
variety of visuals, in
guided situations
2.2.4 Representing
✤ express meaning, using
a variety of visual forms
in guided situations
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 29
➤ When students create their own story, based on pictures
provided, provide students with a story map to help them
organize their ideas. Observe the extent to which they are
able to
• use the pictures to make sense of the story
• organize their story in a meaningful way
• compare and contrast their stories to the actual stories
➤ A Written Presentation Checklist might include the
following:
• story makes sense
• ideas are clear and logical; details are relevant and
appropriate
• sentence structure is clear and supports communication
of ideas
• vocabulary is appropriate
• spelling is correct
• verbs are conjugated correctly, agreement of adjectives is
correct
(See an example of a written presentation checklist in
Classroom Assessment, p. 16.)
Language Competence • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
30 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
2.3 attend to form
2.3.1 Phonology
✤ use comprehensible
pronunciation, stress,
and intonation when
producing familiar
words or phrases
➤ Provide students with a list of familiar words or phrases
and have them read them, focusing on correct
pronunciation, stress, and intonation.
➤ First, model the use of specific sound distinctions in two
sentences where meaning is changed as a result of
pronunciation, and ask students to identify the differences.
Then, provide a list of vocabulary to focus on the sounds
representing specific letters (e.g., ü/u , ö/o, ä/a, ß) in the
following situations:
• At the doctor’s office: a visit to the doctor in German,
Austria, Switzerland, etc.
• Social life: role-play an interview with an exchange
student from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, etc.
➤ Compare capitalization rules for English and German (e.g.,
months, days of the week, nationalities, titles, etc.), using
supporting texts from books, Internet, etc.
2.3.2 Orthography
✤ apply common spelling
rules to write familiar
words
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 31
➤ Look for evidence that students are able to pronounce
correctly, based on common rules.
➤ Prepare an observation checklist. Observe the students’
ability to reproduce appropriately in context the following
critical sound distinctions:
• ü / u
• ö / o
• ä / a
• ch
• sch
➤ Look for evidence that students are able to apply German
rules of capitalization and punctuation in their written
work.
Language Competence • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
32 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
2.3 attend to form (continued)
2.3.3 Lexicon
✤ combine learned words and
phrases to fulfill simple
purposes
✤ recognize and use a
repertoire of words and
phrases in familiar contexts
✤ understand and use
vocabulary and phrases
related to the following
topics/areas of experience:
— personal identity
✓ name, age
✓ friends and relatives
✓ physical description
— family and home life
✓ family members,
relatives, occupations
✓ pets, animals
✓ the home
— school
✓ subjects
✓ timetables
✓ classroom routines
✓ school facility
— leisure and recreation
✓ hobbies, interest
✓ sports and exercises
✓ entertainment
✓ music
✓ vacation
✓ transportation
— food
✓ meals
✓ restaurants
✓ grocery shopping
— Landeskunde
✓ money, currencies
✓ celebrations
✓ geography
✓ climate, weather,
seasons
✓ famous people
— health and body
✓ body parts
✓ illness
✓ clothing
— other areas
✓ topics of special interest
to students
➤ Students practise target vocabulary by playing games such
as “Hangman,” spelling bee, etc.
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 33
➤ Look for evidence that students spell target vocabulary
accurately in a variety of situations.
Language Competence • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
34 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
2.3 attend to form (continued)
2.3.4 Grammatical Elements
✤ recognize and use, in
modelled situations, the
following grammatical
elements:
— formal address (Sie vs.
du, ihr)
— modal verbs in
present tense
— imperative mood (all
forms)
— simple past (hatte, sein,
war)
— perfect tense (limited
selection of verbs)
— personal pronouns
(singular) in
accusative
— possessive pronouns
in nominative and
accusative (singular
and plural forms)
— subordinate clauses
beginning with weil,
dass
— prepositions with
selected accusative
and dative
— comparison of
adjectives
(comparative forms
only)
— position of adverbs of
preference and/or
frequency (e.g., gern,
oft)
— articles of familiar
nouns in nominative
and accusative
— structure of
compound sentences
using coordinating
conjunctions
Modelled Situations: This term is used to describe learning
situations where a model of specific linguistic elements is
consistently provided and immediately available. Students
in such situations will have an emerging awareness of the
linguistic elements and be able to apply them in very limited
situations. Limited fluency and confidence characterize
student language.
Example of a modelled situation:
In preparation for a group project, students will keep a
journal of that they would like to do. Students practise the
structure “Ich möchte
. Möchtest du __.” using
the sentence patterns provided. Each student asks five
classmates, “Was möchtest du morgen machen?” Students
answer saying “Ich möchte …, with an infinitive of their
choice. Each person then summarizes the results of their
mini-survey: Drei Schüler möchten tanzen, and so on.
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 35
➤ Observe students as they do the exercise. Observe their
ability to
• ask the question following the model
• respond to the question using “Ich möchte …”
• summarize their results using third person singular and
plural forms
Language Competence • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
36 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
2.3 attend to form (continued)
2.3.4 Grammatical Elements
(continued)
✤ use, in structured
situations, the following
grammatical elements:
— plural of familiar nouns
— compound nouns
— possessive pronouns in
nominative and
accusative (singular)
— negation
— sentence structure:
inversion following
expressions of place and
time (e.g., Heute gehe
ich …)
— personal pronouns in
nominative
— present tense
— noun and verb agreement
Structured Situations: This term is used to describe learning
situations where a familiar context for the use of specific
linguistic elements is provided and students are guided in
their use. Students in such situations will have increased
awareness and emerging control of the linguistic elements
and be able to apply them in familiar contexts with teacher
guidance.
Example of a structured situation:
In preparation for a research project on typical activities of
young people in selected German-speaking countries,
students listen to a rapid conversation where a Canadian
student is talking to an exchange student from Germany.
The students check off, on a prepared answer sheet, what
the exchange student does and does not do.
✤ use, independently and
consistently, the
following grammatical
elements:
— subject pronouns (e.g.,
ich, du, er, sie, Sie, wir,
ihr)
— structure of simple
declarative sentences
(e.g., Karl Kauft einen
Hut. Gabi wohnt hier.)
— coordinating
conjunctions (e.g., und)
— yes/no questions (e.g.,
Hast du eine Katze?)
— affirmative/negative
using nicht, kein/
interrogative sentences
using inversion in the
present tense
— simple questions using
wer, wie, was, wo, wann
— gender of commonly
used nouns
— commonly used verbs
(e.g., haben, sein)
Independently and Consistently: This term is used to
describe learning situations where students use specific
linguistic elements in a variety of contexts with limited
teacher guidance. Students in such situations will have
consistent control of the linguistic elements and will be able
to apply them in a variety of contexts with limited teacher
guidance. Fluency and confidence characterize student
language.
Example of an independent situation:
Students send a letter, an email message, or a recorded
message to a German-speaking pen pal explaining what
they do regularly.
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 37
➤ When correcting student answers, note if they are able to
• distinguish affirmative from negative responses
• match the infinitive form of the verb on the answer sheet
with the conjugated form heard in the recorded
conversation
Language Competence • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
2.4 apply knowledge of the
sociocultural context
2.4.1 Register
✤ distinguish between
formal and informal
situations
➤ Have students view a simple video and have them note
when characters use du and when they use Sie.
➤ Prepare flash cards with idiomatic expressions and as the
cards are flashed, have students role play a situation in
which the expression could be used.
➤ Give students a series of different words, on small cards or
pieces of paper, that are used in different Germanspeaking countries to mean the same foods. In groups,
have students categorize the words according to the food
they think the words represent.
Provide students with the correct categories, allowing
them to reorganize their words if necessary.
As an extension, students could prepare a skit at a
restaurant or at the market that illustrates
misunderstandings that can occur when people of
different German-speaking countries use different words
to mean the same food items. Have students also include
two to three idiomatic expressions related to eating, food,
and going to restaurants.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
38 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
2.4.2 Idiomatic Expressions
✤ understand and use
selected idiomatic
expressions
2.4.3 Variations in Language
✤ acknowledge and accept
individual differences in
speech
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 39
➤ When students view a video with situations where
characters use Sie or du, look for evidence that students are
able to
• identify the types of situations in which Sie and du are
used
• explain why the formal or informal register are used
➤ As students present the idiom, either orally, dramatically,
or both, look for evidence of accurate interpretation or
application of the idiom.
➤ When students prepare role plays of situations in a
restaurant or at the market place where misunderstandings
occur due to variations in expressions, discuss criteria
before students begin. Criteria might include the
following:
• appropriate use of an idiomatic expression and one pair
of food expressions
• pronunciation and intonation are generally accurate
• strategies such as non-verbal communication and visual
props are used to support messages
(See role-play assessment criteria in Classroom
Assessment, p. 11.)
Language Competence • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
2.4 apply knowledge of the
sociocultural context
2.4.4 Social Conventions
✤ use appropriate oral
forms of address in
guided situations (e.g.,
du/Sie, Herr/Frau)
➤ Distribute pictures or show an extract of a video that
depicts people greeting each other in different ways.
Discuss students’ interpretation of what is happening in
the pictures or video. Discuss cultural differences in
greetings. As an extension, have students prepare a simple
role play that depicts two people from different cultures
greeting each other.
➤ Have students work in pairs to prepare a scene that
includes simple dialogue and very pronounced gestures
and actions. Have students present their scene with only
the actions and gestures. The rest of the class must
determine what is occurring and call out possible dialogue
that could logically accompany the gestures of the group.
Have the presenters of the scene then present the scene
again with the original dialogue.
➤ Encourage students to use non-verbal communication
when they do not know or do not remember the word for
what they are trying to attain.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
40 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
2.4.5 Non-Verbal Communication
✤ understand and imitate
some common nonverbal behaviours in
familiar contexts (e.g.,
etiquette, table
manners)
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 41
➤ As students view and interpret various greetings, look for
evidence that they are able to identify similarities and
differences between greetings.
➤ When students prepare scenes using gestures and
dialogue, discuss criteria before students begin. Criteria
might include the following:
For Presenters:
• students’ gestures are identifiable and clear
• dialogue is clear and follows a logical sequence
• gestures and dialogue correspond
For Audience:
• students are actively engaged in activity
• students take risks to guess what dialogue could be
taking place, based on the gestures provided
Language Competence • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
➤ Provide students with a friendly letter that has been
divided into different sections. Students reorganize the
sections into an appropriate sequence. Discuss the usual
parts of a friendly letter and standard terms. Using the
letter provided by the teacher as a model, students
prepare a letter that they can send to another member of
the class or to a penpal in a German-speaking country.
➤ Have students present in pairs a telephone conversation
with the purpose of communicating a specific message in
German, such as an invitation to a party.
➤ Provide students with a simple telephone conversation
that is not in the correct order (e.g., getting together with a
friend, ordering a pizza, leaving a message, etc.). In pairs,
students reorganize the conversation into the correct
order.
As an extension, students can prepare their own telephone
conversation in pairs and present them to the class.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
42 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
2.5 apply knowledge of how
text is organized, structured,
and sequenced in German
2.5.1 Text Forms
✤ identify some simple oral
and print text forms (e.g.,
tickets, menus, radio
advertisements)
2.5.2 Patterns of Social Interaction
✤ respond to simple
interpersonal
communication patterns
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 43
➤ Work with students to develop a simple checklist they can
use for self and peer assessment of their letter or email.
The checklist might include items such as the following:
• meaning is clear
• interesting details are included
• questions are appropriate
• greeting and closing are appropriate
• sentence frames are written correctly and completed
appropriately
• punctuation is appropriate
• spelling, including accents, is correct (BC Resource
Package, 37)
(See examples of checklist criteria in Classroom
Assessment, p. 12.)
➤ When students prepare telephone conversations, discuss
criteria with students before they begin. Assessment
criteria should focus on the extent to which students are
able to
• make plans for an activity responding to the following
questions: Where? When? Why? How? What? (Wo,
Wann, Warum, Wie, Was?)
• present clear, complete, and appropriate messages
• use vocabulary and expressions appropriately
➤ Assessment criteria for the response might include the
following:
• a clear response is given
• sentence structure is accurate
• vocabulary and structures required to arrange meeting
times and places are used correctly
Language Competence • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
➤ Provide students with the written instructions for a recipe,
but not in order. Point out words that have linking
function (e.g., erstens, dann, danach, später, zuletzt, etc.).
Have students put the instructions in the correct order and
then do a demonstration or illustrate the steps of the
recipe.
➤ Provide students with only the pictures which represent
the steps involved in the preparation of a recipe. Have
students put the pictures in the correct order and then
prepare the written instructions for each picture.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
44 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
2.5 apply knowledge of how
text is organized, structured,
and sequenced in German
(continued)
2.5.3 Cohesion/Coherence
✤ link words, phrases, or
simple sentences, using
basic connectors in
guided situations
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 45
➤ When students reorganize the steps involved in the
preparation of a recipe, either in written or illustrated
form, look for evidence that students are able to sequence
the steps in a logical order.
When students prepare a demonstration or written
instructions for the steps of a recipe, look for evidence that
they are able to
• use linking words correctly
• use the imperative of du or Sie correctly
• give clear instructions
• use vocabulary related to cooking appropriately
Language Competence • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
46 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
N OTES
GLOBAL
CITIZENSHIP
GRADE 9
Global Citizenship
study historical and
contemporary elements of
German-speaking cultures
explore personal and
career opportunities
affirm diversity
Students will acquire
the knowledge, skills, and
attitudes to be effective global
citizens, through the exploration
of the cultures of the Germanspeaking world.
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
Grade 9 49
General Learning Outcome 3: Students will acquire the knowledge, skills, and
attitudes to be effective global citizens, through the exploration of the cultures of
the German-speaking world.
The learning outcomes for Global Citizenship deal with a broad range of
knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to be effective global citizens—in other
words, with the development of intercultural competence. The concept of global
citizenship encompasses citizenship at all levels, from the local school and
community to Canada and the world.
The various components of global citizenship are grouped under three cluster
headings—see the illustration on the preceding page. Under each of these headings
there are several strands. Each strand deals with a single aspect of intercultural
competence. For example, under the cluster heading study historical and
contemporary elements of German-speaking cultures, there are strands for the
processes and methods of acquiring knowledge about German-speaking cultures,
the cultural knowledge thus acquired, applications of that knowledge to aid
comprehension and to communicate in appropriate ways, positive attitudes toward
German-speaking cultures, as well as knowledge of the diversity within those
cultures.
Developing cultural knowledge and skills is a lifelong process. Knowledge of one’s
own culture is acquired over a lifetime. Cultures change over time. Within any
national group, there may be a dominant culture or cultures and a number of
minority cultures. Rather than try to develop an extensive bank of knowledge about
the German-speaking cultures, it is more important for students to learn the
processes and methods of accessing and analyzing cultural practices. Students will
gain cultural knowledge in the process of developing these skills. In this way, if they
encounter elements of the German-speaking cultures they have not learned about in
class, they will have the skills and abilities to deal with them effectively and
appropriately.
The affirm diversity heading covers knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are
developed as a result of bringing other languages and cultures into relationship
with one’s own. There is a natural tendency, when learning a new language and
culture, to compare it with what is familiar. Many students leave a second language
learning experience with a heightened awareness and knowledge of their own
language and culture. They will also be able to make some generalizations about
languages and cultures based on their experiences and those of their classmates who
may have a variety of cultural backgrounds. This will provide students with an
understanding of diversity within both a global and a Canadian context.
GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP
Global Citizenship • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
General Learning Outcome 3:
Global Citizenship
Students will acquire the
knowledge, skills, and attitudes to
be effective global citizens
through the exploration of the
cultures of the German-speaking
world.
3.1 historical and contemporary
elements of Germanspeaking peoples
3.1.1 Gaining/Applying Knowledge of
German Cultures
✤ observe and participate
in activities and
experiences that are
common among Germanspeaking peoples (e.g.,
table manners)
➤ Show students a video or video-clip that takes place in
German-speaking country and represents both traditional
and contemporary cultures. Afterwards, provide students
with specific questions to discuss what they observed in
the video (BC Resource Package, 34).
➤ Provide students with a variety of art, music, and artifacts
from German-speaking countries. Have students prepare
their own representation of what they heard and saw. This
could be in the form of a collage, CD cover, poster, etc.
➤ Invite students to participate in activities such as St.
Nikolaus Tag, the creation of an Adventskalendar for
December, or the decoration of an Osterbaum for Easter.
➤ Post a large world map in the German classroom. Have
students research where German-speaking groups of
people live throughout the world. Have students locate
these places on the map and mark them with a sticker (or
push-pin).
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
50 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
3.1.2 Diversity within German
Cultures
✤ identify major Germanspeaking groups
throughout the world
✤ identify the various
German-speaking
countries
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 51
➤ When students discuss a video that features traditional
and contemporary German-speaking cultures, look for
evidence that they
• identify contemporary and traditional characteristics
• notice similarities and differences from other cultures
• ask questions that prompt new learning or information
(BC Resource Package, 35)
➤ When students create a collage, CD cover, or poster to
represent what they heard or saw in a variety of art, music,
or artifacts, look for evidence that they are able to
offer unique personal perspectives or impressions by
combining visual elements with words.
➤ When students participate in activities and experiences
that reflect elements of German-speaking cultures, look for
evidence that they participate actively in the activity.
➤ When students participate in the map activity, look for
evidence that they are able to identify the major Germanspeaking groups of people and their respective locations
throughout the world.
Global Citizenship • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
3.1 historical and contemporary
elements of Germanspeaking peoples
(continued)
3.1.2 Diversity within German
Culture
✤ identify some elements
that reflect diversity
among the Germanspeaking countries (e.g.,
maps, flags, weather)
➤ When students participate in activities and experiences
that reflect German-speaking cultures, have them compare
activities from different German-speaking countries.
➤ Using videos, the Internet, and magazines, have students
identify ways in which German-speaking people of their
own age are similar and different.
➤ When students participate in field trips and other cultural
activities, have them share with the class one new thing
they learned about the German-speaking culture as a
result of this experience.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
52 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
3.1.3 Analyzing Cultural Knowledge
✤ ask questions, in English,
about patterns of
behaviour or interactions
typical of German
people their own age
(e.g., leisure time, daily
routines)
3.1.4 Valuing German Cultures
✤ show a willingness to
participate in cultural
activities and
experiences
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 53
➤ When students compare activities from different Germanspeaking countries, look for evidence that they are able to
identify differences and similarities.
➤ As students participate in cultural activities, look for
evidence that they engage fully in the activity and
demonstrate a positive attitude towards the cultural
experience.
➤ As students examine videos, the Internet, and magazines,
look for evidence that they are able to identify similarities
and differences between themselves and German-speaking
people of their own age.
Global Citizenship • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
3.2 affirming and valuing
diversity
3.2.1 Awareness of English
✤ identify similarities
between English and
German words (e.g.,
cognates,
internationalisms)
➤ Provide students with a list of words that includes both
English and German words. Students match the English
word with its German cognate (e.g., Bruder—brother,
Haus—House).
Have students explain the similarities and differences
between the English and German words.
➤ As students study various themes, provide them with
expressions and vocabulary from a variety of Germanspeaking countries.
➤ Provide students with some examples of a variety of
words for the same item. Discuss.
➤ As a class, brainstorm typical Canadian sports. Then
suggest that students read magazines and watch videos or
television programs about sports typical of the Germanspeaking world; for example, soccer. Ask students to
discuss the importance of these sports in German-speaking
regions. Invite them to play some of these sports or roleplay a sports-related event (e.g., awards night, sports
commentary) (BC Resource Package, 34).
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
54 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
3.2.2 General Language Knowledge
✤ recognize that different
languages have
different writing
systems
3.2.3 Awareness of Canadian Culture
✤ recognize and identify
differences between
Canadian and German
cultures
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 55
➤ When students match English words with their German
cognates, look for evidence that they are able to
• match the words correctly
• give some similarities between English and German
• give some differences between English and German
Provide students with a text that has some common errors
made with cognates and have students correct the text.
➤ Look for evidence that students are able to recognize a
variety of words for the same item. Provide students with
a list of words which can be divided into categories with
same word meanings.
➤ When students examine common sports and typical sports
in the German-speaking world, look for evidence that
students are able to
• recognize similarities and differences
• identify common activities and behaviour associated
with specific sporting events
• use appropriate vocabulary associated with specific
sports
Global Citizenship • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
3.2 affirming and valuing
diversity (continued)
3.2.3 Awareness of Canadian Culture
(continued)
✤ recognize and identify
differences between
Canadian and German
cultures
➤ Have students generate questions they can use to
interview German-speaking people in the community
about similarities between their own and the respondent’s
cultures. Ask each student to collect the information and
display it on a chart (BC Resource Package, 34).
➤ Have each student compare a typical family menu for a
festive occasion in a German-speaking country with a
festive menu the student’s own family might prepare (BC
Resource Package, 50).
➤ Have students engage in cultural activities such as making
German food, participating in a dance class, or going to a
restaurant.
➤ Survey students’ ethnic backgrounds. Have students
research the ethnic roots of Germany’s population.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
56 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
3.2.4 General Cultural Knowledge
✤ recognize that speakers
of the same language
may come from
different cultural
backgrounds
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 57
➤ When students prepare information charts of similarities
and differences between their culture and the culture of a
German-speaking person in the community, look for
evidence that
• similarities and differences are clearly identified
• chart is well organized and has an appropriate layout
• chart is neat and easy to read
• appropriate vocabulary is used and spelled correctly
➤ When students compare typical family menus for a festive
occasion in a German-speaking country with a festive
menu in their own family, look for evidence that they
• identify similarities and differences, using appropriate
vocabulary
• respect diversity and differences in cultures
➤ When students participate in cultural activities, look for
evidence that they
• are attentive when a new activity is being introduced
• understand the activity
• participate willingly
• comment on how the activities are the same or different
from activities in other cultures
• use vocabulary related to the activities
➤ Look for evidence that students are able to make
generalizations about linguistic groupings.
Global Citizenship • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
3.2 affirming and valuing
diversity (continued)
3.2.5 Intercultural Skills
✤ recognize factors that
contribute to culture
shock (e.g., language,
differing behaviours, and
perspectives)
➤ Have students participate in a variety of cultural activities
throughout the course, including trying new foods,
listening to music that is different from what they usually
hear, etc.
➤ Generate, with the students, a list of the ”Top Ten
Reasons” for learning German.
➤ Invite students to share an experience where they had to
call on their German language knowledge or skills.
➤ Conduct an interview with students at the end of the
course in which students respond to the following
questions: Why are you learning German? Where do you
see yourself using German in the future?
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
58 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
3.3 personal and career
opportunities
3.3.1 German Language and
Cultures
✤ identify a variety of
reasons for learning
German
✤ identify some careers for
which knowledge of
German is useful
3.3.2 Cultural and Linguistic
Diversity
✤ suggest some reasons for
participating in activities
and experiences that
reflect elements of
different cultures
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 59
➤ Look for evidence that students demonstrate a willingness
to participate in a typically German cultural situation.
➤ As students generate a list of reasons for studying German,
look for evidence that they
• provide thoughtful suggestions
• participate in the activity
• understand some important reasons for studying
another language such as German
➤ When students respond to questions about their reasons
for learning German and their future with German, look
for evidence that they
• give thoughtful responses
• are able to explain their reasons and responses
adequately, with relevant detail
Global Citizenship • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
60 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
N OTES
STRATEGIES
GRADE 9
Strategies
language learning strategies
general learning strategies
language use strategies
Students will know
and use various strategies
to maximize the effectiveness
of learning and
communication.
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
Grade 9 63
General Learning Outcome 4: Students will know and use various strategies to
maximize the effectiveness of learning and communication.
Under the Strategies heading are specific learning outcomes that will help students
learn and communicate more effectively. Strategic competence has long been
recognized as an important component of communicative competence. The learning
outcomes that follow deal not only with compensation and repair strategies,
important in the early stages of language learning when proficiency is low, but also
with strategies for language learning, language use in a broad sense, as well as
general learning strategies that help students acquire content. Although people may
use strategies unconsciously, the learning outcomes deal only with the conscious use
of strategies.
The strategies are grouped under three cluster headings—see the illustration on the
preceding page. Under each of these headings there are several strands. Each strand
deals with a specific category of strategy. Language learning and general learning
strategies are categorized as cognitive, metacognitive, and social/affective. The
language use strategies are organized by communicative mode: interactive,
interpretive, and productive.
The strategies that students choose depend on the task they are engaged in as well
as on other factors, such as their preferred learning style, personality, age, attitude,
and cultural background. Strategies that work well for one person may not be
effective for another person or may not be suitable in a different situation. For this
reason it is not particularly useful to say that students should be aware of, or able to
use, a specific strategy in a particular course. Consequently, the specific learning
outcomes describe the students’ knowledge of and ability to use general types of
strategies. More specific strategies for each general category or type are included in
the comprehensive list of strategies in Appendix E. The specific strategies provided
in the comprehensive list are not prescriptive but are provided as an illustration of
how the general strategies in the specific learning outcomes might be developed.
Teachers need to know and be able to demonstrate a broad range of strategies from
which students are then able to choose in order to communicate effectively.
Strategies of all kinds are best taught in the context of learning activities where
students can apply them immediately and then reflect on their use.
STRATEGIES
Strategies • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
General Learning Outcome 4:
Strategies
Students will know and use
various strategies to maximize the
effectiveness of learning and
communication.
4.1 language learning
4.1.1 Cognitive
✤ use a variety of simple
cognitive strategies, with
guidance, to enhance
language learning (e.g.,
associate new words or
expressions with familiar
ones, identify and use
cognates)
➤ Have students play VERBingo in order to understand
patterns in reflexive and other verbs better.
➤ Have students listen to a dialogue in which two young
people describe what they like to do in their free time.
Have students create a Venn diagram to show which
activities each person likes individually and which
activities they both like, using the words and expressions
heard in the dialogue.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
64 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 65
➤ When students participate in games, look for evidence that
they are able to
• make connections between pictures and verb
conjugations
• listen actively to instructions
• participate willingly and actively throughout the game
Provide students with a test following the activity
confirming their understanding of the verb conjugation
patterns. Give unknown verbs that follow the same pattern
to verify if students can apply the strategy.
➤ When students create a Venn diagram based on a dialogue
of the preferred activities of two young people, look for
evidence that they are able to
• reuse vocabulary and expressions heard in the dialogue
• correctly identify the activities of each person
• correctly identify the activities that both people have in
common
Strategies • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
4.1 language learning
(continued)
4.1.2 Metacognitive
✤ use a variety of simple
metacognitive strategies,
with guidance, to
enhance language
learning (e.g., check
copied writing for
accuracy, rehearse or role
play language situations)
➤ Provide students with a plan to help them write a friendly
letter. The plan could include the following:
Ich
Körperliche Beschreibung
Persönlichkeit
Meine Freunde
Meine Familie
➤ Encourage students to reflect on their learning style by
generating a list of questions related to a previous activity.
Questions might include the following:
• What part of the activity did you find the most useful?
• What strategies did you use to be successful in this
activity?
• What might have improved your language learning?
• What aspects of your group work worked well? How
could you change or improve your contribution to the
group in further activities?
• What can you learn from the mistakes you made during
the activity?
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
66 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
4.1.3 Social/Affective
✤ use a variety of simple
social and affective
strategies, with
guidance, to enhance
language learning (e.g.,
take risks, try unfamiliar
tasks and approaches)
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 67
➤ When students use a plan to help them write a friendly
letter, look for evidence that
• students used the plan to write the letter
• students understood the value of making a plan in
advance
• each of the categories has relevant ideas and details
• appropriate vocabulary and expressions are used
➤ When students respond to reflection questions in a
learning log, look for evidence that they are
• attempting to respond with clear ideas and relevant
details
• seeking to understand their individual learning
• seeking to identify strategies that will help improve their
individual learning
Strategies • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
4.2 language use
4.2.1 Receptive
✤ use a variety of simple
reading and listening
strategies, with guidance,
to aid comprehension
(e.g., familiar words,
gestures, and intonation)
➤ Have students listen to a song and note repeated words or
phrases. Students determine what the message of the song
is, based on the repeated words or phrases.
➤ Provide students with strategies and behaviours that help
promote active listening. For example, have students think
about what they might hear in a text, listen for key words,
or consider body language.
➤ Provide students with a list of familiar words (possibly on
a particular theme) and structures, then have students
compose a text in which they use a minimum number of
them in a coherent manner.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
68 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
4.2.2 Productive
✤ use a variety of simple
speaking and writing
strategies, with
guidance (e.g.,
experiment with
familiar words and
structures to express
own meaning)
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 69
➤ Have students demonstrate their understanding of the
theme of a song by illustrating or creating a collage to
represent the theme. Repeated phrases or words should be
included as a part of the illustration or collage.
To verify understanding of key words or phrases, create a
cloze activity that verifies the correct use of these
important words or phrases.
➤ Create an observation checklist in order to verify the extent
to which students have made an attempt to use a range of
strategies and behaviours to help promote active listening.
➤ As students produce their texts, verify that the words and
structures are incorporated correctly.
Strategies • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
4.2 general use (continued)
4.2.3 Interactive
✤ use a variety of simple
interactive strategies,
with guidance (e.g., use
non-verbal clues to
communicate)
➤ Brainstorm with students ways in which they can
maintain interaction in a conversation. Teach students
some strategies to maintain interaction. Organize students
into teams. Provide a scenario (e.g., at the shopping mall,
at a restaurant, at home with the family, etc.).
One team begins a conversation, based on the scenario
that has been set. As many students as possible from the
team should provide a line for the conversation in 30 to
60 seconds.
Each student builds on the line provided by the preceding
student.
At the end of the allotted time, clap hands or ring a bell
and provide another scene for the next team.
➤ When using audiovisual resources, show the resource with
no sound the first time. Ask students to concentrate on
what they see and to talk about one image that is
dominant for them. After the activity, talk about how they
remember things. Do they see a picture in their mind
(visual), hear words or sounds (auditory), or feel physical
sensations or movement (kinesthetic)?
➤ When introducing a research project, have students
brainstorm about where they might find information.
Provide students with a plan to help them organize their
research and how they will divide the work. After the
project, ask students to reflect on how effective their
planning was.
(See Ideas for Exhibitions and Projects in Classroom
Assessment, pp. 24–25.)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
70 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
4.3 general learning
4.3.1 Cognitive
✤ use a variety of simple
cognitive strategies, with
guidance, to enhance
general learning (e.g.,
take notes, organize, and
review notes)
4.3.2 Metacognitive
✤ use a variety of simple
metacognitive
strategies, with
guidance, to enhance
general learning (e.g.,
discover how their
efforts can affect their
learning)
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 71
➤ When students participate in spontaneous interactions
such as group improvisation activities, look for evidence
that they are able to
• sustain the interactions using a variety of strategies (e.g.,
body language, repeating)
• speak clearly and make themselves understood
• use appropriate vocabulary
• respond appropriately to questions and cues from others
➤ Look for evidence that students are able to
• identify a variety of strategies to enhance general
learning
• identify one or two strategies that are particularly
effective for them
➤ When students prepare a research project using a plan,
look for evidence that they
• make a plan
• use a plan
• see the value in a plan
Strategies • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
4.3 general learning (continued)
4.3.3 Social/Affective
✤ use a variety of simple
social and affective
strategies, with guidance,
to enhance general
learning (e.g., participate
in cooperative group
learning tasks)
➤ When students are exploring artifacts from Germanspeaking countries, encourage them to choose an artifact
in which they are particularly interested and to use a form
of representation in which they enjoy working. Provide
students with the opportunity to propose other options if
they have a particular interest.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
72 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 9 73
➤ When students represent an artifact in a form of their
choice, look for evidence that they are able to
• choose an activity or form
• represent the artifact effectively with the form chosen
Strategies • GRADE 9 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
74 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
N OTES
G RADE 9 T O G RADE 1 2
G ERMAN L ANGUAGE AND
C ULTURE
Grade 10
Applications 3
Language Compentence 21
Global Citizenship 47
Strategies 61
Appendices 75

APPLICATIONS
GRADE 10
Applications
impart and receive
information
express emotions and
personal perspectives
extend their knowledge
of the world
get things done
use the language for
imaginative purposes
and personal enjoyment form, maintain, and change interpersonal relationships
Students will use German in
a variety of situations and for
a variety of purposes.
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
Grade 10 5
General Learning Outcome 1: Students will use German in a variety of situations
and for a variety of purposes.
The specific learning outcomes under the heading Applications deal with what the
students will be able to do with the German language, that is, the functions they
will be able to perform and the contexts in which they will be able to operate. This
functional competence, also called actional competence, is important for a contentbased or task-based approach to language learning where students are constantly
engaged in meaningful tasks (Celce-Murcia, Dörnyei, and Thurrell).
The functions are grouped under six cluster headings—see the illustration on the
preceding page. Under each of these headings, there are one or more strands. Each
strand deals with a specific language function (e.g., share factual information).
Students at any grade level will be able to share factual information. Beginning
learners will do this in very simple ways (e.g., “This is my dog.”). As students gain
more knowledge and experience, they will broaden the range of subjects they can
deal with, they will learn to share information in writing as well as orally, and they
will be able to handle formal and informal situations.
Different models of communicative competence have organized language functions
in a variety of ways. The organizational structure chosen here reflects the needs and
interests of students in a classroom where activities are focused on meaning and are
interactive. For example, the strand entitled manage group actions has been
included to ensure that students acquire the language necessary to function
independently in small groups, since this is an effective way of organizing second
language classrooms. The strands under the cluster heading to extend their
knowledge of the world will accommodate a content-based approach to language
learning where students learn content from another subject area as they learn the
German language.
The level of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and discourse competence that students will
exhibit when carrying out the functions is defined in the specific learning outcomes
for Language Competence for each course. To know how well students will be able
to perform the specific function, the Applications learning outcomes must be read in
conjunction with the Language Competence learning outcomes.
APPLICATIONS
Applications • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
General Learning Outcome 1:
Applications
Students will use German in a
variety of situations and for a
variety of purposes.
1.1 receive and impart
information
1.1.1 Share Factual Information
✤ ask for and provide
information on a range of
familiar objects
✤ describe several aspects
of people, places, and
things
✤ describe series or
sequences of events or
actions
➤ Invite students to use a variety of sources (e.g., books,
magazines, brochures, CD-ROM encyclopedia, Internet) to
research travel in a German-speaking country. Ask
students to each collect and present ten helpful hints for
travelling in that country. Possible topics might include:
Things to see, Places to eat, Where to stay, or What to
bring along. As an extension, the class could compile a
master list of tips for travel in German-speaking countries
(BC Resource Package, 70).
➤ Have each student choose a German-speaking country or
region of personal interest. Then ask students to form
groups according to the regions they chose and research
them, using a variety of sources (e.g., tourist brochures,
magazine and newspaper articles, the Internet, etc.). Have
groups develop oral, written, and visual presentations
promoting their regions as tourist destinations. Ask
groups to present their work at a class Travel Fair. As an
extension, have each student select a new travel
destination based on the presentations and record reasons
for the choice (BC Resource Package, 70).
➤ Daily Plan While on Vacation: Select a destination and
compose a sequential plan for one of the days. Have
students write their plans out on poster paper and then
share their plans with classmates.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
6 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
(continued)


*Reprinted (or adapted) from the Spanish 5 to 12 Integrated Resource Package
(1997). Used with permission of the Ministry of Education, Province of British
Columbia. All future references to BC Resource Package fall under this
permission statement.
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ When students work on a research project, look for
evidence that they present accurate and detailed
information.
➤ Work with students to develop criteria for their Travel
Fair. Criteria might include the following:
• provides information on at least three topics
• includes accurate, relevant, and detailed information
• uses clear and appropriate language
• is logically organized
• takes risks to add interest and offer complex information
Grade 10 7
➤ As students prepare their plans and present them, check
that
• the type and quantity of activities for one day are
feasible and realistic
• expressions relating to designating time, place, currency,
and costs are reasonable and appropriate
• linguistically appropriate vocabulary relating to
sequence is used.
Applications • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.2 express emotions and
personal perspectives
1.2.1 Share Ideas, Thoughts,
Opinions, Preferences
✤ inquire about and
express preferences, and
give simple reasons for
preferences
➤ Present students with a variety of pictures depicting
activities that can be done when travelling. Ask students
which activities they prefer, using questions such as Was
machst du lieber oder ? Warum? Note that
syntax in subordinate clauses will have to be taught or
reviewed in order to express reasons for using “weil.”
➤ Have students prepare surveys related to a theme studied
(e.g., favourite entertainment figures, favourite types of
music, hobbies, etc.).
➤ Have students do a survey to find a person with whom
they would be suited to go on a trip, based on preferred
activities in common. The survey could use simple
questions such as Aktivität du gern? Was machst du lieber,
oder ?
➤ Have students view a video of a medical emergency or a
situation, such as a wedding. Have students identify and
respond to the emotions expressed. Ask students how they
felt during and after watching the video. In order to make
this activity more successful, provide students with a list
of possible expressions relating to feelings or emotions.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
8 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.2.2 Share Emotions, Feelings
✤ inquire about, express, and
respond to emotions and
feelings (e.g., Ich fühle mich
gut.)
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 9
➤ When students respond to pictures or surveys by stating
their preferences, look for evidence that students
• are able to provide reasons for their preferences
• use the correct forms of verbs with “du”
• use appropriate vocabulary to describe activities
➤ When students survey classmates in order to find someone
with whom they would be suited to go on a trip, observe
that students
• speak in German throughout activity
• speak to several classmates
• identify a classmate with whom they could travel by
identifying common preferred activities
➤ When students identify and respond to the emotions
expressed in the video, look for evidence that students
• are able to use and identify the correct German
expressions relating to feelings and emotions
Applications • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.3 get things done
1.3.1 Guide Actions of Others
✤ give a simple set of
instructions
➤ Have students participate in a simple game such as “Simon
sagt,” or “Telefonspiel.” Then ask students to lead one of
these games, providing them with cue cards to do so.
➤ Pair students and have them role-play a parent and a son
or daughter who is going out on a first date. The parent
should put forward advice encouraging certain behaviours
and discouraging others. Emphasize date safety.
➤ Brainstorm with students about the type of activities that
they like to do on the weekend. Discuss with students the
kind of questions and expressions they need in order to
plan weekend activities with a friend. Provide students
with an information gap activity with two different
schedules and some common activities to organize (e.g.,
Gehst du mit ins Konzert? Wann? Am Donnerstagabend um 20
Uhr? Ja, das geht. Nein, das geht nicht.)
Then have students organize their own weekend activities
with partners, using the key questions and expressions
provided in the model dialogue.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
10 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.3.2 State Personal Actions
✤ express a wish or a
desire to do something
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 11
➤ When students present and participate in games, look for
evidence that they
• are prepared, with clear instructions
• are able to respond to classmates’ questions
• encourage participation in the game and participate
willingly themselves
➤ While students organize weekend activities with partners,
look for evidence that they
• invite
• accept, including key details about time and activities
• decline, giving reasons
• use a logical sequence of events
➤ When students role-play, look for evidence that they are
increasingly able to
• make themselves understood in German
• use learned patterns and vocabulary
• take risks to add details or unfamiliar language
• use strategies, such as non-verbal communication and
visual props, to support their messages
• be accurate
(See role-play assessment criteria in Classroom
Assessment, p. 11.)
Applications • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.3 get things done (continued)
1.3.3 Manage Group Actions
✤ assume a variety of roles
and responsibilities as
group members
✤ encourage other group
members to act
appropriately
➤ When students are preparing a project in groups, assign
specific roles to each member of the group. Practise some
structures and vocabulary for each role (e.g., facilitator,
recorder, timekeeper, summarizer or presenter). Rotate the
roles within each group.
➤ Brainstorm the possible occasions for extending invitations
and have students role play them.
➤ Place the name of a profession on the back of each student
in the class. Have students circulate in the class, asking
each other questions in order to determine what their
profession is. Alternatively, place the name of a profession
on the back of one student who comes to the front of the
class. The student shows the tag with the profession to the
other students in the class and then asks questions of the
other students in order to determine what his or her
profession is.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
12 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.4 form, maintain, and change
interpersonal relationships
1.4.1 Manage Personal
Relationships
✤ initiate relationships
✤ extend and respond to
invitations in simple
ways
1.5 extend their knowledge of
the world
1.5.1 Discover and Explore
✤ ask questions to gain
knowledge and clarify
understanding, and seek
information
✤ investigate the
immediate environment
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 13
➤ When students assume a variety of roles in groups,
provide students with questions to assess self and group
cooperation (see Appendices A and B).
➤ When students play “Wer bin ich?” with professions, note
the extent to which
• questions are varied and relevant
• questions are understood by the class
➤ Look for evidence that students use appropriate, polite
language.
Applications • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.5 extend their knowledge of
the world (continued)
1.5.1 Discover and Explore
(continued)
✤ ask questions to gain
knowledge and clarify
understanding, and seek
information
✤ investigate the immediate
environment
➤ Have students play “Jeopardy” with categories being the
themes studied in class (e.g., professions, weekend
activities, health and safety, sports, etc.).
Divide the students into teams. One team chooses a
category, a definition or answer is given by the teacher,
and the team must provide the appropriate question (e.g.,
Definition: Ich helfe kranke Leute. Question: Bist du
Krankenschwester?)
➤ Have students do a personal career questionnaire based
upon careers for which they are best suited.
➤ Provide students with pictures of people involved in
typical activities involving a daily routine (e.g., getting up,
getting dressed, brushing teeth, having breakfast, etc.).
Together or in groups, have students arrange photos into a
logical sequence. Provide the appropriate reflexive verbs
with the pictures or discuss these verbs as photos are
arranged into sequence.
As an extension, have students record their own routine
activities for one day. Then, have them work in pairs to
prepare a skit entitled “Ein Tag im Leben von _
with one student missing and the other narrating.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
14 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.5.2 Gather and Organize
Information
✤ organize, categorize, and
record simple
information, using a
variety of resources (e.g.,
print, audio, visual,
multimedia, human)
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 15
➤ When students play games such as “Jeopardy,” look for
evidence that they are able to ask questions to clarify
understanding.
➤ As students work in pairs to sequence daily activities and
then present them in the form of mime and narration, look
for evidence that
• students sequence the daily activities logically
• actions performed by the “actor” correspond to the
narration
Applications • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.5 extend their knowledge of
the world (continued)
1.5.3 Explore Opinions and Values
✤ compare personal views
and opinions with those
of others
✤ respond to the ideas and
products of others
➤ As part of a discussion about professions or occupations,
have students individually choose one profession that they
feel would be ideal or the best job for them. Have them
write three reasons why they have chosen that particular
job. Then have students work in pairs or in groups of three
or four to share the chosen professions and reasons for the
choices. Have groups put their choices and main reasons
on poster paper and display them in the class.
➤ Have students form groups and provide each group with
a number of scenarios that involve a problem that requires
a solution:
• A patient goes to see a doctor for an illness. As the
doctor, what advice would you give?
• You have been given a weekend curfew which you feel
is too early and you have a particular activity planned
which will go past your curfew. How do you resolve the
problem?
• Your parents have chosen a particular type of summer
vacation. You would like a different type of vacation.
➤ Have students develop a solution for the problem. As an
extension, students could create a skit based on the
scenario for which they have proposed a solution.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
16 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.5.4 Solve Problems
✤ recognize a problem and
choose between given
alternative solutions
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 17
➤ As students work individually and then in groups to
identify one ideal profession with three supporting
reasons, look for evidence that students are able to
• take turns, sharing chosen professions
• provide three reasons for choice of profession
• present chosen professions with reasons on poster paper
in a clear, well-organized manner
• make reference to others’ choices and reasons in
comparison with their own
➤ As students work in groups to find solutions for
situational problems, look for evidence that they are able
to
• clearly identify the problem
• propose a variety of solutions
• choose one solution
Applications • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.6 imaginative purposes and
personal enjoyment
1.6.1 Humour/Fun
✤ use German for fun (e.g.,
games, poems, riddles)
➤ Design a crossword puzzle on a theme. Each student
generates two words with the respective clues.
➤ Have students create a collage or draw a picture of their
favourite holiday activities or of their dream vacation spot.
➤ Have students provide the dialogue for a comic that has
bubbles blanked out. Encourage the use of humour.
➤ Have students do a personal project of their own choice
(e.g., watch a movie in German, find out about a favourite
German singer or soccer player). Have students submit a
plan indicating what they expect to gain from the project,
details, and timelines. Students keep a journal during the
project.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
18 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.6.2 Creative/Aesthetic Purposes
✤ use German creatively
(e.g., write simple
captions for a given
comic strip)
1.6.3 Personal Enjoyment
✤ use German for personal
enjoyment (e.g., listen to
favourite songs in
German)
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
Puzzlemaker
www.puzzlemaker.com
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 19
➤ When students create a collage or draw a picture of their
favourite holiday activities or of their dream vacation spot,
look for evidence that they are able to
• include pictures or illustrations
• include words or phrases as labels
➤ Work with students to establish assessment criteria for a
comic. Criteria might include the following:
• German expression/vocabulary is used correctly
• sentences are correctly constructed
• spelling is accurate
➤ When students write a journal during the project, look for
evidence that students are able to
• express their impression on the cultural piece viewed or
read
• indicate what they have gained from it
Applications • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
20 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
N OTES
LANGUAGE
COMPETENCE
GRADE 10
Language Competence
attend to form
interpret and produce
written texts
interpret and produce
oral texts
apply knowledge of how text is
organized, structured, and
sequenced apply knowledge of the sociocultural context
Students will use German
effectively and
competently.
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
Grade 10 23
General Learning Outcome 2: Students will use German effectively and competently.
Language competence is a broad term that includes linguistic or grammatical
competence, discourse competence, sociolinguistic or sociocultural competence, and
what might be called textual competence. The specific learning outcomes under
Language Competence deal with knowledge of the German language and the ability
to use that knowledge to interpret and produce meaningful texts appropriate to the
situation in which they are used. Language competence is best developed in the
context of activities or tasks where the language is used for real purposes, in other
words, in practical applications.
The various components of language competence are grouped under four cluster
headings—see the illustration on the preceding page. Under each of these headings
there are several strands. Each strand deals with a single aspect of language
competence. For example, under the cluster heading attend to form, there is a strand
for phonology (pronunciation, stress, intonation), orthography (spelling, mechanical
features), lexicon (vocabulary words and phrases), and grammatical elements
(syntax and morphology).
Although the learning outcomes isolate these individual aspects, language
competence should be developed through learning activities that focus on
meaningful uses of the German language and on language in context. Tasks will be
chosen based on the needs, interests, and experiences of students. The vocabulary,
grammar structures, text forms, and social conventions necessary to carry out a task
will be taught, practised, and assessed as students are involved in various aspects of
the task itself, not in isolation.
Strategic competence is often closely associated with language competence, since
students need to learn ways to compensate for low proficiency in the early stages of
learning if they are to engage in authentic language use from the beginning. This
component is included in the language use strategies in the Strategies section.
LANGUAGE COMPETENCE
Language Competence • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
General Learning Outcome 2:
Language Competence
Students will understand and
produce German effectively and
competently in spoken and
written forms.
2.1 interpret and produce oral
texts
2.1.1 Aural Interpretation
✤ understand the main
points and some
supporting details of a
variety of oral texts on
familiar topics, in guided
situations
➤ Have students listen to radio advertisements for trips or
vacation destinations. Individually, have students identify
the main activities and positive characteristics, etc. of the
destination. Then have students work in pairs to share
information and represent the main points of the
advertisement visually.
➤ Have students listen to an advertisement by a department
store advertising shopping specials. Then have students
work in pairs to identify the goods advertised and their
prices.
➤ Have students prepare role plays, based on the themes
studied:
• At the doctor’s office
• Interview with a famous person about his or her daily
routine
• Parent and child negotiating acceptable activities and
curfews for the weekend
• Planning a date or an activity with a friend on the
phone
• Shopping for food or clothing
2.1.2 Oral Production
✤ produce simple oral
texts, using familiar
structures, in guided
and unguided situations
24 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ As students listen to radio advertisements for vacation
destinations, look for evidence that they are able to
• identify main activities
• provide relevant details
• include key words and phrases as labels for visual
interpretation
➤ After students listen to an advertisement by a department
store, check to see that prices of goods were accurately
heard.
➤ Discuss criteria with students before they role-play a
variety of situations related to themes studied. The teacher
may wish to develop a checklist students can use for self
and peer assessment. Criteria might include the following:
• meaning is clear
• appropriate details are included in questions and
answers
• gestures and body language support communication
• pronunciation and intonation are generally accurate
• interaction has some sense of fluency and spontaneity
(See examples of role-play criteria in Classroom
Assessment, p. 11.)
Grade 10 25
Language Competence • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
➤ Invite students to improvise social situations (e.g.,
greetings, family dinners, tourist behaviour, shopping).
Students could pick a card that suggests situations to roleplay that demonstrate behaviour that is culturally
appropriate in German-speaking countries.
➤ Suggest that students work in pairs to role-play telephone
conversations in which they plan weekend activities.
Partners should find activities both students would enjoy.
Plans could include where they would go, who will go
with them, when they will leave, and what they will take
along (BC Resource Package, 74).
➤ Have students form groups of three or four. Provide each
group with the written text of a postcard written by
travellers to various German-speaking countries. Have
students read the text together and try to determine the
country visited, based on information given.
2.1 interpret and produce oral
texts (continued)
2.1.3 Interactive Fluency
✤ interact, using a
combination of words
and phrases, in guided
situations
26 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
2.2 interpret and produce
written texts, graphics, and
images
2.2.2 Written Production
✤ produce simple written
texts, using familiar
structures, in guided
and unguided situations
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ When students improvise or role-play social situations,
look for evidence that they are able to
• make themselves understood in German
• keep conversation going without long pauses
• recognize and respond to familiar words and patterns
• use learned patterns and vocabulary
• take risks to add details or use unfamiliar language
➤ When students prepare telephone conversations to plan
weekend activities, discuss criteria with students before
they begin. Criteria might include the following:
• who, what, where, and when (relevant details of plans)
are clearly identified
• questions and answers are clearly formulated
➤ As students work in groups with a postcard written by a
traveller from a German-speaking country, look for
evidence that they are able to
• select key information (words, expressions) to determine
the visited country
• make a logical choice of which country was visited,
based on information provided
Grade 10 27
Language Competence • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
2.2 interpret and produce
written texts, graphics, and
images (continued)
2.2.2 Written Production (continued)
✤ produce simple written
texts, using familiar
structures, in guided and
unguided situations
➤ Have students write a postcard, letter, or email from a real
or an imaginary vacation destination.
➤ Have students research a profession in which they are
interested and have them write a report describing the
main duties and activities of that profession, the education
and prerequisites needed, the work schedule, salary
expected, etc.
➤ Provide students with photos of vacation destinations and
popular vacation activities. Have students choose one
photo and describe what they see in the photo and why
they chose this particular photo. This could be done orally
or in written form.
2.2.3 Viewing
✤ derive meaning from a
variety of visuals, in
guided and unguided
situations
28 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ Work with students to develop a simple checklist they can
use for self and peer assessment of their letters, postcards,
or emails. The checklist might include items such as the
following:
• meaning is clear
• greeting and closing are appropriate
• punctuation is appropriate
• spelling, including accents, is correct
(See examples of checklist criteria in Classroom
Assessment, p. 12.)
➤ When students prepare a report about a profession in
which they are interested, provide them with a checklist
for self and peer assessment. Criteria might include the
following:
• main topics and sections are clearly identified
• relevant detail about each section is provided
• sentence structure is accurate
• spelling is accurate
➤ When students choose a photo of a vacation destination
and vacation activities, look for evidence that they are able
to
• provide key information and relevant details to describe
the chosen photo
• provide relevant reasons for their choice of photo
• interpret elements in the photo
Grade 10 29
Language Competence • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
2.2 interpret and produce
written texts, graphics, and
images (continued)
2.2.4 Representing
✤ express meaning, using a
variety of visual forms, in
guided and unguided
situations
➤ Have students create a poster giving information about a
particular disease. Information could include symptoms,
remedies, where to get more information, etc. Have
students use the imperative to provide preventative
measures.
➤ Have students create a poster entitled “All about
me.”/”Über mich.” Information could include the
following:
• Social activities that I enjoy/Freizeitsaktivtäten die mir
gefallen
• My daily routine/Mein Tagesablauf
• My favourite or dream vacations/Meine Lieblings-oder
Wunschferien
• My possible future profession(s)/Meine Berufspläne
➤ Have students choreograph a German song.
30 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ When students prepare a poster giving information about
a particular disease, discuss criteria with students before
they begin. Criteria might include the following:
• illustrations enhance the message of the text
• name of disease and subtopics are clearly identified
• relevant details are provided for each subtopic
• imperative is used correctly to provide preventative
measures
• layout and design is neat and organized, with good use
of space
➤ When students create a poster about themselves, discuss
criteria with students before they begin. Criteria might
include the following:
• relevant information for each subtopic about oneself is
provided
• illustrations enhance the message of the text
• layout and design is neat and organized, with good use
of space
• appropriate and accurate vocabulary is used
➤ When students perform the song, discuss criteria with
students before they begin. Criteria might include visual
elements in the choreography that correspond to the text
Grade 10 31
Language Competence • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
2.3 attend to form
2.3.1 Phonology
✤ recognize and imitate
intonation patterns that
affect meaning
✤ approximate the
pronunciation of
unfamiliar words
➤ First, model the use of specific sound distinctions in two
sentences where the meaning is changed as a result of
pronunciation. Guide students to identify the differences.
Example: únter hálten versus unterhálten
Then, provide a list of vocabulary to focus on critical
sound distinctions such as long and short vowel sounds
and sentences in which the emphasized inflections change
the meaning. Examples:
• Meine Oma aus du Schweiz kommt morgen zu Besuch (wer?)
• Meine Oma aus der Schweiz kommt morgen zu Besuch
(wann?)
• Meine Oma aus der Schweiz kommt morgen zu Besuch
(welche?)
➤ Students practise target vocabulary by playing games such
as “Hangman,” spelling bee, etc.
2.3.2 Orthography
✤ apply common spelling
rules to write unfamiliar
words
32 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ Prepare an observation checklist. Observe the students’
ability to reproduce appropriately in context critical sound
distinctions.
➤ Look for evidence that students spell target vocabulary
accurately in a variety of situations.
Grade 10 33
Language Competence • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
2.3 attend to form (continued)
2.3.3 Lexicon
✤ experiment with and use a
variety of words and
expressions in familiar contexts
✤ recognize that one word may
have multiple meanings,
depending on the context (e.g.,
Klasse, Stunde, fahren)
✤ understand and use vocabulary
and phrases related to the
following topics/areas of
experience:
— personal identity
✓ name, age
✓ friends and relatives
✓ physical description
— family and home life
✓ family members,
relatives, occupations
✓ pets, animals
✓ the home
— school
✓ subjects
✓ timetables
✓ classroom routines
✓ school facility
— leisure and recreation
✓ hobbies, interest
✓ sports and exercises
✓ entertainment
✓ music
✓ vacation
✓ transportation
— food
✓ meals
✓ restaurants
✓ grocery shopping
— Landeskunde
✓ money, currencies
✓ celebrations
✓ geography
✓ climate, weather,
seasons
✓ famous people
— health and body
✓ body parts
✓ illness
✓ clothing
— other areas
✓ topics of special interest
to students
➤ Have students continue the use of a personal dictionary
for each area of experience.
➤ Have students locate a word with multiple meanings and
design a poster to represent the various meanings. Each
student will present his or her poster to the class.
34 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ Use student conferencing to discuss each student’s
dictionary with him or her.
➤ Look for evidence of student’s understanding of the
complexity of language and language learning.
Grade 10 35
Language Competence • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
2.3 attend to form (continued)
2.3.4 Grammatical Elements
✤ recognize and use, in
modelled situations, the
following grammatical
elements:
— plural nouns
— separable verbs
— perfect tense
— selected reflexive
verbs (first personal
singular)
— future tense
— personal pronouns in
accusative
— subordinate clauses
beginning with weil,
dass
— prepositions with
accusative and dative
— comparison of
adjectives (all forms)
— adjectival endings
(case, number,
gender)
Modelled Situations: This term is used to describe learning
situations where a model of specific linguistic elements is
consistently provided and immediately available. Students
in such situations will have an emerging awareness of the
grammatical elements and be able to apply them in very
limited situations. Limited fluency and confidence
characterize student language.
Example of a modelled situation:
In preparation for a group project, students will keep a
journal of that they would like to do. Students practise the
structure “Ich möchte
. Möchtest du .” using
the sentence patterns provided. Each student asks five
classmates, “Was möchtest du morgen machen?” Students
answer saying “Ich möchte …, with an infinitive of their
choice. Each person then summarizes the results of their
mini-survey: Drei Schüler möchten tanzen, and so on.
36 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ Observe students as they do the exercise. Are they able to
• ask the question following the model
• respond to the question using “Ich möchte …”
• summarize their results using third person singular and
plural forms
Grade 10 37
Language Competence • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
2.3 attend to form (continued)
2.3.4 Grammatical Elements
(continued)
✤ use, in structured
situations, the following
grammatical elements:
— formal address
— modal verbs in
present tense
— imperative mood (all
forms)
— simple past (hatte,
war)
— possessive pronouns
in nominative and
accusative (plural
forms)
— comparison of
adjectives
(comparative forms
only)
Structured Situations: This term is used to describe learning
situations where a familiar context for the use of specific
linguistic elements is provided and students are guided in
their use. Students in such situations will have increased
awareness and emerging control of the grammatical
elements and be able to apply them in familiar contexts with
teacher guidance. Student language is characterized by
increasing fluency and confidence.
Example of a structured situation:
In preparation for a research project on typical activities of
young people in selected German-speaking countries,
students listen to a rapid conversation where a Canadian
student is talking to an exchange student from Germany.
The students check off, on a prepared answer sheet, what
the exchange student does and does not do.
✤ use, independently and
consistently, the
following grammatical
elements:
— plural of familiar
nouns
— compound nouns
— possessive pronouns
in nominative and
accusative (simular)
— negation
— sentence structure:
inversion following
expressions of place
and time (e.g., Heute
gehe ich …)
Independently and Consistently: This term is used to
describe learning situations where students use specific
linguistic elements in a variety of contexts with limited
teacher guidance. Students in such situations will have
consistent control of the linguistic elements and will be able
to apply them in a variety of contexts with limited teacher
guidance. Fluency and confidence characterize student
language.
Example of an independent situation: Students send a letter,
an email message, or a recorded message to a Germanspeaking penpal explaining what they do regularly.
38 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ When correcting student answers, note if they are able to
• distinguish affirmative from negative responses
• match the infinitive form of the verb on the answer sheet
with the conjugated form heard in the recorded
conversation
Grade 10 39
Language Competence • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
2.4 apply knowledge of the
sociocultural context
2.4.1 Register
✤ experiment with and use
formal and informal
language in familiar
situations
➤ As students prepare various role plays (e.g,. at the doctor’s
office, planning an activity with a friend), review with
students the appropriate level of formality in different
situations. Provide students with expressions that would
be appropriate in formal and informal situations.
➤ As students prepare role plays about visiting the doctor’s
office, provide them with specific idiomatic expressions
related to illness (e.g., Mein
(part of body) tut mir
weh. Ich bin krank. Ich habe _
(part of body)
schmerzen.).
➤ As students research and prepare different Germanspeaking countries as vacation destinations, discuss
different expressions that are used in different countries to
identify foods, greetings, etc.
➤ Provide students with various social conventions (e.g.,
invitations, dating, going to movies, addressing elders,
etc.). Then have students role-play social interactions.
➤ Have students mime the various gestures that are
associated with being ill (e.g., holding your head when
you have a headache).
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
40 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
2.4.2 Idiomatic Expressions
✤ use learned idiomatic
expressions in new
contexts
2.4.3 Variations in Language
✤ acknowledge and accept
a variety of accents,
variations in speech,
and regional variations
in language
2.4.4 Social Conventions
✤ use basic forms and
conventions of
politeness in guided and
unguided situations
✤ use appropriate oral
forms of address in
guided and unguided
situations
2.4.5 Non-Verbal Communication
✤ recognize that some
non-verbal behaviours
may be used differently
in German cultures
✤ recognize non-verbal
behaviours that are
considered impolite
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 41
➤ Look for evidence that students use formal and informal
register appropriately in their role plays.
➤ Look for evidence that students use provided simple
idiomatic expressions accurately in their role play.
➤ Look for evidence that students identify some specific
regional variations in language of the destination country.
➤ Look for evidence that students use conventions provided
appropriately.
➤ Look for evidence that students use gestures accurately to
convey their message.
Language Competence • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
2.5 apply knowledge of how
discourse is organized,
structured, and sequenced
in German
2.5.1 Text Forms
✤ identify and use a limited
variety of oral and print
text forms
➤ Provide students with a model of a haiku poem or a
cinquain poem. Then have them create their own haiku or
cinquain poem about a favourite social activity, a daily
activity, an interesting profession, etc.
• Haiku: 5 syllables
7 syllables
5 syllables
• Cinquain: Line 1—One word (noun)—Tells what
poem is about
Line 2—Two words (adjectives)—Describe
the word in Line 1
Line 3—Three words (verbs)—Give action
words (associated with Line 1)
Line 4—Four words—Express feelings or
thoughts (about line 1)
Line 5—One word (noun)—Gives a
synonym of the word in Line 1
➤ Have students work in pairs to prepare an invitation to a
special event that could be sent via email. If possible, have
students send the message to another pair of students in
the class, who must then respond to the invitation.
2.5.2 Patterns of Social Interaction
✤ initiate interactions and
respond using simple
interaction patterns
For a sample list of
forms, see Appendix D
at the end of Grade 10.
42 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ When students create their own poems based on models
provided, discuss criteria with students before they begin.
Criteria might include the following:
• model has been followed
• appropriate and accurate vocabulary is used
➤ When students prepare an invitation to a special event,
create a rubric or checklist to assess both the invitation and
the response. Assessment criteria for the invitation might
include the following:
• key information is provided (who, what, where, when)
• vocabulary and structures required to arrange meeting
times and places are used correctly
• sentence structure is accurate
• spelling is accurate
(See examples of criteria to assess written material in
Classroom Assessment, p. 12.)
➤ Assessment criteria for the response might include the
following:
• a clear response is given
• sentence structure is accurate
• vocabulary and structures required to arrange meeting
times and places are used correctly
• spelling is accurate
Grade 10 43
Language Competence • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
2.5 apply knowledge of how
discourse is organized,
structured, and sequenced
in German (continued)
2.5.3 Cohesion/Coherence
✤ link several sentences
coherently on a single
theme
✤ sequence a series of
events using basic
expressions of time (e.g.,
zuerst, heute, dann,
morgen)
➤ As students establish the order of activities that are part of
the daily routine, introduce important sequential markers
such as erstens, nächstens, dann, letztens/zuletzt.
44 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ When students organize activities of a daily routine and
use sequential markers, look for evidence that they are
able to
• organize daily activities into a chronological sequence
• use appropriate sequential markers
Grade 10 45
Language Competence • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
46 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
N OTES
GLOBAL
CITIZENSHIP
GRADE 10
Global Citizenship
study historical and
contemporary elements of
German-speaking cultures
explore personal and
career opportunities
affirm diversity
Students will acquire
the knowledge, skills, and
attitudes to be effective global
citizens, through the exploration
of the cultures of the Germanspeaking world.
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
Grade 10 49
General Learning Outcome 3: Students will acquire the knowledge, skills, and
attitudes to be effective global citizens, through the exploration of the cultures of
the German-speaking world.
The learning outcomes for Global Citizenship deal with a broad range of knowledge,
skills, and attitudes needed to be effective global citizens—in other words, with the
development of intercultural competence. The concept of global citizenship
encompasses citizenship at all levels, from the local school and community to
Canada and the world.
The various components of global citizenship are grouped under three cluster
headings—see the illustration on the preceding page. Under each of these headings
there are several strands. Each strand deals with a single aspect of intercultural
competence. For example, under the cluster heading study historical and
contemporary elements of German-speaking cultures, there are strands for the
processes and methods of acquiring knowledge about German-speaking cultures,
the cultural knowledge thus acquired, applications of that knowledge to aid
comprehension and to communicate in appropriate ways, positive attitudes toward
German-speaking cultures, as well as knowledge of the diversity within those
cultures.
Developing cultural knowledge and skills is a lifelong process. Knowledge of one’s
own culture is acquired over a lifetime. Cultures change over time. Within any
national group, there may be a dominant culture or cultures and a number of
minority cultures. Rather than try to develop an extensive bank of knowledge about
the German-speaking cultures, it is more important for students to learn the
processes and methods of accessing and analyzing cultural practices. Students will
gain cultural knowledge in the process of developing these skills. In this way, if they
encounter elements of the German-speaking cultures they have not learned about in
class, they will have the skills and abilities to deal with them effectively and
appropriately.
The affirm diversity heading covers knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are
developed as a result of bringing other languages and cultures into relationship with
one’s own. There is a natural tendency, when learning a new language and culture,
to compare it with what is familiar. Many students leave a second language learning
experience with a heightened awareness and knowledge of their own language and
culture. They will also be able to make some generalizations about languages and
cultures based on their experiences and those of their classmates who may have a
variety of cultural backgrounds. This will provide students with an understanding
of diversity within both a global and a Canadian context.
GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP
Global Citizenship • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
General Learning Outcome 3:
Global Citizenship
Students will acquire the
knowledge, skills, and attitudes to
be effective global citizens
through the exploration of the
cultures of the German-speaking
world.
3.1 historical and contemporary
elements of Germanspeaking peoples
3.1.1 Gaining/Applying Knowledge of
German Cultures
✤ identify similarities
between German people
their own age and
themselves (e.g., music,
clothing)
➤ Brainstorm with students about the types of questions
they would like to ask German-speaking young people, if
they had the opportunity (e.g., social life, friends, school,
daily routine, opportunities for the future, careers, etc.).
Give students the opportunity to pair up with a penpal.
Have students write to German-speaking youth to find the
answers to their questions.
➤ Have students simulate being agents for a German rock
star, or any other type of music of German-speaking
culture.
Have students create a poster of their star, a cultural
briefing for the star describing important cultural customs
and musical contributions, a sound track, and the
itinerary. Tasks can be distributed among groups.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
50 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 51
➤ When students formulate questions, look for evidence that
• questions are relevant and clear
• resources are used effectively
• analysis supports or refutes assumptions about Germanspeaking cultures
➤ When students simulate being agents for an international
musician, look for evidence that they are able to identify
musical contributions of German-speaking cultures.
Global Citizenship • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
3.1 historical and contemporary
elements of Germanspeaking peoples
(continued)
3.1.2 Diversity within German
Cultures
✤ explore regional
differences among people
living in Germanspeaking countries (e.g.,
food, dialects, costumes,
celebrations)
➤ Have students work in groups to research the history of a
German-speaking country. Have students present their
information in the form of a multimedia presentation.
➤ Brainstorm with students for a list of current popular
German-speaking entertainers, artists, politicians, athletes,
etc. Then provide students with the names of several
important historical German-speaking figures. Have
students choose one person of the past and one of the
present and have them find basic biographical information
on each. Based on the information found, have students
imagine the life of each person. Students either write a
journal entry as each character or prepare a simple skit
illustrating the life of each character. Discuss with students
differences in lifestyle of the past and of the present.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
52 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
3.1.3 Analyzing Cultural
Knowledge
✤ compare the aspects of
German cultures being
studied with their own
✤ recognize the existence
of stereotypes about
and within German
cultures
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 53
➤ Provide students with a rubric outlining assessment
criteria before they begin the research project on a
German-speaking country’s history.
Subtopics that might be included in the project could
include the following:
• settlement patterns
• immigration
• government
• economy
• geography
• effects of world events
• important people
➤ When students present the life of a famous person of the
past and of a contemporary figure, look for evidence that
they are able to
• incorporate key events in the life of both individuals
• identify differences and similarities in the lives of the
characters
Global Citizenship • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
3.1 historical and contemporary
elements of Germanspeaking peoples
(continued)
3.1.4 Valuing German Cultures
✤ express interest in
finding out about
German-speaking youth
➤ Have students choose and research a topic that focuses on
youth (e.g., dating, social activities, etc.). Have students
present their information through a video, multimedia
presentation, magazine, etc.
➤ Provide students with language structures they are
learning in German and language structures in English.
Have students match the German structure with a
corresponding structure in English. Then have students
compare and contrast the structures in both languages.
Finally, have students complete a text in German in which
they must use the German structures studied in the
matching activity.
➤ Have students view videos or films and listen to
interviews or songs from different regions. After viewing
or listening for the first time, have students work in pairs
to identify the differences in pronunciation, vocabulary,
and structures that they were able to note. Have them
view or listen a second time, asking students to add to
their original list. Discuss with the whole class which
differences were noted. Have students prepare a written
or oral summary of their findings.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
54 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
3.2 affirming and valuing
diversity
3.2.1 Awareness of English
✤ identify similarities and
differences between
English and German
(e.g., sentence structure,
writing conventions)
3.2.2 General Language Knowledge
✤ recognize that within a
linguistic group people
from different regions
and/or social contexts
may use differing
pronunciation,
vocabulary, and
structure
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 55
➤ When students present information about a topic that
focuses on youth, look for evidence that
• a clear understanding of cultural traditions for Germanspeaking teens is evident
• information is presented in an interesting and organized
way
• respect for diversity and differences in customs is
maintained
➤ When students compare structures in both languages, look
for evidence that they
• can identify differences and similarities between the two
languages
• use the German structures studied
➤ As students view or listen to interviews or songs from
different regions, look for evidence that they are adding an
increasing number of details to their list of differences after
each listening or viewing activity.
Global Citizenship • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
3.2 affirming and valuing
diversity (continued)
3.2.3 Awareness of Canadian Culture
✤ compare and contrast
diversity in Canadian
and German cultures
➤ Read several children’s stories from German-speaking
countries which depict a specific event, such as Christmas.
Compare and contrast this event with the way in which
different students celebrate the event. As an extension,
students could create a story of their own celebration.
➤ Have students complete a rural-urban study of a Germanspeaking country.
➤ Have students who have travelled to German-speaking
countries report on their experiences pertaining to coping
linguistically and culturally there.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
56 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
3.2.4 General Cultural Knowledge
✤ recognize that
geography, climate, and
history affect the culture
of a particular region
3.2.5 Intercultural Skills
✤ recognize various ways of
coping with linguistically
and culturally unfamiliar
situations
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 57
➤ Have students complete a True or False activity to ensure
understanding of the celebration in their culture and in the
German-speaking countries.
➤ After students have completed a study about the
differences between urban and rural life in a Germanspeaking country, have students present their findings
about cultural diversity within a country and have them
complete a reflection journal. Questions for the journal
might include the following:
• What are some of the mains differences you noted
between urban and rural life?
• What are some of the similarities you noted between
urban and rural life?
• What are some possible reasons for these differences?
• Which lifestyle would you prefer and why?
➤ When students listen to their classmates, look for evidence
that they appreciate the challenge.
Global Citizenship • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
3.3 personal and career
opportunities
3.3.1 German Language and Cultures
✤ recognize that knowledge
of an additional language
is an asset to any career
➤ Brainstorm with students the answers to the question
“What careers require a knowledge of German?” Have
students work in pairs or small groups to prepare a poster
and small informational brochure called “Careers and
German.”
➤ As students research professions that are of interest to
them, have them also research one occupation or
profession that requires knowledge of another language
and culture. Have students then create a classified
advertisement for the job they researched. The
advertisement should include job duties, requirements,
salary, start date, hours of work, etc.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
58 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
3.3.2 Cultural and Linguistic
Diversity
✤ identify some personal uses
they have made of their
knowledge of different
languages and cultures
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 59
➤ When students prepare a poster and brochure about
careers that require a knowledge of German, discuss
assessment criteria before students begin. Provide students
with guidelines of basic questions to which they must find
the responses. Assessment criteria for brochure and poster
might include the following:
• information is accurate
• relevant details are provided
• appropriate vocabulary is used
• spelling is accurate
• brochure and poster are well-organized, with good use
of space
➤ When students prepare an advertisement for a job, provide
students with a checklist for self and peer assessment.
Criteria might include the following:
• job duties are clearly defined
• requirements are clearly outlined in relation to German
language and culture
• salary is given
• start date and hours of work are given
Upon completion of the advertisements, have students
respond to the following questions in a reflection journal:
• Would you want this type of profession? Why or why
not?
• What are the pros and cons of the job?
• What role does a second language play in this
profession?
Global Citizenship • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
60 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
N OTES
STRATEGIES
GRADE 10
Strategies
language learning strategies
general learning strategies
language use strategies
Students will know
and use various strategies
to maximize the effectiveness
of learning and
communication.
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
Grade 10 63
General Learning Outcome 4: Students will know and use various strategies to
maximize the effectiveness of learning and communication.
Under the Strategies heading are specific learning outcomes that will help students
learn and communicate more effectively. Strategic competence has long been
recognized as an important component of communicative competence. The learning
outcomes that follow deal not only with compensation and repair strategies,
important in the early stages of language learning when proficiency is low, but also
with strategies for language learning, language use in a broad sense, as well as
general learning strategies that help students acquire content. Although people may
use strategies unconsciously, the learning outcomes deal only with the conscious use
of strategies.
The strategies are grouped under three cluster headings—see the illustration on the
preceding page. Under each of these headings there are several strands. Each strand
deals with a specific category of strategy. Language learning and general learning
strategies are categorized as cognitive, metacognitive, and social/affective. The
language use strategies are organized by communicative mode: interactive,
interpretive, and productive.
The strategies that students choose depend on the task they are engaged in as well
as on other factors, such as their preferred learning style, personality, age, attitude,
and cultural background. Strategies that work well for one person may not be
effective for another person or may not be suitable in a different situation. For this
reason it is not particularly useful to say that students should be aware of, or able to
use, a specific strategy in a particular course. Consequently, the specific learning
outcomes describe the students’ knowledge of and ability to use general types of
strategies. More specific strategies for each general category or type are included in
the comprehensive list of strategies in Appendix E. The specific strategies provided
in the comprehensive list are not prescriptive but are provided as an illustration of
how the general strategies in the specific learning outcomes might be developed.
Teachers need to know and be able to demonstrate a broad range of strategies from
which students are then able to choose in order to communicate effectively.
Strategies of all kinds are best taught in the context of learning activities where
students can apply them immediately and then reflect on their use.
STRATEGIES
Strategies • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
General Learning Outcome 4:
Strategies
Students will know and use
various strategies to maximize the
effectiveness of learning and
communication.
4.1 language learning
4.1.1 Cognitive
✤ identify and use a variety
of cognitive strategies to
enhance language
learning (e.g., group
together sets of things
with similar
characteristics, such as
nouns ending in –ung)
➤ Have students play “Verb-Bingo” in order to understand
patterns in reflexive and other verbs better.
➤ Divide students into two or three teams. Have each team
stand in a line so that the first person is in front of the
board. On the board, write all the pronoun subjects and a
verb in the infinitive. Provide the first person in the line of
each team with chalk or a marker. The first person in the
line of each team runs to the board to conjugate the given
verb with “ich,” then runs back to his or her teammates
and gives the marker to the next member on the team.
This person runs to the board and conjugates the given
verb with the subject “du.” The game continues until the
first team has completed the conjugation of the verb with
all the subject pronouns. A point is awarded if the team
correctly conjugates the verb.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
64 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 65
➤ When students participate in games, look for evidence that
they are able to
• make connections between pictures and verb
conjugations
• listen actively to instructions
• participate willingly and actively throughout the game
Provide students with a test following the activity to
confirm their understanding of the verb conjugation
patterns. Give them unknown verbs that follow the same
pattern to verify if students can apply the strategy.
➤ When students participate in a team verb conjugation
game, look for evidence that students are able to
• try conjugations individually first
• solicit assistance from their teammates
• identify mistakes
• identify patterns in the verb conjugations
➤ Conference with students to review their ideas with them
and to verify that they have an awareness of their
strengths and weaknesses.
Strategies • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
4.1 language learning
(continued)
4.1.2 Metacognitive
✤ identify and use a variety
of metacognitive
strategies to enhance
language learning (e.g.,
reflect on learning tasks,
identify own strengths
and needs)
➤ Post a simple text at the front of the room. Have students
work in teams. Students take turns going to the front and
reading a portion of the text, then returning to their team
and reciting what they have read. A different team
member records what has been recited after each portion.
At the end of the text, a reporter is chosen to read what
was recited and recorded by the group. Then provide
students with the original text from the front of the room
and have them compare it with their versions. Afterwards,
discuss with students the different methods they used to
remember the text.
➤ At the beginning of the course or at the beginning of a
unit, have students complete a survey asking them to
identify some of their interests. This survey can be used to
incorporate ideas and activities into the units planned
throughout the course.
➤ Throughout a unit, have students write a learning log that
identifies the activities they liked best during the unit,
what they feel they learned, and what they feel they still
need to work on.
➤ Before students prepare a poster about a given topic, have
them brainstorm and prepare a web as a pre-writing
activity.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
66 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
4.1.3 Social/Affective
✤ identify and use a
variety of social and
affective strategies to
enhance language
learning (e.g., work with
others to solve
problems, get feedback
on tasks)
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 10 67
➤ Have students respond in a learning log to the following
questions:
• What methods did you use to remember the text?
• What methods presented by other students would you
try next time?
➤ Monitor students’ logs throughout the year for evidence of
the following:
• regular use of the log
• continuity (Do students work on things they have
previously identified?)
• growth in the ability to reflect on their needs and
interests
Strategies • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
4.2 language use
4.2.1 Receptive
✤ identify and use a variety
of reading and listening
strategies to aid
comprehension (e.g.,
make inferences based on
prior knowledge and
experiences)
➤ Instruct students to follow a procedure when they
encounter unknown words:

  1. Read sentences before and after the unknown word.
  2. Find words or phrases that give clues to the meaning
    of the word.
  3. Look at word parts (prefixes, suffixes, etc.).
  4. Think about words that are similar.
  5. Use a dictionary or glossary to verify meaning.
  6. Create a mental or visual picture to retain meaning.
    ➤ Provide students with a reading text. Have them underline
    all the unfamiliar words and phrases. Discuss them as a
    class. Then have students rewrite the passage in a simple
    form.
    ➤ Have students form teams or small groups. Provide each
    group with several words from themes studied. Ask a
    member of each team to describe the word. The other
    members of the team must guess what the word is, based
    on the description given. If the team guesses correctly, a
    point is awarded.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    68 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    4.2.2 Productive
    ✤ identify and use a
    variety of speaking and
    writing strategies (e.g.,
    compensate for
    avoiding difficult
    structures by
    rephrasing)
    4.2.3 Interactive
    ✤ identify and use a
    variety of interactive
    strategies (e.g., ask for
    confirmation that a form
    used is correct)
    GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 10 69
    ➤ Provide students with a checklist to monitor the extent to
    which they use an established procedure when
    encountering new words.
    ➤ When students are rewriting the passages, look for
    evidence that they are able to
    • use alternate vocabulary
    • construct simpler sentences
    • retain the original intent and message
    ➤ As students work in teams to describe words from themes
    studied, look for evidence that they are
    • speaking German throughout activity
    • encouraging other team members
    • soliciting information from each other in a positive way
    Strategies • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    4.3 general learning
    4.3.1 Cognitive
    ✤ identify and use a variety
    of cognitive strategies to
    enhance general learning
    (e.g., use mental images
    to remember new
    information)
    ➤ Provide students with language structures they are
    learning in German and language structures in English.
    Have students match the German structure with a
    corresponding structure in English. Then have students
    compare and contrast the structures in both languages.
    Finally, have students complete a text in German in which
    they must use the German structures studied in the
    matching activity.
    ➤ Provide students with a list of activities related to themes
    studied. Have students choose the type of activity they
    wish to complete in order to encourage learning based on
    individual learning styles (e.g., for the vacations theme,
    students might choose from the following types of
    activities: song, travel brochure, travel poster, promotional
    videoclip).
    Provide students with a reflection questionnaire.
    Questions might include the following:
    • Why and how did I choose my activity?
    • What did I understand about the work I did?
    • How did I relate what I already know with new
    information?
    • How have my ideas changed?
    • What did I not understand?
    • What questions do I still have?
    • How can I find the answers to my questions?
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    70 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    4.3.2 Metacognitive
    ✤ identify and use a
    variety of metacognitive
    strategies to enhance
    general learning (e.g.,
    make a plan about how
    to approach a task)
    GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 10 71
    ➤ As students work with language structures in English and
    in German, look for evidence they are able to
    • identify and compare patterns between the languages
    • use knowledge of two language structures in order to
    complete matching or fill-in-the-blank activities correctly
    ➤ Collect students’ reflection questionnaires and look for
    evidence that students respond thoughtfully and with
    appropriate detail.
    Strategies • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    4.3 general learning (continued)
    4.3.1 Social/Affective
    ✤ identify and use a variety
    of social and affective
    strategies to enhance
    general learning (e.g.,
    encourage themselves to
    try even though they
    might make mistakes)
    ➤ Provide students with a procedure to support them in the
    group decision-making process or the problem-solving
    process. A sample set of steps for such processes follows:
    • Define problem or task • Brainstorm
    • Clarify ideas • Confirm ideas
    • Elaborate ideas • Evaluate ideas
    • Organize information • Find solutions
    (Manitoba Education and Training, Grades 5 to 8 English
    Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation, Grade 5 –
    430):
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    72 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 10 73
    ➤ Present students with a situation and have them work in
    groups, following the procedure discussed. Have students
    complete an evaluation after the activity in which they
    answer the following types of questions:
    • Did your group follow the steps? Why or why not?
    • Which activities were most useful? Less useful?
    • How did this procedure help you to come to a decision
    or solve a problem?
    Strategies • GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    74 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    N OTES
    APPENDICES
    GRADE 10

GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Appendices
Grade 10 77
S–41
Wie wir in unserer Gruppe zusammenarbeiteten—Fassung A
Name __________________________ Datum ____________________
Gruppenmitglieder ____ ____ ____ ____
Denke darüber nach, wie deine Gruppe gearbeitet hat. Male das passende Kästchen aus.
In unserer Gruppe haben wir heute:

  1. unsere Zeit gut ausgenutzt und uns gegenseitig geholfen, bei der Arbeit zu bleiben.
    IMMER MANCHMAL SELTEN NIE
  2. aufeinander gehört.
    IMMER MANCHMAL SELTEN NIE
  3. uns gegenseitig ermutigt.
    IMMER MANCHMAL SELTEN NIE
  4. eigene Ideen und Meinungen beigesteuert.
    IMMER MANCHMAL SELTEN NIE
  5. allen Gruppenmitgliedern geholfen, die Aufgabe zu verstehen.
    IMMER MANCHMAL SELTEN NIE
  6. alle mitgearbeitet.
    IMMER MANCHMAL SELTEN NIE
  7. uns gegenseitig geholfen, uns auf die Arbeit zu konzentrieren.
    IMMER MANCHMAL SELTEN NIE
    Eine der Schwierigkeiten, die wir hatten, war:

Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture


Um diese Schwierigkeit zu lösen, haben wir:


Appendix A
Appendices •Grade 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
78 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
H W O G W ? F A BLM 38
S–43
Wie war unsere Gruppenarbeit?
Fassung A
Name __________________________ Datum _____________________
Gruppenmitglieder ___ _____ ____ ____
Unsere Gruppe hat Folgendes
gut gemacht:




Unsere Ziele für das nächste
Mal sind:




Die Dinge, die wir tun müssen,
um unser Ziel zu erreichen:




Die Hilfsmittel (wer und was),
die wir brauchen, um unsere
Ziele zu erreichen:




Wir haben Ideen beigetragen.
Wir haben Anderen zugehört.
Wir haben Fragen gestellt.
Wir haben Andere ermutigt.
Wir haben höflich widersprochen.
Wir sind beim Thema geblieben.
Wir haben Gruppenziele gesetzt.
Wir haben als eine Gruppe über unseren
Fortschritt nachgedacht.
Kreuze ein
Kästchen an. Ja Nein
Appendix B
GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Appendices
Grade 10 79
Appendix C
Beispiel von einem Forschungsplan
(Adapted from Linda Ross, as found in Manitoba Education and Training, Grades 5 to 8 English
Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation, Grade 8 – 184–185)
Name:____________________________ Datum: ______________________
Schritt 1—Vorbereitung: Ziel und Plan
Thema: __________________________________________________________________
Schritt 2—Informiere dich über das Thema
Halte ein Brainstorming ab. Welche Ideen und Fragen hast du?
Schreibe alles auf, was du schon über das Thema weißt.
Schreibe auf, was du über das Thema wissen willst oder was du glaubst wissen zu müssen.
Quellematerialien (✓)
_ Interviews _ Videos _ Experimente _ Dokumentalfilme
_ Zeitungen _ Umfragen _ Biografien _ Umfragen
_ Zeitschriften _ Debatten _ Lexikon _ Artefakte
_ CD-ROM Kreationen _ Zeichnungen/ _ Diagramme _ Fotos
_ Tabellen Illustrationen _ andere
Meine Zuhöher: ________________________________________________________
Mein Ergebnis: _________________________________________________________
Ich werde (✓) benutzen, um Notizen zu machen.
_ Schema “slim jims”
Tabellen grafische Organisatoren
WWL _ Internet
Appendices •Grade 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
80 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
Stufe 2—Informiere dich über das Thema (…weiter)
Beachte:
• die Genauigkeit, die Flüssigkeit, die Qualität, die Quantität, und die Zuverlässigkeit der
Quellematerialien.
• Schätze die Quellematerialien ein.
Mache Notizen. Überprüfe die Notizen. Das Material soll aktuell, relevant und vollständig sein.
Schritt 3—Verarbeite die Information
Schreibe den Entwurf. Begründe (in Einzelheiten) deine Aussagen .
• Revidiere mit einem Farbstift:
✦ Streiche die Information weg, die nicht relevant ist
✦ Markiere, wo es Lücken in der Information gibt
✦ erkläre Aussagen und Information
✦ ordne Aussagen und Information
✦ markiere, wo du das Interesse der Zuhörer erwecken und behalten willst
• Korrigiere mit einem anderen Farbstift:
✦ Großbuchstaben- wo nötig
✦ Rechtschreibung
✦ Satzzeichen
✦ verschiedene Arten von Sätzen
✦ Übergangsworte/-sätze
✦ Satzbau
✦ Übereinstimmung von Subjekt/Verb
✦ Gebrauch des Zielwortschatzes
✦ angemessener Sprachgebrauch für den Zuhörer
Zuerst sollst du deinen Bericht selbst überarbeiten. Dann sollst du mit einem Mitschüler zusammen
arbeiten, um deinen Bericht zu korrigieren. Endlich, sollst du deinen Bericht mit dem Lehrer
redigieren
Schritt 4—die Präsentation der Information
Jetzt kannst du den Bericht mit deinen Zuhörer vorlegen.
Schritt 5—Bewerte dich selbst
Was hast du gelernt? Was hast du gut gemacht? Wie könntest du deine Präsentation
verbessern?
Meine Quellematerialien sind:
(Autor, Titel, Erscheinungsdatum, Erscheinungsort, Verlagshaus)





GRADE 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Appendices
Grade 10 81
Appendix D
Sample List of Text Forms
The following list is not intended to be prescriptive but is provided to suggest possibilities for
expanding students’ experience with different forms.
Print Texts
• Advertisements
• Biographies and autobiographies
• Brochures, pamphlets, and leaflets
• Cartoons
• Catalogues
• Charts, diagrams, graphs
• Compositions
• Dictionaries and grammar items
• Drawings
• Encyclopaedia entries
• Fables
• Folk tales and legends
• Forms
• Graffiti
• Historical fiction
• Information texts
• Instructions and other “how to” texts
• Invitations
• Jokes
• Journals, diaries, and logs
• Labels and packaging
• Letters—business and personal
• Lists, notes, personal messages
• Maps
• Menus
• Mysteries
• Myths
• Newspaper and magazine articles
• Non-fiction chapter books
• Picture books
• Plays
• Poetry
• Programs
• Questionnaires
• Readers’ theatre
• Recipes
• Reports and manuals
• Rhymes
• Riddles
• Scripts
• Short stories and novels
• Signs, notices, announcements
• Stories
• Symbols/logos
• Textbook articles
• Tickets, timetables, and schedules
• Travel log
• Word-play
Oral Texts
• Advertisements
• Announcements
• Ceremonies—religious and secular
• Debates
• Fables
• Formal and informal conversations
• Interviews
• Jokes
• Lectures
• Messages
• Mysteries
• Myths
• News reports
• Oral stories and histories
• Plays and other performances
• Reports and presentations
• Rhymes
• Riddles
• Role-play/skits
• Songs and hymns
• Speeches
• Telephone conversations
• Word-play
Visual Texts
• Drawings
• Illustrations
• Photographs
• Pictures
• Prints
Multimedia Texts
• Charts, diagrams, graphs
• Comic strips
• Computer and board games
• Computer software
• Dance
• Movies and films
• Murals
• News reports
• Puppet plays
• Slide/tape/CD and video/DVD presentations
• Symbols/logos
• Television programs
• Websites
Appendices •Grade 10 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
82 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
N OTES
G RADE 9 T O G RADE 1 2
G ERMAN L ANGUAGE AND
C ULTURE
Grade 11
Applications 3
Language Compentence 21
Global Citizenship 47
Strategies 63
Appendices 73

APPLICATIONS
GRADE 11
Applications
impart and receive
information
express emotions and
personal perspectives
extend their knowledge
of the world
get things done
use the language for
imaginative purposes
and personal enjoyment form, maintain, and change interpersonal relationships
Students will use German in
a variety of situations and for
a variety of purposes.
GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
Grade 11 5
General Learning Outcome 1: Students will use German in a variety of situations
and for a variety of purposes.
The specific learning outcomes under the heading Applications deal with what the
students will be able to do with the German language, that is, the functions they
will be able to perform and the contexts in which they will be able to operate. This
functional competence, also called actional competence, is important for a contentbased or task-based approach to language learning where students are constantly
engaged in meaningful tasks (Celce-Murcia, Dörnyei, and Thurrell).
The functions are grouped under six cluster headings—see the illustration on the
preceding page. Under each of these headings, there are one or more strands. Each
strand deals with a specific language function (e.g., share factual information).
Students at any grade level will be able to share factual information. Beginning
learners will do this in very simple ways (e.g., “This is my dog.”). As students gain
more knowledge and experience, they will broaden the range of subjects they can
deal with, they will learn to share information in writing as well as orally, and they
will be able to handle formal and informal situations.
Different models of communicative competence have organized language functions
in a variety of ways. The organizational structure chosen here reflects the needs and
interests of students in a classroom where activities are focused on meaning and are
interactive. For example, the strand entitled manage group actions has been
included to ensure that students acquire the language necessary to function
independently in small groups, since this is an effective way of organizing second
language classrooms. The strands under the cluster heading to extend their
knowledge of the world will accommodate a content-based approach to language
learning where students learn content from another subject area as they learn the
German language.
The level of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and discourse competence that students will
exhibit when carrying out the functions is defined in the specific learning outcomes
for Language Competence for each course. To know how well students will be able
to perform the specific function, the Applications learning outcomes must be read in
conjunction with the Language Competence learning outcomes.
APPLICATIONS
Applications • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
General Learning Outcome 1:
Applications
Students will use German in a
variety of situations and for a
variety of purposes.
1.1 receive and impart
information
1.1.1 Share Factual Information
✤ seek out and provide
information on several
aspects of a topic (e.g.,
give a simple report,
understand and use
definitions, comparisons,
and examples)
➤ Have students research the life of a celebrity, artist, or
musician, traditional or contemporary, of a Germanspeaking country. Have students then present their
findings to the class, without giving the name of the
famous person. Classmates must guess who the person is.
Have students use a biographical map to help them
organize ideas:
• Biography Title
• Timelines or Milestones
• Achievements
• Personal Qualities
• Important people in life
(BC Resource Package, 42; Manitoba Education and
Training, Grades 5 to 8 English Language Arts: A Foundation
for Implementation, Grade 5 – 354)
➤ Ask students to explore various examples of people whose
accomplishments they admire. List them on the board and
discuss. Then have students think of events in their own
lives of which they feel personally proud. Suggest that
students prepare a presentation to the class describing
their personal chosen event or accomplishment and
explaining why it is important to them (BC Resource
Package, 60).
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
6 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
(continued)


*Reprinted (or adapted) from the Spanish 5 to 12 Integrated Resource Package
(1997). Used with permission of the Ministry of Education, Province of British
Columbia. All future references to BC Resource Package fall under this
permission statement.
GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ As students present information they have researched
about a famous person of a German-speaking country,
look for evidence that they
• present accurate and detailed information
• show appreciation for the importance or relevance of the
individual’s contributions
• avoid stereotyping or overgeneralizing
• are developing increased understanding of and insights
into German culture and society
➤ When students narrate events orally or in writing, provide
prompts or questions to help them elaborate. Note the
extent to which students
• enhance their descriptions with details of time, place,
and people involved
• comment on circumstances surrounding events, as well
as on the events themselves
• use verb tenses appropriately to sequence events and
differentiate between circumstances and isolated events
• use appropriate verb tenses to differentiate between past
and present
• speak clearly, using pronunciation and intonation to
support and convey meaning
• describe and narrate events in a comprehensible way
Grade 11 7
Applications • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.1 receive and impart
information (continued)
1.1.1 Share Factual Information
(continued)
✤ seek out and provide
information on several
aspects of a topic (e.g.,
give a simple report,
understand and use
definitions, comparisons,
and examples)
➤ Have students prepare a television or movie review, using
the following guidelines:

  1. Tell the name of the movie or TV program.
  2. Tell the name of the characters in it.
  3. Tell what kind of show it is.
  4. Tell some interesting, funny, or exciting things that
    happened in it.
  5. Tell what you liked or did not like about it.
  6. Rate it from 1 to 5 (Top Rating) and explain your
    rating.
  7. Tell who you think would enjoy the show or movie
    and why you think they would enjoy it.
    (Manitoba Education and Training, Grades 5 to 8 English
    Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation, Grade 5 –
    28).
    ➤ Have students prepare surveys related to a theme studied
    (e.g., favourite entertainment figures, favourite types of
    music, hobbies, etc.).
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    8 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    1.2 express emotions and
    personal perspectives
    1.2.1 Share Ideas, Thoughts,
    Opinions, Preferences
    ✤ inquire about and
    express agreement and
    disagreement, approval
    and disapproval,
    satisfaction and
    dissatisfaction, interest
    and lack of interest
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 9
    ➤ When students prepare a TV or movie review, provide
    them with a checklist for assessment, based on the
    guidelines given for the review.
    ➤ Work with students to prepare assessment criteria for
    surveys. Criteria might include the following:
    • clear formulation of questions
    • questions are relevant to the chosen topic
    • use of varied and appropriate vocabulary
    • correct spelling
    • evidence of risk-taking by attempting to go beyond
    vocabulary and structures practised in class
    Applications • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    1.2 express emotions and
    personal perspectives
    (continued)
    1.2.1 Share Ideas, Thoughts,
    Opinions, Preferences
    (continued)
    ✤ inquire about and
    express agreement and
    disagreement, approval
    and disapproval,
    satisfaction and
    dissatisfaction, interest
    and lack of interest
    ➤ Fortune Cookie Activity: From a container, have students
    draw papers with their fortunes, in the style of the fortune
    cookie. Students must agree or disagree with the fortune
    they have drawn. As an extension, students could write a
    story related to the fortune they have drawn.
    ➤ Play excerpts from a variety of music types. Have students
    record their emotional response to each selection. Music
    could include selections without librettos. To assist
    students further, a list of possible emotional responses
    could be given to them from which they then select for
    each excerpt. Discuss responses as a class.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    10 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    1.2.2 Share Emotions, Feelings
    ✤ inquire about, express,
    and respond to emotions
    and feelings in a variety
    of contexts
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 11
    ➤ As students work in groups to discuss fortunes, look for
    evidence that students are able to
    • take turns to participate
    • clearly express their agreement or disagreement with the
    fortune drawn
    • respond appropriately to questions and cues from others
    • speak German throughout the activity
    ➤ As students perform the task, verify that emotions are
    expressed with appropriate language.
    Applications • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    1.3 get things done
    1.3.1 Guide Actions of Others
    ✤ suggest a course of action
    in a variety of situations
    ➤ Have students role-play several situations, such as going
    to the movies, buying a CD, renting a movie, etc.
    ➤ Provide students with a model dialogue in which someone
    is inviting someone else to do an activity on a particular
    day at a particular time. Students then complete a sevenday agenda by inviting someone to do something with
    them every day.
    ➤ Provide students with expressions of disagreement, both
    polite and impolite. Have students guess which
    expressions are polite and impolite. Then have students
    formulate short dialogues in which they practise polite
    disagreement
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    12 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    1.3.2 State Personal Actions
    ✤ state personal actions in
    the past, present, or
    future
    1.3.3 Manage Group Actions
    ✤ express disagreement in
    an appropriate way
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 13
    ➤ Discuss criteria with students before they prepare role-play
    situations. The teacher may wish to develop a checklist
    students can use for self and peer assessment. Criteria
    might include the following:
    • level of formality is appropriate for the context
    • meaning is clear
    • appropriate details are included in questions and
    answers
    Language Competence Criteria:
    • gestures and body language support communication
    • pronunciation and intonation are generally accurate
    • interaction has some sense of fluency and spontaneity
    • props and visual aids are used to support
    communication
    (See role-play assessment criteria in Classroom
    Assessment, p. 11.)
    ➤ As students interact to complete a seven-day agenda of
    activities, look for evidence that they are able to
    • invite, accept, and decline using patterns and structures
    learned
    • speak German throughout the activity
    • interact with a variety of peers throughout the activity
    ➤ As students present the spontaneous dialogues, verify that
    they are using appropriate expressions of disagreement.
    Applications • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    1.4 form, maintain, and change
    interpersonal relationships
    1.4.1 Manage Personal Relationships
    ✤ give and respond to
    compliments, and justify
    and explain own actions
    ➤ Provide students with a series of compliments and a list of
    possible responses. Have students choose the most
    appropriate response for each compliment. This could be
    set up as a competition.
    ➤ Provide a variety of contemporary and traditional music
    and visual art from the German-speaking world. Ask
    students to illustrate their personal responses to these
    works by creating a poster, collage, or magazine cover that
    represents three different songs, musicians, or artists the
    students particularly enjoyed. Students could include
    captions that reflect their thoughts and feelings about
    these works (BC Resource Package, 40).
    ➤ Brainstorm with students about what they know about
    German fairytales. Have students put information into a
    web. Present students with a German fairytale. Have
    students complete the following chart after reading the
    fairytale.
    • Setting
    • Characters
    • Problem
    • Magic
    • Events
    • Ending
    As an extension, have students write their own version of
    the original fairytale studied. Have students then compare
    the original version with another student’s version.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    14 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    1.5 extend their knowledge of
    the world
    1.5.1 Discover and Explore
    ✤ explore and express meaning
    in a variety of ways (e.g.,
    drawing a diagram, making
    a model, rephrasing)
    1.5.2 Gather and Organize
    Information
    ✤ organize and manipulate
    information (e.g., transform
    information from texts into
    other forms, such as tables or
    diagrams)
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 15
    ➤ As students select the best responses, verify that their
    choices are correct.
    ➤ As students brainstorm and create webs, look for evidence
    that they are able to
    • identify key ideas
    • organize categories
    • draw from past experiences
    • take risks putting forward their ideas
    • ask questions to clarify information
    ➤ As students examine fairytales, look for evidence that they
    are able to
    • identify the main characteristics of fairytales
    • identify similarities and differences in different versions
    of a fairytale
    ➤ Look at the posters, collages, or magazine covers that
    students create in response to creative works for evidence
    that they are able to offer unique personal perspectives or
    impressions combining visual elements and words.
    Applications • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    1.5 extend their knowledge of
    the world (continued)
    1.5.3 Explore Opinions and Values
    ✤ examine differing
    perspectives on an issue
    ➤ Have students choose a character from a fairytale.
    Students then examine an issue or another character from
    this character’s point of view
    ➤ Have students tell a traditional fairytale from the point of
    view of a different character (e.g., “Red Riding Hood” as
    told by the wolf).
    ➤ Identify a problem and solve it in small groups (e.g.,
    owing someone money).
    ➤ Have students identify problems that are evident in
    current events and have them consider possible solutions.
    ➤ Provide students with comic strips with the conversation
    in the bubbles deleted. Students complete the comic strips
    with their own versions of the conversation.
    ➤ Provides students with one part of comic strip. Each
    student must find the other half of his or her comic strip
    by checking with classmates. When students have found
    their partner with the other half of the comic strip, have
    them role play the scene for the class or create an
    alternative dialogue.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    16 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    1.5.4 Solve Problems
    ✤ identify a problem and
    propose a solution
    1.6 for imaginative purposes
    and personal enjoyment
    1.6.1 Humour/Fun
    ✤ use German for fun and
    to interpret humour
    (e.g., cartoons, stories)
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 17
    ➤ As students examine an issue from a particular character’s
    point of view, look for evidence that they are able to
    • take risks putting forward their ideas
    • state opinions clearly
    • include details, reasons, and examples to support
    opinions
    • use a range of appropriate vocabulary and structures
    • adjust language to reflect the perspective of the chosen
    character
    ➤ As students work in groups to identify a problem and
    consider solutions, look for evidence that students are able
    to
    • state and describe the problem
    • list possible solutions
    • use target vocabulary and expressions
    • speak German during the group activity
    ➤ As students complete comic strips with their own versions
    of the conversation, look for evidence that they are able to
    • use language in humorous ways
    • take risks to go beyond vocabulary and structures
    learned in class
    Applications • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    1.6 for imaginative purposes
    and personal enjoyment
    (continued)
    1.6.2 Creative/Aesthetic Purposes
    ✤ use German creatively
    (e.g., write poems based
    on simple, repetitive and
    modelled language)
    ➤ Have students research a German artist or muscian. Have
    students write a poem about the person they have studied.
    ➤ Invite students to work in groups to choose their favourite
    selections from a variety of CDs in German and put
    together music awards ceremonies for the class. Ask
    groups to select categories (e.g., “best male singer,” “best
    group,” etc.) and present nominations and winners in
    German, giving as much background information as
    possible (BC Resource Package, 56).
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    18 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    1.6.3 Personal Enjoyment
    ✤ use German for personal
    enjoyment (e.g., find a
    personal penpal and
    exchange email
    messages)
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 19
    ➤ Discuss criteria for composing the poem. Criteria might
    include the following:
    • relevant information is included
    • a personal response is embedded
    • the form is created consciously
    ➤ Observe that students are participating actively.
    Applications • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    20 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    N OTES
    LANGUAGE
    COMPETENCE
    GRADE 11
    La
    Language Competence
    attend to form
    interpret and produce
    written texts
    interpret and produce
    oral texts
    apply knowledge of how text is
    organized, structured, and
    sequenced apply knowledge of the sociocultural context
    Students will use German
    effectively and
    competently.
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    Grade 11 23
    General Learning Outcome 2: Students will use German effectively and
    competently.
    Language competence is a broad term that includes linguistic or grammatical
    competence, discourse competence, sociolinguistic or sociocultural competence, and
    what might be called textual competence. The specific learning outcomes under
    Language Competence deal with knowledge of the German language and the ability
    to use that knowledge to interpret and produce meaningful texts appropriate to the
    situation in which they are used. Language competence is best developed in the
    context of activities or tasks where the language is used for real purposes, in other
    words, in practical applications.
    The various components of language competence are grouped under four cluster
    headings—see the illustration on the preceding page. Under each of these headings
    there are several strands. Each strand deals with a single aspect of language
    competence. For example, under the cluster heading attend to form, there is a
    strand for phonology (pronunciation, stress, intonation), orthography (spelling,
    mechanical features), lexicon (vocabulary words and phrases), and grammatical
    elements (syntax and morphology).
    Although the learning outcomes isolate these individual aspects, language
    competence should be developed through learning activities that focus on
    meaningful uses of the German language and on language in context. Tasks will be
    chosen based on the needs, interests, and experiences of students. The vocabulary,
    grammar structures, text forms, and social conventions necessary to carry out a task
    will be taught, practised, and assessed as students are involved in various aspects of
    the task itself, not in isolation.
    Strategic competence is often closely associated with language competence, since
    students need to learn ways to compensate for low proficiency in the early stages of
    learning if they are to engage in authentic language use from the beginning. This
    component is included in the language use strategies in the Strategies section.
    LANGUAGE COMPETENCE
    Language Competence • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    General Learning Outcome 2:
    Language Competence
    Students will understand and
    produce German effectively and
    competently in spoken and
    written forms.
    2.1 interpret and produce oral
    texts
    2.1.1 Aural Interpretation
    ✤ understand the main
    points and some specific
    details of a variety of oral
    texts on familiar topics, in
    guided and unguided
    situations
    ➤ Have students listen to a radio ad or view a TV ad. In
    pairs or in small groups, have students identify the
    product, some details about the product, the slogan, and
    the target audience.
    ➤ Show students a German commercial, cutting off the
    message at the end of the commercial. Students must then
    guess what the message is, based on what they saw and
    heard in the first part of the message. Discuss students’
    ideas for the message and then play the whole
    commercial.
    ➤ Select a legend or myth that has three or four logical
    stopping points in the story. Have students examine the
    title, author, and illustrations. Ask students questions to
    develop predictions about the characters, setting, and plot.
    Using a Before-During-After Reading Map, record,
    students’ predictions beside B under each of the story
    elements. Have students read the first segment of the story
    silently to check predictions. Discuss with students
    whether or not their predictions were correct and ask them
    to make predictions about the next segment of reading.
    Record these predictions in the D (during) section of the
    map. Continue the predicting-reading-proving cycle until
    the selection is completed. Record any new information in
    the A section of the map (Manitoba Education and
    Training, Grades 5 to 8 English Language Arts: A Foundation
    for Implementation, Strategies – 146–147).
    2.1.2 Oral Production
    ✤ understand the main
    points and some specific
    details of a variety of
    written texts on familiar
    topics, in guided and
    unguided situations
    24 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ When students view German commercials, look for
    evidence that they
    • identify the message
    • have used specific details in their interpretation
    • are open to considering a variety of views and
    interpretations
    ➤ As students use the Before-During-After Reading Map for
    the reading of legends or myths, look for evidence that
    students are able to
    • identify the key elements of the story
    • focus on key words, phrases, and ideas
    • make logical inferences based on the title, author, and
    illustrations
    Have students retell the story in written or oral form.
    Grade 11 25
    Language Competence • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.1 interpret and produce oral
    texts (continued)
    2.1.2 Oral Production (continued)
    ✤ understand the main
    points and some specific
    details of a variety of
    written texts on familiar
    topics, in guided and
    unguided situations
    ➤ Have students read a review of a movie, TV show,
    performance, or music CD. Students must identify the
    main points of the review, as well as some supporting
    details.
    ➤ Invite students to examine cartoons or comic strips written
    in German and to note common expressions. Have
    students pay particular attention to the visual elements.
    Have students think about what meaning is
    communicated visually and how it is done.
    ➤ Have students view a variety of German commercials and
    have them identify the specific purpose, intended
    audience, and message of each. Have students consider
    how the visual component of the commercial contributes
    to the interpretation.
    2.1.3 Interactive Fluency
    ✤ derive meaning from a
    variety of visuals and
    other forms of nonverbal
    communication, in
    guided situations
    26 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ As students work with reviews, look for evidence that they
    are able to
    • identify the main points
    • provide details
    • use cognates and contextual clues to derive meaning
    ➤ When students view German commercials, look for
    evidence that they
    • use visual clues to help identify purpose, intended
    audience, and message
    • focus on key vocabulary and expressions to help identify
    purpose, intended audience, and message
    ➤ When students analyze German-language cartoons or
    comic strips, look for evidence that they are able to
    interpret the visual elements to derive additional meaning.
    Grade 11 27
    Language Competence • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.2 produce oral and written
    texts
    2.2.1 Noninteractive Spoken
    Production
    ✤ produce simple oral texts
    on familiar topics, in
    guided and unguided
    situations
    ➤ Have students view/listen to a program similar to
    Entertainment Tonight. Have students note the main
    information provided in each segment of the program or
    divide the class into groups and have each group record
    the important details for one segment. Then discuss with
    the class.
    ➤ Using fables, provide students with the beginning and the
    end of a fable. In groups, students then complete the story
    and create a skit.
    ➤ In groups, have students prepare a fashion show with
    commentary. Have each group prepare a fashion show on
    a different theme (e.g., graduation attire, summer or
    winter attire, sports attire, etc.).
    28 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ Before students prepare a skit of the fable, discuss criteria
    for creating the story. Criteria might include the following:
    • meaning is clear
    • events are sequenced to create a coherent story
    • appropriate conventions and traditions are incorporated
    • interesting and relevant details are incorporated
    • gestures and body language support communication
    • pronunciation and intonation are generally accurate
    ➤ When students prepare a fashion show on a particular
    theme, discuss criteria before students begin. Criteria
    might include the following:
    • appropriate vocabulary related to clothing and fashion is
    used
    • present tense is used appropriately
    • comparative is used appropriately
    • pronunciation and intonation are generally accurate
    • props are used to support the presentation
    Grade 11 29
    Language Competence • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.2 produce oral and written
    texts (continued)
    2.2.2 Interactive Spoken Production
    ✤ initiate and manage short
    interactions, with pauses
    for planning and repair
    ➤ After students have examined several advertisements for
    movies, have them role-play making plans to attend a
    movie. Their choices should reflect the information
    acquired from the advertisements (e.g., movie titles,
    locations, times, actors, critic’s ratings, etc.). Students
    might also refer to their favourite genres (BC Resource
    Package, 46). Alternatively, students could work in groups
    in which each person presents a movie he or she has seen,
    with discussion following.
    ➤ Have students write a fan letter to an entertainer, singer,
    musician, etc.
    ➤ Have students write their own simple fairytale or have
    them rewrite a common fairytale in modern setting.
    Provide students with a story-writing planner to help
    organize their ideas. Story models should also be provided
    or discussed prior to this activity.
    ➤ Have students watch a music video without the sound.
    Then ask students to create the text for the song. Each
    student then presents his or her text. Watch the music
    video again, with the song audible to the students. Discuss
    which texts best represent the music video. (This may be
    done with a German or an English video.)
    2.2.3 Written Production
    ✤ produce simple written
    texts on familiar topics,
    in guided and unguided
    situations
    2.2.4 Representing
    ✤ express meaning using a
    variety of visuals and
    other forms of nonverbal
    communication, in
    guided situations
    30 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ Discuss criteria with students before they prepare role-play
    situations. The teacher may wish to develop a checklist
    students can use for self and peer assessment. Criteria
    might include the following:
    • meaning is clear
    • appropriate details are included in questions and
    answers
    • interaction has some sense of fluency and spontaneity
    • gestures and body language support communication
    • pronunciation and intonation are generally accurate
    • props and visual aids are used to support
    communication
    (See role-play assessment criteria in Classroom
    Assessment, p. 11.)
    ➤ When students write their own fairytale, provide them
    with assessment tools, as well as a writing planner to help
    them organize their ideas. Use these tools as a basis for
    final assessment.
    (See example of story assessments in Classroom
    Assessment, pp. 18–19.)
    ➤ As students watch a music video and attempt to interpret
    it, look for evidence that they are able to
    • watch attentively
    • create text
    Grade 11 31
    Language Competence • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.3 attend to form
    2.3.1 Phonology
    ✤ pronounce unfamiliar
    words correctly, and
    identify and reproduce
    some critical sound
    distinctions that are
    important for meaning
    (e.g., Wien vs. Wein)
    ➤ When preparing a fashion show, ask students to prepare
    short texts to present the models and clothing they are
    wearing, using correct stress and intonation patterns of the
    German language.
    ➤ Provide students with opportunities to self and peer edit
    written work in order to verify basic rules and mechanical
    conventions.
    2.3.2 Orthography
    ✤ apply basic spelling
    rules consistently, and
    use mechanical
    conventions (e.g.,
    Kommasetzung,
    Anführungszeichen)
    32 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ As students present the show, look for evidence that
    students are speaking correctly.
    ➤ Look for evidence that students spell targeted vocabulary
    accurately in a variety of situations.
    Grade 11 33
    Language Competence • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.3 attend to form (continued)
    2.3.3 Lexicon
    ✤ use a variety of words and
    expressions in familiar
    contexts, and use familiar
    vocabulary to derive meaning
    from a variety of texts
    ✤ understand and use vocabulary
    and phrases related to the
    following topics/areas of
    experience:
    — personal relationships
    ✓ peers
    ✓ friends
    ✓ relatives
    — German civilization
    ✓ history
    ✓ famous people
    ✓ inventions
    ✓ literature
    ✓ architecture
    ✓ myths/legends
    — leisure and recreation
    ✓ sports and exercise
    ✓ health and lifestyle
    — contemporary life and
    issues
    ✓ current events
    ✓ science and technology
    ✓ institutions and systems
    (schools)
    ✓ environment
    ✓ housing
    — popular culture
    ✓ mass media
    ✓ advertising
    ✓ music
    ✓ literature
    — European context
    ✓ geography/topography
    ✓ travel
    ✓ the European Union
    — personal image
    ✓ fashion
    ✓ careers
    ✓ future plans
    — other areas
    ✓ topics of special interest
    to students
    34 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 35
    Language Competence • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.3 attend to form (continued)
    2.3.4 Grammatical Elements
    ✤ recognize and use, in
    modelled situations, the
    following grammatical
    elements:
    — simple past
    — reflexive verbs (all
    forms)
    — nominative,
    accusative, and dative
    case as a concept
    — sentence structure:
    time/manner/place
    — personal pronouns in
    dative
    — possessive pronouns
    preceding dative
    objects
    — infinitive phrases and
    clauses (e.g., Ich plane
    nach Deutschland zu
    reisen. Oma geht in die
    Stadt, um das Museum
    zu besuchen.)
    — relative clauses in
    nominative and
    accusative
    Modelled Situations: This term is used to describe learning
    situations where a model of specific linguistic elements is
    consistently provided and immediately available. Students
    in such situations will have an emerging awareness of the
    grammatical elements and be able to apply them in very
    limited situations. Limited fluency and confidence
    characterize student language.
    Example of a modelled situation:
    In preparation for a group project, students build a list of the
    activities that they would like to do. Students practise the
    structure “Ich möchte . Möchtest du .” using
    the sentence patterns provided. Then students survey other
    classmates: “Was möchtest du morgen machen?” Students
    answer saying “Ich möchte …, with an infinitive of their
    choice. Each person then summarizes the results of their
    mini-survey: Drei Schüler möchten tanzen, and so on.
    36 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 37
    Language Competence • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.3 attend to form (continued)
    2.3.4 Grammatical Elements
    (continued)
    ✤ use, in structured
    situations, the following
    grammatical elements:
    — plural of nouns
    — separable verbs
    — perfect tense
    — modal verbs in simple
    past
    — future tense
    — personal pronouns in
    accusative
    — subordinate clauses
    — prepositions with
    accusative and dative
    — comparison of
    adjectives (all forms)
    Structured Situations: This term is used to describe learning
    situations where a familiar context for the use of specific
    linguistic elements is provided and students are guided in
    their use. Students in such situations will have increased
    awareness and emerging control of the grammatical
    elements and be able to apply them in familiar contexts with
    teacher guidance. Student language is characterized by
    increasing fluency and confidence.
    Example of a structured situation:
    Provide students with a map of their town or city. Identify
    key locations on the map. Having taught the use of dative
    and accusative prepositions, group students in pairs and
    have students alternately ask for directions and give
    directions to specified locations.
    ✤ use, independently and
    consistently, the
    following grammatical
    elements:
    — formal address
    — modal verbs in
    present tense
    — imperative mood (all
    forms)
    — possessive pronouns
    in nominative and
    accusative, plural
    forms
    — comparison of
    adjectives
    (comparative forms
    only)
    Independently and Consistently: This term is used to
    describe learning situations where students use specific
    linguistic elements in a variety of contexts with limited
    teacher guidance. Students in such situations will have
    consistent control of the linguistic elements and will be able
    to apply them in a variety of contexts with limited teacher
    guidance. Fluency and confidence characterize student
    language.
    Example of an independent situation:
    Students send a letter or an email message to an
    administrator in the school, giving recommendations for
    improving the school building and services. Students should
    be advised to use the modal verbs and the comparative form
    of adjectives.
    38 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 39
    Language Competence • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.4 apply knowledge of
    sociocultural context
    2.4.1 Register
    ✤ recognize and use formal
    and informal language
    appropriately in familiar
    situations
    ➤ Have students role-play a situation in which a police
    officer stops a driver for speeding and focus on the use of
    the formal register. Then have students develop a roleplay in which they are describing the experience of being
    stopped by the police to a friend. Have students focus on
    the informal register in this dialogue.
    ➤ Provide students with a dialogue that contains idiomatic
    expressions. Have students identify as many as they can
    and guess their meaning. Then provide the actual
    meanings. In pairs, students then present short,
    spontaneous exchanges in which they use a given number
    of idiomatic expressions.
    ➤ Have students listen to a children’s song and a pop
    selection. Discuss the differences in language use and
    expression in the two selections.
    ➤ Discuss social conventions with students. Watch a German
    TV or movie segment and identify social conventions for
    young people in the segment.
    2.4.2 Idiomatic Expressions
    ✤ use idiomatic
    expressions in a variety
    of contexts
    2.4.4 Social Conventions
    ✤ use basic forms and
    conventions of
    politeness, and use
    appropriate oral forms
    of address
    2.4.3 Variations in Language
    ✤ recognize and adapt to
    individual differences in
    spoken German (e.g.,
    region, age, individual
    speech patterns)
    40 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ When students prepare role plays using the formal and
    informal registers, note the extent to which they are able to
    • use formal and informal register in the appropriate
    situations
    • provide clear messages
    • use intonation, gestures, and body language to support
    communication
    • speak clearly and smoothly, with pronunciation being
    generally accurate
    ➤ When students present their exchanges, look for evidence
    of
    • correct understanding of the idiomatic expressions
    • appropriate inflection and intonation in delivering the
    expressions
    ➤ Look for evidence that students are able to identify
    variations in language use.
    Grade 11 41
    Language Competence • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.4 apply knowledge of
    sociocultural context
    (continued)
    2.4.5 Nonverbal Communication
    ✤ understand and use some
    common nonverbal
    behaviours in familiar
    contexts (e.g., length of
    eye contact)
    ➤ Brainstorm with students several ways in which we
    communicate non-verbally in North American culture and
    discuss common gestures used in German-speaking
    countries.
    ➤ Have students work in groups to examine different
    sections of a German newspaper (e.g., entertainment,
    sports, fashion). Have students list all the features present
    in the newspaper and provide possible explanations for
    the sequence of the features. Have students create an
    alternate sequence.
    ➤ Using situations related to driving, provide students with
    a social interaction pattern:
    • Request to use family car—Request granted—Thanks.
    • Request to use family car—Request denied—Repeated
    requests with reasons—Request denied—Anger
    expressed
    2.5 apply knowledge of how
    the German language is
    organized, structured, and
    sequenced
    2.5.1 Text Forms
    ✤ identify and use a variety
    of oral and print text
    forms
    2.5.2 Patterns of Social Interaction
    ✤ initiate and respond to
    interpersonal
    communication, in
    guided and unguided
    situations, using
    routines of social
    interaction
    42 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ Determine that students have identified all the features.
    Determine that the alternate sequence is reasonable.
    ➤ When students prepare role plays, using specific social
    interactions, look for evidence that they are able to
    combine simple social interaction patterns.
    Grade 11 43
    Language Competence • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.5 apply knowledge of how
    the German language is
    organized, structured, and
    sequenced
    2.5.3 Cohesion/Coherence
    ✤ link words, phrases, or
    simple sentences, using
    basic connectors, in
    guided and unguided
    situations; and link
    several sentences
    coherently on a single
    theme
    ➤ Provide students with a form letter as a model for writing
    a fan letter to a musician, entertainer, actor, etc.
    44 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ Work with students to develop a simple checklist for
    structuring a fan letter. The checklist might include items
    such as the following:
    • interesting details are included
    • questions are appropriate and polite
    • greeting and closing are appropriate
    • punctuation is appropriate
    • spelling is correct
    Grade 11 45
    Language Competence • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    46 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    N OTES
    GLOBAL
    CITIZENSHIP
    GRADE 11
    Global Citizenship
    study historical and
    contemporary elements of
    German-speaking cultures
    explore personal and
    career opportunities
    affirm diversity
    Students will acquire
    the knowledge, skills, and
    attitudes to be effective global
    citizens, through the exploration
    of the cultures of the Germanspeaking world.
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
    Grade 11 49
    General Learning Outcome 3: Students will acquire the knowledge, skills, and
    attitudes to be effective global citizens, through the exploration of the cultures of
    the German-speaking world.
    The learning outcomes for Global Citizenship deal with a broad range of
    knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to be effective global citizens—in other
    words, with the development of intercultural competence. The concept of global
    citizenship encompasses citizenship at all levels, from the local school and
    community to Canada and the world.
    The various components of global citizenship are grouped under three cluster
    headings—see the illustration on the preceding page. Under each of these headings
    there are several strands. Each strand deals with a single aspect of intercultural
    competence. For example, under the cluster heading study historical and
    contemporary elements of German-speaking cultures, there are strands for the
    processes and methods of acquiring knowledge about German-speaking cultures,
    the cultural knowledge thus acquired, applications of that knowledge to aid
    comprehension and to communicate in appropriate ways, positive attitudes toward
    German-speaking cultures, as well as knowledge of the diversity within those
    cultures.
    Developing cultural knowledge and skills is a lifelong process. Knowledge of one’s
    own culture is acquired over a lifetime. Cultures change over time. Within any
    national group, there may be a dominant culture or cultures and a number of
    minority cultures. Rather than try to develop an extensive bank of knowledge about
    the German-speaking cultures, it is more important for students to learn the
    processes and methods of accessing and analyzing cultural practices. Students will
    gain cultural knowledge in the process of developing these skills. In this way, if
    they encounter elements of the German-speaking cultures they have not learned
    about in class, they will have the skills and abilities to deal with them effectively
    and appropriately.
    The affirm diversity heading covers knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are
    developed as a result of bringing other languages and cultures into relationship
    with one’s own. There is a natural tendency, when learning a new language and
    culture, to compare it with what is familiar. Many students leave a second language
    learning experience with a heightened awareness and knowledge of their own
    language and culture. They will also be able to make some generalizations about
    languages and cultures based on their experiences and those of their classmates who
    may have a variety of cultural backgrounds. This will provide students with an
    understanding of diversity within both a global and a Canadian context.
    GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP
    Global Citizenship • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    General Learning Outcome 3:
    Global Citizenship
    Students will acquire the
    knowledge, skills, and attitudes to
    be effective global citizens
    through the exploration of the
    cultures of the German-speaking
    world.
    3.1 historical and contemporary
    elements of the culture of
    German-speaking peoples
    3.1.1 Gaining/Applying Knowledge of
    German Cultures
    ✤ explore and identify
    some social aspects of
    German life (e.g.,
    festivals, sports, and
    communities, and
    understand behaviours
    that are different from
    their own (e.g., use of
    public transportation,
    involvement in part-time
    jobs)
    ➤ Have students view footage of the falling of the Berlin
    Wall. Then have students work in groups to discuss the
    significance and influence of this event on modern
    Germany. Provide students with graphic organizers,
    sentence starters, and key vocabulary in order to facilitate
    the discussion. Have students share their group’s thoughts
    and observations.
    ➤ Provide students with a calendar from a German-speaking
    country. Have students examine it and identify holidays
    and other important dates. Students then compare holiday
    patterns and dates with those on a Canadian calendar.
    Discuss with students how the calendar year affects daily
    life.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    50 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    3.1.2 Diversity within German
    Cultures
    ✤ recognize the
    increasingly
    multicultural nature of
    German-speaking
    countries
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 51
    ➤ When students share their thoughts and observations
    about German-speaking cultures, look for evidence that
    they
    • take risks to express opinions
    • participate in group discussion
    • are sensitive to differences among German-speaking
    cultures
    • show increasing awareness of differences in the
    ➤ Look for evidence that students have gained knowledge
    about German holidays.
    Global Citizenship • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    3.1 historical and contemporary
    elements of the culture of
    German-speaking peoples
    (continued)
    3.1.3 Analyzing Cultural
    Knowledge
    ✤ use basic research skills
    to find out about German
    cultures
    ➤ Have students watch a video or demonstration of
    Schuhplattling. Give students the opportunity to participate
    in such a dance.
    ➤ Have students view a series of videos or DVDs about
    cultural celebrations in German-speaking countries such
    as Fasching or Oktoberfest. Students choose one of the
    celebrations and prepare a celebration web. The web will
    consist of the main ideas presented in the video or DVD.
    ➤ Invite a community member of German-language heritage
    to speak to the class about his or her culture and its
    contributions to Canada. Before the visit, encourage
    students to prepare questions for the guest.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    52 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    3.1.4 Valuing German Cultures
    ✤ identify contributions of
    German cultures to
    their own societies and
    to global society
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 53
    ➤ As students watch and then participate in German dances,
    look for evidence that they
    • are taking risks to dance and participate
    • show openness and interest
    • are able to identify some traditional German dances
    ➤ As students prepare a web on a celebration, look for
    evidence that
    • the main aspects of the celebration are represented
    • appropriate vocabulary is used
    ➤ Provide prompts to encourage students to reflect upon
    what they have learned about contributions of Germanspeaking cultures to our global society. Prompts could
    include the following:
    • Three things I have learned are _______ .
    • The contribution that I admire most is _
    because __________ .
    • I still am not clear about _____________ .
    Global Citizenship • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    3.1 historical and contemporary
    elements of the culture of
    German-speaking peoples
    (continued)
    3.1.4 Valuing German Cultures
    (continued)
    ✤ identify contributions of
    German cultures to their
    own societies and to
    global society
    ➤ After students have viewed videos about German holidays
    and celebrations, form groups and have each group
    complete a Venn diagram showing similarities and
    differences between these celebrations and Canadian ones.
    As an extension activity, students could create illustrated
    calendars indicating holidays and significant days in the
    German-speaking world (BC Resource Package, 18).
    Provide prompts such as the following to encourage
    students to reflect on what they have learned about
    culture:
    • Three features that seem common to many cultures
    _________ .
    • Something that often varies among different cultures is
    _________ .
    • Two views I have that are strongly influenced by my
    culture are __________ .
  8. __
  9. __
  10. __
  11. __
  12. __
  13. __
  14. __
  15. __
  16. __
    In Kanada, feiern wir In Deutschsprachigen
    Ländern feiert man
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    54 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 55
    ➤ When students draw comparisons based on their
    understanding of celebrations in the German-speaking
    world, look for evidence that
    • the information is accurate and relevant
    • relevant details and examples are included to illustrate
    key points
    Global Citizenship • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    3.1 historical and contemporary
    elements of the culture of
    German-speaking peoples
    (continued)
    3.1.4 Valuing German Cultures
    (continued)
    ✤ identify contributions of
    German cultures to their
    own societies and to
    global society
    ➤ As a class, discuss important celebrations of the Germanspeaking world. Invite each student to choose one of these
    celebrations for in-depth study and give a presentation to
    the class, noting differences and similarities between it
    and the student’s own cultural celebrations (BC Resource
    Package, 58).
    ➤ Distribute two copies of a short text, one text in old
    German and the other in modern German. Have students
    compare the texts and the German used. Have them
    identify the differences and discuss how the language has
    evolved.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    56 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    3.2 affirming and valuing
    diversity
    3.2.1 Awareness of English
    ✤ identify some English
    words that have been
    adopted from German
    (e.g., angst)
    3.2.2 General Language Knowledge
    ✤ identify regional and/or
    social differences in
    pronunciation and
    vocabulary in various
    languages within their
    personal experience
    3.2.3 Awareness of Canadian
    Culture
    ✤ use new understanding
    of German cultures to
    reflect on and clarify
    aspects of Canadian
    culture
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 57
    ➤ When students analyze texts in old and modern German,
    look for evidence that they are able to
    • identify some key differences between the two versions
    • give hypotheses about the evolution of the language
    Global Citizenship • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    3.2 affirming and valuing
    diversity (continued)
    3.2.4 General Cultural Knowledge
    ✤ recognize that people of a
    specific culture may have
    perspectives that differ
    from those of people in
    other cultures, and
    identify the limitations of
    adopting a single
    perspective
    ➤ View clips of television advertisements from Germanspeaking countries. Have students identify aspects of the
    advertisements that may demonstrate different cultural
    perspectives from the students’ own culture and discuss
    the implications of cultural context in advertising.
    ➤ Have students work in groups. One or two groups design
    a brochure for exchange students from German-speaking
    countries. Information could include what they need to
    know about Western Canada and young people here.
    Another group designs a corresponding brochure for host
    families and students here.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    58 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    3.2.5 Intercultural Skills
    ✤ apply interpersonal skills to
    cope with linguistically and
    culturally unfamiliar
    situations
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 59
    ➤ As students discuss cultural perspectives in advertising,
    look for evidence that students recognize the implications
    of cultural context in understanding text forms (such as
    television advertisements) in a second language.
    ➤ When students design a brochure for exchange students
    and host families and students, develop criteria that
    students can use to guide their work. For example, to what
    extent does the brochure demonstrate
    • accurate and detailed information about Canada or
    about a specific province, according to the sections
    outlined
    • awareness of cultural differences that might affect
    relationships
    • appropriate vocabulary and structures (including verb
    tenses)
    • good organization and a clear layout
    Global Citizenship • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    3.3 personal and career
    opportunities
    3.3.1 German Language and Culture
    ✤ identify aspects of
    German music, arts, and
    crafts that are of personal
    interest
    ➤ Have students research German crafts and then each
    student selects one item for presentation. Have each
    student produce a graphic design of their selection. Then,
    create a gallery display of the students’ designs.
    ➤ Have students research local businesses and institutions
    where German is being used and report their findings to
    the class.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    60 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    3.3.2 Cultural and Linguistic
    Enrichment
    ✤ identify situations in
    which knowledge of
    additional languages and
    intercultural skills can be
    applied
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 61
    ➤ When students create their contributions to the craft
    gallery, look for evidence that they
    • use a variety of sources to find the information
    • find and record relevant details
    Global Citizenship • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    62 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    N OTES
    STRATEGIES
    GRADE 11
    Strategies
    language learning strategies
    general learning strategies
    language use strategies
    Students will know
    and use various strategies
    to maximize the effectiveness
    of learning and
    communication.
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
    Grade 11 65
    General Learning Outcome 4: Students will know and use various strategies to
    maximize the effectiveness of learning and communication.
    Under the Strategies heading are specific learning outcomes that will help students
    learn and communicate more effectively. Strategic competence has long been
    recognized as an important component of communicative competence. The learning
    outcomes that follow deal not only with compensation and repair strategies,
    important in the early stages of language learning when proficiency is low, but also
    with strategies for language learning, language use in a broad sense, as well as
    general learning strategies that help students acquire content. Although people may
    use strategies unconsciously, the learning outcomes deal only with the conscious use
    of strategies.
    The strategies are grouped under three cluster headings—see the illustration on the
    preceding page. Under each of these headings there are several strands. Each strand
    deals with a specific category of strategy. Language learning and general learning
    strategies are categorized as cognitive, metacognitive, and social/affective. The
    language use strategies are organized by communicative mode: interactive,
    interpretive, and productive.
    The strategies that students choose depend on the task they are engaged in as well
    as on other factors, such as their preferred learning style, personality, age, attitude,
    and cultural background. Strategies that work well for one person may not be
    effective for another person or may not be suitable in a different situation. For this
    reason it is not particularly useful to say that students should be aware of, or able to
    use, a specific strategy in a particular course. Consequently, the specific learning
    outcomes describe the students’ knowledge of and ability to use general types of
    strategies. More specific strategies for each general category or type are included in
    the comprehensive list of strategies in Appendix E. The specific strategies provided
    in the comprehensive list are not prescriptive but are provided as an illustration of
    how the general strategies in the specific learning outcomes might be developed.
    Teachers need to know and be able to demonstrate a broad range of strategies from
    which students are then able to choose in order to communicate effectively.
    Strategies of all kinds are best taught in the context of learning activities where
    students can apply them immediately and then reflect on their use.
    STRATEGIES
    Strategies • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    General Learning Outcome 4:
    Strategies
    Students will know and use
    various strategies to maximize the
    effectiveness of learning and
    communication.
    4.1 language learning
    4.1.1 Cognitive
    ✤ identify and use a variety
    of cognitive strategies to
    enhance language
    learning (e.g., find and
    apply information, using
    reference materials like
    dictionaries, textbooks,
    and grammars)
    ➤ Have students work in groups and provide each group
    with a fable. Within the fable, highlight words they do not
    know and have groups find synonyms for the selected
    words.
    ➤ Have students keep a learning log to reflect on their
    learning.
    ➤ Using a text, model strategies to students re:
    comprehension of text. After the modelling of the
    metacognitive strategies, discuss with students what they
    strategically observed. Provide a second text to students
    and have them use one or more strategies to create
    meaning from the text.
    ➤ As students prepare a group task, provide opportunities
    for them to reflect on the task and how they will best be
    successful. Questions might include the following:
    • What is my role and what do I need to do to complete
    the task?
    • What are the obstacles I need to overcome and how can
    I overcome them?
    • Whom can I ask to help me accomplish my task? How
    can that person help me?
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    66 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    4.1.2 Metacognitive
    ✤ identify and use a
    variety of metacognitive
    strategies to enhance
    language learning (e.g.,
    make a plan in advance
    about how to approach a
    language learning task)
    4.1.3 Social/Affective
    ✤ identify and use a
    variety of social and
    affective strategies to
    enhance language
    learning (e.g., work
    cooperatively with peers
    in small groups)
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 67
    ➤ As students work to find synonyms for selected words
    within a fable, look for evidence that they are able to
    • associate new words with familiar words
    • take risks to guess meanings
    • use resources to find definitions and appropriate
    synonyms
    ➤ Have students reflect on what they are learning. Possible
    questions to which they might respond include the
    following:
    • Which strategies were presented?
    • Which of the strategies presented did you recognize or
    have you used before?
    • Why do you think these strategies work for you?
    • Which strategies will be most helpful to you?
    ➤ As students allocate tasks and roles, look for evidence of
    social and affective strategies being employed.
    Strategies • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    4.2 language use strategies
    4.2.1 Receptive
    ✤ identify and use a variety
    of reading and listening
    strategies (e.g., make
    inferences based on
    contextual clues)
    ➤ Provide students with a short oral text and accompanying
    multiple choice questions. Replay or read the passage to
    students several times, advising students to listen for the
    general content in the first instance and for specific content
    in subsequent instances. Have students complete the
    questions, then mark them as a group.
    ➤ When students are doing research projects and are able to
    gather information from German language resources,
    encourage them to use these resources to develop key
    vocabulary related to the topic. Students can then use this
    vocabulary to produce their own texts.
    ➤ During games and activities, have groups invite others to
    participate in the game. The organizers of the game
    present the rules, then have participants confirm their
    understanding of the rules. Allow students the
    opportunity to engage in the game.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    68 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    4.2.2 Productive
    ✤ identify and use a
    variety of speaking and
    writing strategies (e.g.,
    apply grammar rules to
    improve accuracy
    4.2.3 Interactive
    ✤ identify and use a
    variety of interactive
    strategies (e.g., ask for
    clarification, use other
    speakers’ words)
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 69
    ➤ Look for evidence that students are able to select
    additional answers with each subsequent listening
    opportunity.
    ➤ As students participate in productive activities for specific
    communicative situations, look for evidence that they are
    able to
    • use the new vocabulary found in resources
    • organize information
    • create something new, rather than replicating
    ➤ As students participate in interactive activities, look for
    evidence that they are able to
    • confirm their understanding of the game or activity
    • participate actively with others
    • participate fairly by following rules
    Strategies • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    4.3 general learning
    4.3.1 Cognitive
    ✤ identify and use a variety
    of cognitive strategies to
    enhance general learning
    (e.g., look for patterns
    and relationships)
    ➤ Have students prepare and use acronyms in order to
    enhance learning. Have them use numbers and letter
    codes.
    ➤ Have students consider their own needs in the classroom
    environment by asking them to consider the role of the
    following in their learning:
    • seating arrangement
    • classroom décor
    • classroom setting
    ➤ Have students work in small groups in order to put
    together the pieces of a puzzle properly. After the activity,
    discuss with the class the role and importance of
    cooperation in order to complete the task.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    70 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    4.3.2 Metacognitive
    ✤ identify and use a
    variety of metacognitive
    strategies to enhance
    general learning (e.g.,
    identify own needs and
    interests)
    4.3.3 Social/Affective
    ✤ identify and use a
    variety of social and
    affective strategies to
    enhance general
    learning (e.g., use
    support strategies to
    help peers persevere at
    learning tasks)
    GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 11 71
    ➤ Look for evidence that students are able to
    • use strategies such as acronyms in order to enhance
    understanding
    • use strategies in new, specific situations
    ➤ In a reflection journal, have students consider the role of
    seating arrangement, classroom décor, and classroom
    setting in their learning.
    ➤ Look for evidence that students are able to
    • identify the role of cooperation in order to complete a
    task
    • select and use appropriate affective strategies
    Strategies • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    72 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    N OTES
    APPENDICES
    GRADE 11

GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Appendices
Grade 11 75
S–34(A)
Selbstbewertung des Geschriebenen
Name ____________________ Datum __________________________
Auswahl _______________________________________________________________
Hake das passende Kästchen ab.
ˆ erster Entwurf
ˆ endgültiger Entwurf
Gib eine „ja” oder „nein”-Antwort für jede Frage. Die „nein”-Antworten deuten auf Gebiete hin,
die weitere Beachtung verlangen. Wähle jeweils mindestens zwei Gebiete von INHALT und
TECHNIK aus, die weitere Beachtung verlangen. Fülle TEIL DREI: ZIELSETZUNG aus.
TEIL EINS: INHALT

  1. Macht mein Schreiben Sinn?
  2. Sind meine Ideen klar?
  3. Sage ich, was ich sagen will?
  4. Wird der Leser von meinem Einführungssatz gepackt?
  5. Sind meine unterstützenden Sätze detailliert und relevant?
  6. Bleibe ich beim Thema?
  7. Sind meine Gedanken folgerichtig?
  8. Vollende ich jeden Gedanken ?
  9. Benutze ich eine Vielfalt von Wörtern und Sätzen?
  10. Habe ich einen starken Schlusssatz?
    INHALT:
    Was ich besser machen muss:
    Ja Nein
    Appendix A
    Appendices • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    76 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    S-34(B)
    Selbstbewertung des Geschriebenen (Fortsetzung)
    Name ____________________ Datum ___________________________
    Auswahl ________________________________________________________________
    TEIL ZWEI: TECHNIK
  11. Habe ich die Rechtschreibung überprüft?
  12. Habe ich Rechtschreibe-/Wörterquellen (Wörterbuch,
    Thesaurus, Computer Rechtschreibeprogramm) benutzt,
    um mir bei der Rechtschreibung zu helfen?
  13. Habe ich die richtigen Satzzeichen benutzt?
  14. Habe ich Großbuchstaben benutzt, wo nötig?
    5 Habe ich überprüft, ob Subjekt und Verb zusammenpassen?
  15. Habe ich das richtige Format für dieses Genre benutzt?
    TECHNIK:
    TEIL DREI: ZIELSETZUNG
  16. Ziel für Inhalt Aktionplan Erfolgsanzeiger
  17. Ziel für Technik Aktionplan Erfolgsanzeiger

Ja Nein
Was ich besser machen muss:
Appendix B
GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Appendices
Grade 11 77
S–36
Bewertung des Geschriebenen durch Mitschüler/innen
Name des Schülers/der Schülerin ____________________________________________
Form oder Genre ________________________________________________________
Bearbeiter (Mitschüler/in) ___________________________________________________
Datum __________________________________________________________________

A. Nachdem ich deine Arbeit gelesen habe, möchte ich dir über Folgendes Komplimente
machen:





B. Die folgenden angekreuzten Punkte sind Teile deiner Arbeit, die deine Aufmerksamkeit
benötigen:
_ Einführungssatz Rechtschreibung
detaillierte Nebensätze Großschreibung
Organisation der Gedanken Satzzeichen
Aufeinanderfolge von Gedanken Übereinstimmung von Subjekt/Verb
Klarheit der Gedanken Satzbau
Schlusssatz _
Übergangsworte/-sätze
C. Bemerkungen/Vorschläge:





Appendix C
Appendices • GRADE 11 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
78 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture Planer zum Schreiben eines ersten Entwurfs Name _________________________________ Thema/Aufgabe_______________________________________________ Datum ________________________________ Schreibformat ____________________________________ “Einschlagender” Einführungssatz, der den Leser packt —“Anreißer” “Einschlagender” Schlusssatz, der den Leser packt—“Trumpf” Hauptidee oder Thema
Unterstützende Oberbegriffe (für Ideen) Benötigte Hilfsmittel
Wörter, die für
die Hauptidee
oder das Thema
von Bedeutung
sind
Geeignete
Übergangsworte
oder –sätze
Appendix D
G RADE 9 T O G RADE 1 2
G ERMAN L ANGUAGE AND
C ULTURE
Grade 12
Applications 3
Language Compentence 19
Global Citizenship 47
Strategies 61

APPLICATIONS
GRADE 12
Applications
impart and receive
information
express emotions and
personal perspectives
extend their knowledge
of the world
get things done
use the language for
imaginative purposes
and personal enjoyment form, maintain, and change interpersonal relationships
Students will use German in
a variety of situations and for
a variety of purposes.
GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
Grade 12 5
General Learning Outcome 1: Students will use German in a variety of situations
and for a variety of purposes.
The specific learning outcomes under the heading Applications deal with what the
students will be able to do with the German language, that is, the functions they
will be able to perform and the contexts in which they will be able to operate. This
functional competence, also called actional competence, is important for a contentbased or task-based approach to language learning where students are constantly
engaged in meaningful tasks (Celce-Murcia, Dörnyei, and Thurrell).
The functions are grouped under six cluster headings—see the illustration on the
preceding page. Under each of these headings, there are one or more strands. Each
strand deals with a specific language function (e.g., share factual information).
Students at any grade level will be able to share factual information. Beginning
learners will do this in very simple ways (e.g., “This is my dog.”). As students gain
more knowledge and experience, they will broaden the range of subjects they can
deal with, they will learn to share information in writing as well as orally, and they
will be able to handle formal and informal situations.
Different models of communicative competence have organized language functions
in a variety of ways. The organizational structure chosen here reflects the needs and
interests of students in a classroom where activities are focused on meaning and are
interactive. For example, the strand entitled manage group actions has been
included to ensure that students acquire the language necessary to function
independently in small groups, since this is an effective way of organizing second
language classrooms. The strands under the cluster heading to extend their
knowledge of the world will accommodate a content-based approach to language
learning where students learn content from another subject area as they learn the
German language.
The level of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and discourse competence that students will
exhibit when carrying out the functions is defined in the specific learning outcomes
for Language Competence for each course. To know how well students will be able
to perform the specific function, the Applications learning outcomes must be read in
conjunction with the Language Competence learning outcomes.
APPLICATIONS
Applications • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
General Learning Outcome 1:
Applications
Students will use German in a
variety of situations and for a
variety of purposes.
1.1 receive and impart
information
1.1.1 Share Factual Information
✤ comprehend and recount
events that took place in
the past (e.g., historical,
cultural)
➤ Have students work in groups of four. Provide each group
with a different article on the same topic written in
German from a magazine or newspapers. Have each
group generate four questions based on key information.
Then have students regroup so that each member of the
group has a different article, with four questions (Jigsaw).
Have students then pool their information and ask each
other the generated questions in order to get a complete
picture of the topic.
➤ Construct an anticipation guide that consists of three to
eight short statements that reflect major ideas around the
themes of the media and its impact or around a current
event. Present the statements to the students and ask them
to either agree or disagree, justifying their choice based on
their current information or knowledge. Have students
read, view, or listen to the materials on the topics of the
impact of the media or a current event. Then have
students return to their anticipation guides to determine
whether their thinking has been altered by the exposure to
the new content, and to identify ideas that have been
confirmed (Manitoba Education and Training, Grades 5 to 8
English Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation,
Grade 6 – 11).
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
6 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture


*Reprinted (or adapted) from the Spanish 5 to 12 Integrated Resource Package
(1997). Used with permission of the Ministry of Education, Province of British
Columbia. All future references to BC Resource Package fall under this
permission statement.
1.2 express emotions and
personal perspectives
1.2.1 Share Ideas, Thoughts,
Opinions, Preferences
✤ inquire about, express,
and support opinions;
and express probability
and certainty (e.g.,
vielleicht, wahrscheinlich,
bestimmt)
(continued)
GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
➤ When students work with a magazine or newspaper
article, look for evidence that they are able to ask
appropriate questions to find key information.
Language Use Strategies Outcomes:
• predict meaning by interpreting graphics and pictures
• locate familiar words and focus on key words
• use the context to support inferences about the
information
• focus on finding the key information they need
➤ When students work with anticipation guides, look for
evidence that they are able to
• express an opinion or preference using support data and
justification
• use information found in materials which they have
viewed or to which they have listened in order to
support or refute opinions
• speak with comfort and confidence about opinions and
preferences
Grade 12 7
Applications • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.2 express emotions and
personal perspectives
(continued)
1.2.2 Share Emotions, Feelings
✤ discuss emotions and
feelings in a variety of
situations
➤ Display several paintings. Encourage student to identify
feelings the paintings evoke, giving reasons for these
responses.
➤ Have students write a letter to “Miss Lonelyhearts”
explaining a problem, and then write a response to that
letter offering advice. Make students aware of the
necessary grammatical structures required for the task,
such as the use of modal auxiliaries and the imperative in
the singular.
➤ Have students construct a dialogue between a parent and
a child in which an intention is stated and a promise is
made. Make students aware of the necessary grammatical
structures required, such as the future tense.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
8 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.3 get things done
1.3.1 Guide Actions of Others
✤ give advice and warning
1.3.2 State Personal Actions
✤ express intention and
make a promise in a
variety of situations
GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 12 9
➤ When students express feelings evoked by paintings, look
for evidence that they are able to
• provide a relevant overall impression
• offer a personal perspective or reaction
• make connections with other experiences
➤ As students prepare the dialogue, verify that appropriate
grammatical structures are being utilized.
➤ As students complete this task, verify that appropriate
grammatical structures are being utilized.
Applications • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.3 get things done (continued)
1.3.3 Manage Group Actions
✤ negotiate in a simple way
with peers in small-group
tasks
➤ In small groups, have students prepare a dream-trip
itinerary. Have students negotiate and reach consensus on
the destinations on their itinerary.
➤ Have students create a card for an occasion, such as a
wedding, a graduation, or a birthday party, and write a
note of congratulations and regret to the recipient.
➤ Provide students with the front page of a German
newspaper or a newspaper from the Internet and have
students discuss the current events in Germany.
PRESCRIBED LEARNING
OUTCOMES
SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
10 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
1.4 form, maintain, and change
interpersonal relationships
1.4.1 Manage Personal Relationships
✤ offer and respond to
congratulations, and
express regret
1.5 extend their knowledge of
the world
1.5.1 Discover and Explore
✤ explore connections and
gain new insights into
familiar topics
GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
SUGGESTED LEARNING
RESOURCES
SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
Grade 12 11
➤ When students negotiate with their group members, look
for evidence that they
• ask pertinent questions to clarify and obtain additional
information
• add relevant comments to enhance information
➤ When students write their messages, look for evidence that
they are able to use appropriate vocabulary to express
congratulations and regret.
➤ When students read and discuss current news in Germany,
look for evidence that they are able to
• offer a personal perspective or reaction
• understand the main issues
Applications • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
1.5 extend their knowledge of
the world (continued)
1.5.2 Gather and Organize
Information
✤ compose questions to
guide research, and
gather information using
a prepared format (e.g.,
interview)
➤ Provide students with research material on a given topic.
Have them read the texts in groups and have each group
formulate a series of questions which are then compiled or
posted. Have students identify the questions common to
most of the groups.
➤ Invite each student to choose an article from a magazine,
newspaper, or the Internet and to note interesting facts.

Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture PDF


Students prepare a simple summary of the article, using
the following basic rules of summarization:

  1. Delete trivial and repetitious information.
  2. Collapse lists—group them into broader categories.
  3. Use the topic sentence.
  4. Integrate information—use key ideas and topic
    sentences to write a summary.
    Have students present their findings to the class or small
    groups (Manitoba Education and Training, Grades 5 to 8
    English Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation,
    Grade 6 – 80).
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    12 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 13
    ➤ When students work in groups with research material,
    look for evidence that they
    • ask appropriate questions to find information and
    details needed
    • focus on key words and phrases
    • make logical inferences based on language and
    vocabulary used to organize the article into logical
    sequence
    • formulate appropriate questions for submission
    ➤ When students prepare summaries of articles, provide
    students with a checklist based on the rules of
    summarization provided. Look for evidence that, in the
    summary, students are able to
    • identify the topic sentence
    • focus on key words and phrases
    • include only relevant information, without trivial and
    repetitious information
    • present summaries clearly, with generally accurate
    pronunciation and intonation
    Applications • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    1.5 extend their knowledge of
    the world (continued)
    1.5.3 Explore Opinions and Values
    ✤ express own position on
    an issue, and provide
    supporting reasons
    ➤ Using the Internet or actual newspapers, have each
    student identify a current issue and take a position on it,
    supplying reasons for that position.
    ➤ Present a situation from current events (e.g., conflicts
    between countries, sports matters, etc.). In groups of three,
    have students elaborate three possible solutions. Discuss
    solutions with the class and together choose the three best
    possible solutions.
    ➤ Present students with several editorial cartoons. In groups
    or in pairs, have students interpret the cartoons. Discuss
    the interpretations with the class and establish some of the
    main characteristics of editorial cartoons. Have students
    then draw an editorial cartoon related to a current event
    and present their cartoon to the class.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    14 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    1.5.4 Solve Problems
    ✤ generate and evaluate
    alternative solutions to
    problems
    1.6 for imaginative purposes
    and personal enjoyment
    1.6.1 Humour/Fun
    ✤ use German for fun and
    to interpret and express
    humour (e.g., video
    clips, jokes)
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 15
    ➤ As students complete the task, look for evidence that they
    • are able to formulate a position
    • can provide possible reasons for their position
    ➤ When students interpret and the create their own editorial
    cartoons, look for evidence that students are able to
    • identify the current event to which the cartoon refers
    • identify the main characteristics as well as the element of
    humour in editorial cartoons
    • explain any cultural references in the cartoon
    • use knowledge of characteristics of an editorial cartoon
    to create their own humorous cartoon
    ➤ When students work in groups to find solutions to
    situations in current events, look for evidence that students
    • suggest solutions that are logical and relate to the
    problem
    • allow each student to provide possible solutions
    Applications • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    1.6 for imaginative purposes
    and personal enjoyment
    (continued)
    1.6.2 Creative/Aesthetic Purposes
    ✤ use German creatively
    (e.g., experiment with the
    sounds and rhythms of
    German, create a poem or
    rap)
    ➤ Have students listen to some examples of German rap
    music and create a short rap text of their own. Students
    then present their text to the class.
    ➤ Have students watch a movie or cartoon in German and
    encourage them to express their impressions of it.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    16 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    1.6.3 Personal Enjoyment
    ✤ use German for
    personal enjoyment
    (e.g., use the Internet to
    explore German
    cultures)
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Applications
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 17
    ➤ As students create their rap text, look for evidence that
    they are paying attention to rhyme and rhythm.
    ➤ When students watch a German movie or cartoon, look for
    evidence that they show interest and listen actively.
    Applications • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    18 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    N OTES
    LANGUAGE
    COMPETENCE
    GRADE 12
    Language Competence
    attend to form
    interpret and produce
    written texts
    interpret and produce
    oral texts
    apply knowledge of how text is
    organized, structured, and
    sequenced apply knowledge of the sociocultural context
    Students will use German
    effectively and
    competently.
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    Grade 12 21
    General Learning Outcome 2: Students will use German effectively and competently.
    Language competence is a broad term that includes linguistic or grammatical
    competence, discourse competence, sociolinguistic or sociocultural competence, and
    what might be called textual competence. The specific learning outcomes under
    Language Competence deal with knowledge of the German language and the ability
    to use that knowledge to interpret and produce meaningful texts appropriate to the
    situation in which they are used. Language competence is best developed in the
    context of activities or tasks where the language is used for real purposes, in other
    words, in practical applications.
    The various components of language competence are grouped under four cluster
    headings—see the illustration on the preceding page. Under each of these headings
    there are several strands. Each strand deals with a single aspect of language
    competence. For example, under the cluster heading attend to form, there is a strand
    for phonology (pronunciation, stress, intonation), orthography (spelling, mechanical
    features), lexicon (vocabulary words and phrases), and grammatical elements
    (syntax and morphology).
    Although the learning outcomes isolate these individual aspects, language
    competence should be developed through learning activities that focus on
    meaningful uses of the German language and on language in context. Tasks will be
    chosen based on the needs, interests, and experiences of students. The vocabulary,
    grammar structures, text forms, and social conventions necessary to carry out a task
    will be taught, practised, and assessed as students are involved in various aspects of
    the task itself, not in isolation.
    Strategic competence is often closely associated with language competence, since
    students need to learn ways to compensate for low proficiency in the early stages of
    learning if they are to engage in authentic language use from the beginning. This
    component is included in the language use strategies in the Strategies section.
    LANGUAGE COMPETENCE
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    General Learning Outcome 2:
    Language Competence
    Students will understand and
    produce German effectively and
    competently in spoken and
    written forms.
    2.1 interpret and produce oral
    texts
    2.1.1 Aural Interpretation
    ✤ understand short oral
    texts on a variety of
    topics
    ➤ Have students listen to a radio advertisement or view a
    TV ad. In pairs or in small groups, have students identify
    the product, some details about the product, the slogan,
    and the target audience.
    ➤ Show students a German commercial, cutting off the
    message at the end of the commercial. Students must then
    guess what the message is, based on what they saw and
    heard in the first part of the message. Discuss students’
    ideas for the message and then play the whole
    commercial.
    ➤ Select a legend or myth that has three or four logical
    stopping points in the story. Have students examine the
    title, author, and illustrations. Ask students questions to
    develop predictions about the characters, setting, and plot.
    Using a Before-During-After Reading Map, record,
    students’ predictions beside B under each of the story
    elements. Have students read the first segment of the story
    silently to check predictions. Discuss with students
    whether or not their predictions were correct and ask them
    to make predictions about the next segment of reading.
    Record these predictions in the D (during) section of the
    map. Continue the predicting-reading-proving cycle until
    the selection is completed. Record any new information in
    the A section of the map (Manitoba Education and
    Training, Grades 5 to 8 English Language Arts: A Foundation
    for Implementation, Strategies – 146–147).
    2.1.2 Oral Production
    ✤ understand short
    written texts on a
    variety of topics
    22 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ When students view German commercials, look for
    evidence that they
    • identify the message
    • have used specific details in their interpretation
    • are open to considering a variety of views and
    interpretations
    ➤ As students use the Before-During-After Reading Map for
    the reading of legends or myths, look for evidence that
    students are able to
    • identify the key elements of the story
    • focus on key words, phrases, and ideas
    • make logical inferences based on the title, author, and
    illustrations
    Have students retell the story in written or oral form.
    Grade 12 23
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.1 interpret and produce oral
    texts (continued)
    2.1.2 Oral Production
    (continued)
    ✤ understand short written
    texts on a variety of
    topics
    ➤ Have students read a review of a movie, TV show,
    performance, or music CD. Students must identify the
    main points of the review, as well as some supporting
    details.
    ➤ Invite students to examine cartoons or comic strips written
    in German and to note common expressions. Have
    students pay particular attention to the visual elements.
    Have students think about what meaning is
    communicated visually and how it is done.
    ➤ Have students view a variety of German commercials and
    have them identify the specific purpose, intended
    audience, and message of each. Have students consider
    how the visual component of the commercial contributes
    to the interpretation.
    2.1.3 Interactive Fluency
    ✤ derive meaning from the
    visual elements of a
    variety of media, in
    guided and unguided
    situations
    24 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ As students work with reviews, look for evidence that they
    are able to
    • identify the main points
    • provide details
    • use cognates and contextual clues to derive meaning
    ➤ When students view German commercials, look for
    evidence that they
    • use visual clues to help identify purpose, intended
    audience, and message
    • focus on key vocabulary and expressions to help identify
    purpose, intended audience, and message
    ➤ When students analyze German-language cartoons or
    comic strips, look for evidence that they are able to
    interpret the visual to derive additional meaning.
    Grade 12 25
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.2 produce oral and written
    texts
    2.2.1 Noninteractive Spoken
    Production
    ✤ produce oral texts on
    familiar topics, in guided
    and unguided situations
    ➤ Have students memorize and dramatize a poem of the
    student’s choice from a list provided by the teacher.
    ➤ Have students role-play a situation that involves
    preparation for a travel destination (e.g., call a travel agent
    for travel arrangements, arrival at the airport and
    interaction with the ticket agent and customs official, on
    the plane, arrival at the hotel).
    2.2.2 Interactive Spoken Production
    ✤ initiate and manage
    simple interactions
    without undue difficulty,
    asking for repetition or
    clarification when
    necessary
    26 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ As students present the dramatization, look for evidence
    that
    • the understanding is communicated effectively
    • the poem is presented with clear and proper
    pronunciation and intonation
    ➤ As students prepare role plays, discuss assessment criteria
    with students before they begin. Criteria might include the
    following:
    • students keep interaction going
    • students are able to handle unexpected events by using
    short pauses to plan what to say
    • students are able to identify breakdowns in
    communication and find ways to get meaning across
    • meaning is clear
    • appropriate details are included in questions and
    answers
    • gestures and body language support communication
    • pronunciation and intonation are generally accurate
    (See role-play assessment criteria in Classroom
    Assessment, p. 11.)
    Grade 12 27
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.2 produce oral and written
    texts (continued)
    2.2.3 Written Production
    ✤ produce written texts on
    familiar topics, in guided
    and unguided situations
    ➤ Have students prepare a collection of texts on a given
    topic (e.g., sports, current events/issues, famous people,
    etc.) and collectively design a cover page.
    ➤ Have students use a selection of age-appropriate Germanlanguage resources (e.g., magazine articles, videos,
    Internet) to research a topic (e.g., fashion, sport, music).
    Form groups and ask each group to create and present a
    visual display (e.g., collage, chart, poster, brochure,
    mobile) based on the research (BC Resource Package, 22).
    ➤ Ask each student to choose and practise a simple German
    poem and to create a visual that represents the work’s
    main ideas. Students can then read their poems and
    present their creative works to the class (BC Resource
    Package, 48).
    2.2.4 Representing
    ✤ express meaning using
    visual elements in a
    variety of media, in
    guided and unguided
    situations
    28 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ When students prepare texts and the cover page, discuss
    assessment criteria with students before they begin.
    Criteria might include the following:
    • thoughts, ideas, and feelings are clearly communicated
    • a front page or cover page tells what the document is
    about
    • visuals support the ideas in the articles
    • accurate and detailed information supports the main
    point
    Language Competence, Attend to Form Outcomes:
    • language structures and verb tenses are used
    appropriately
    • spelling is correct
    • punctuation is correct
    ➤ When students create visual displays after exploring
    articles and reference materials, look for evidence that they
    are able to
    • communicate thoughts, ideas, and feelings clearly
    • represent the main topics and information accurately
    • include key words or phrases as labels
    • identify their intended audience
    • identify their purpose (what they are trying to
    communicate)
    • use a variety of visual media
    • work in unguided situations
    ➤ When students present their poems and visual
    representations, look for evidence that the latter reflects
    the former.
    Grade 12 29
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.3 attend to form
    2.3.1 Phonology
    ✤ use intonation, stress,
    and rhythm
    appropriately in familiar
    situations
    ➤ Have students recite poems or tongue twisters in order to
    practise the production of essential sounds, stress, rhythm,
    and intonation patterns of German.
    ➤ Have students independently edit and peer edit their
    work.
    2.3.2 Orthography
    ✤ apply spelling rules and
    mechanical conventions
    consistently and
    accurately, and use a
    dictionary to verify the
    spelling of unfamiliar
    words
    30 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ Look for evidence that students spell target vocabulary
    accurately in a variety of situations.
    Grade 12 31
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.3 attend to form (continued)
    2.3.3 Lexicon
    ✤ recognize that various words
    and expressions may convey
    the same idea, and recognize
    and use words and expressions
    that convey shades of meaning
    ✤ understand and use vocabulary
    and phrases related to the
    following topics/areas of
    experience:
    — personal relationships
    ✓ peers
    ✓ friends
    ✓ relatives
    — German civilization
    ✓ history
    ✓ famous people
    ✓ inventions
    ✓ literature
    ✓ architecture
    ✓ myths/legends
    — leisure and recreation
    ✓ sports and exercise
    ✓ health and lifestyle
    — contemporary life and
    issues
    ✓ current events
    ✓ science and technology
    ✓ institutions and systems
    (schools)
    ✓ environment
    ✓ housing
    — popular culture
    ✓ mass media
    ✓ advertising
    ✓ music
    ✓ literature
    — European context
    ✓ geography/topography
    ✓ travel
    ✓ the European Union
    — personal image
    ✓ fashion
    ✓ careers
    ✓ future plans
    — other areas
    ✓ topics of special interest
    to students
    32 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 33
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.3 attend to form (continued)
    2.3.4 Grammatical Elements
    ✤ recognize and use, in
    modelled situations, the
    following grammatical
    elements:
    — sentence structure:
    position of subject and
    objects and subjectobject inversion
    — genitive case as a
    concept
    — possessive pronouns
    in genitive
    — prepositions with
    genitive
    — relative clauses in
    dative and genitive
    — da and wo compounds
    (e.g., wofür, worauf)
    Modelled Situations: This term is used to describe learning
    situations where a model of specific linguistic elements is
    consistently provided and immediately available. Students
    in such situations will have an emerging awareness of the
    grammatical elements and be able to apply them in very
    limited situations.
    Example of a modelled situation:
    In preparation for a group project, students build a list of the
    activities that they would like to do. Students practise the
    structure “Ich möchte . Möchtest du .” using
    the sentence patterns provided. Then students survey other
    classmates: “Was möchtest du morgen machen?” Students
    answer saying “Ich möchte …, with an infinitive of their
    choice. Each person then summarizes the results of their
    mini-survey: Drei Schüler möchten tanzen, and so on.
    34 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 35
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.3 attend to form (continued)
    2.3.4 Grammatical Elements
    (continued)
    ✤ use, in structured
    situations, the following
    grammatical elements:
    — simple past
    — reflexive verbs
    — nominative,
    accusative, and dative
    case as a concept
    — sentence structure:
    time/manner/place
    — sentence structure:
    position of subject and
    objects
    — personal pronouns in
    dative
    — possessive pronouns
    preceding dative
    objects
    — prepositions with
    accusative, dative, and
    genitive
    — adjectival endings
    — infinitive phrases and
    clauses
    — relative clauses in all
    cases
    — genitive case as a
    concept
    — possessive pronouns
    in genitive
    Structured Situations: This term is used to describe learning
    situations where a familiar context for the use of specific
    linguistic elements is provided and students are guided in
    their use. Students in such situations will have increased
    awareness and emerging control of the grammatical
    elements and be able to apply them in familiar contexts with
    teacher guidance.
    Example of a structured situation:
    Provide students with a map of their town or city. Identify
    key locations on the map. Having taught the use of dative
    and accusative prepositions, group students in pairs and
    have students alternately ask for directions and give
    directions to specified locations.
    36 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 37
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    2.3 attend to form (continued)
    2.3.4 Grammatical Elements
    (continued)
    ✤ use, independently and
    consistently, the
    following grammatical
    elements:
    — plural of nouns
    — separable verbs
    — perfect tense
    — simple past
    — future tense
    — personal pronouns in
    accusative
    — subordinate clauses
    — comparison of
    adjectives (all forms)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    38 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    Independently and Consistently: This term is used to
    describe learning situations where students use specific
    linguistic elements in a variety of contexts with limited
    teacher guidance. Students in such situations will have
    consistent control of the linguistic elements and will be able
    to apply them in a variety of contexts with limited teacher
    guidance. Fluency and confidence characterize student
    language.
    Example of an independent situation:
    Students send a letter or an email message to an
    administrator in the school, giving recommendations for
    improving the school building and services. Students should
    be advised to use the modal verbs and the comparative form
    of adjectives.
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 39
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.4 apply knowledge of
    sociocultural context
    2.4.1 Register
    ✤ recognize and use formal
    and informal language in
    a variety of contexts
    ➤ After a field trip to a Kinderschule or bilingual school (or
    other comparable field trip), have students write a formal
    thank-you letter to the teacher or school and an informal
    letter to one of the students with whom they became
    acquainted.
    ➤ Have students view German commercials and have
    students work in small groups to identify popular,
    contemporary expressions (e.g., “Got Milk?”—English).
    ➤ Have students view a portion of a taped news broadcast
    featuring interviews with ordinary people. Have students
    identify variations in language (e.g., differences in
    vocabulary and pronunciation used by the newscaster and
    by people interviewed).
    2.4.2 Idiomatic Expressions
    ✤ use selected proverbs
    and sayings to enhance
    communication
    2.4.3 Variations in Language
    ✤ recognize and adapt to
    regional differences in
    spoken German (e.g.,
    Germany, Austria,
    Switzerland)
    40 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ Work with students to develop a checklist they can use for
    self and peer assessment of their letters. The checklist
    might include items such as the following:
    • audience and purpose are clear
    • sentence structure and vocabulary are appropriate to
    audience and purpose
    • organization and form is appropriate
    • formal register is used where required
    • punctuation is correct
    • spelling is correct
    ➤ When students watch German commercials, look for
    evidence that they are able to
    • identify key vocabulary in order to decipher and
    understand idiomatic expressions
    • use visual clues to help provide context
    ➤ When students view a newscast, look for evidence that
    they are able to
    • identify expressions and vocabulary that vary from one
    speaker to another
    • suggest reasons for differences
    • identify differences in pronunciation or intonation
    Grade 12 41
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.4 apply knowledge of
    sociocultural context
    (continued)
    2.4.4 Social Conventions
    ✤ understand social
    conventions encountered
    in oral and written texts
    and situations
    ➤ Have students work in small groups and create skits in
    which they have to use varying social conventions (e.g.,
    addressing customs officer or a friend during a trip).
    ➤ Show students clip of a video or film. Ask students to note
    gestures that are similar and different from gestures of
    North American culture. Suggest that students try to
    incorporate gestures into their skits.
    ➤ Have students survey informational text to determine how
    authors present and organize information. Discuss how
    authors highlight significant information through the use
    of typographical features, such as bold print, italics,
    shading, icons, and fonts. Students work in pairs or small
    groups to create questions using key words which are
    found in headings, sub-headings, bold print, or italics.
    Students then read the text in order to answer their
    questions or the questions of another group (Manitoba
    Education and Training, Grades 5 to 8 English Language
    Arts: A Foundation for Implementation, Grade 5 – 234).
    2.4.5 Nonverbal Communication
    ✤ understand and use some
    common nonverbal
    behaviours in a variety of
    contexts (e.g., norms of
    personal space)
    42 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ When students view films, look for evidence that they are
    able to
    • identify forms of non-verbal communication such as
    shaking hands, kissing, hugging, gestures
    • compare findings with their own culture
    ➤ When students prepare a skit using varying social
    conventions, look for evidence that they are able to
    • apply social conventions
    • use du or Sie appropriately
    • speak clearly, with appropriate pronunciation and
    intonation
    • use gestures to help support communication
    ➤ When students analyze informational texts and prepare
    questions based on headings, sub-headings, bold print, or
    italics, look for evidence that students are able to
    • identify typographical features of the text and give
    possible reasons for their use
    • use key words in headings, etc., in order to create
    questions
    • find answers to questions with the help of headings, key
    words, and phrases
    Grade 12 43
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.4 apply knowledge of
    sociocultural context
    (continued)
    2.4.5 Nonverbal Communication
    (continued)
    ✤ understand and use some
    common nonverbal
    behaviours in a variety of
    contexts (e.g., norms of
    personal space)
    ➤ After having reviewed a variety of newspaper and
    magazine articles, invite students to create their own
    article. Have students use a news story planner to help
    organize their ideas. The planner could include Headline;
    Lead; Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? Ending;
    Quotable Quote (Manitoba Education and Training,
    Grades 5 to 8 English Language Arts: A Foundation for
    Implementation, Grade 8 – 286).
    ➤ Provide students with a variety of texts on the same topic
    (e.g., TV, radio, and magazine advertisements, letters to
    the editor, news articles, political propaganda, etc.). Each
    group may receive a different type of text. Have each
    group analyze verb tenses used, connecting words, points
    of view, target audience, and text organization. Each
    group presents its findings to the class.
    2.5 apply knowledge of how
    the German language is
    organized, structured, and
    sequenced
    2.5.1 Text Forms
    ✤ use knowledge of text
    forms to enhance
    comprehension and
    production of texts
    44 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ When students write their own newspaper or magazine
    article, provide them with a checklist for self and peer
    assessment. Criteria might include the following:
    • specific purpose and audience are evident
    • headline is evident and clear
    • lead relates to main point and draws reader in
    • 6 W questions provide details to support main point
    • appropriate ending
    • verb tenses are used correctly, agreement of verbs and
    adjectives is correct
    • spelling is correct
    ➤ As students analyze different types of text, look for
    evidence that they are able to
    • ask appropriate questions to find the necessary
    information
    • identify the target audience and purpose of text
    • explain how text is organized and give possible reasons
    for organization
    • identify verb tenses and connecting words that are
    common in text
    Grade 12 45
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    2.5 apply knowledge of how
    the German language is
    organized, structured, and
    sequenced (continued)
    2.5.2 Patterns of Social Interaction
    ✤ use a range of social
    interaction patterns to
    deal with routine
    interactions (e.g.,
    telefonieren)
    ➤ Have students prepare a debate or formal discussion on a
    current event or issue. Review with students the
    expressions relating to expressing opinions, agreement,
    and disagreement.
    ➤ Provide students with segments of a cartoon or
    legend/myth. Either in pairs or small groups, have
    students place the text in sequential order. Have students
    identify the words or expressions that helped them
    recreate the text in the correct order. As an extension, have
    students retell the story.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    2.5.3 Cohesion/Coherence
    ✤ understand and use
    referents within texts
    (e.g., Opa liegt im Bett; er
    ist müde).
    46 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Language Competence
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    ➤ When students prepare a debate, provide students with
    assessment criteria before they begin. Criteria might
    include the following:
    • clear message and opinion are given
    • opinions are supported with reasons, proof, and details
    • language structures related to giving opinions are used
    effectively and appropriately
    • debate conforms to the standard structure
    ➤ As students reorganize a cartoon/legend/myth into
    sequential order, look for evidence that they are able to
    • use visual clues to help create context
    • identify words/expressions that help create sequence
    • retell story, reflecting the main ideas
    • retell the story, using words/expressions that help
    create sequence (sequential markers)
    Grade 12 47
    Language Competence • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    48 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    N OTES
    GLOBAL
    CITIZENSHIP
    GRADE 12
    Global Citizenship
    study historical and
    contemporary elements of
    German-speaking cultures
    explore personal and
    career opportunities
    affirm diversity
    Students will acquire
    the knowledge, skills, and
    attitudes to be effective global
    citizens, through the exploration
    of the cultures of the Germanspeaking world.
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
    Grade 12 51
    General Learning Outcome 3: Students will acquire the knowledge, skills, and
    attitudes to be effective global citizens, through the exploration of the cultures of
    the German-speaking world.
    The learning outcomes for Global Citizenship deal with a broad range of
    knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to be effective global citizens—in other
    words, with the development of intercultural competence. The concept of global
    citizenship encompasses citizenship at all levels, from the local school and
    community to Canada and the world.
    The various components of global citizenship are grouped under three cluster
    headings—see the illustration on the preceding page. Under each of these headings
    there are several strands. Each strand deals with a single aspect of intercultural
    competence. For example, under the cluster heading study historical and
    contemporary elements of German-speaking cultures, there are strands for the
    processes and methods of acquiring knowledge about German-speaking cultures,
    the cultural knowledge thus acquired, applications of that knowledge to aid
    comprehension and to communicate in appropriate ways, positive attitudes toward
    German-speaking cultures, as well as knowledge of the diversity within those
    cultures.
    Developing cultural knowledge and skills is a lifelong process. Knowledge of one’s
    own culture is acquired over a lifetime. Cultures change over time. Within any
    national group, there may be a dominant culture or cultures and a number of
    minority cultures. Rather than try to develop an extensive bank of knowledge about
    the German-speaking cultures, it is more important for students to learn the
    processes and methods of accessing and analyzing cultural practices. Students will
    gain cultural knowledge in the process of developing these skills. In this way, if
    they encounter elements of the German-speaking cultures they have not learned
    about in class, they will have the skills and abilities to deal with them effectively
    and appropriately.
    The affirm diversity heading covers knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are
    developed as a result of bringing other languages and cultures into relationship
    with one’s own. There is a natural tendency, when learning a new language and
    culture, to compare it with what is familiar. Many students leave a second language
    learning experience with a heightened awareness and knowledge of their own
    language and culture. They will also be able to make some generalizations about
    languages and cultures based on their experiences and those of their classmates who
    may have a variety of cultural backgrounds. This will provide students with an
    understanding of diversity within both a global and a Canadian context.
    GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP
    Global Citizenship • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    General Learning Outcome 3:
    Global Citizenship
    Students will acquire the
    knowledge, skills, and attitudes to
    be effective global citizens
    through the exploration of the
    cultures of the German-speaking
    world.
    3.1 historical and contemporary
    elements of the culture of
    German-speaking peoples
    3.1.1 Gaining/Applying Knowledge of
    German Cultures
    ✤ explore and identify
    some elements of
    German imagination
    (e.g., fairy tales, stories,
    movies)
    ➤ Provide students with a few selections of German
    Romantic poems and after examining them with the class,
    have each student memorize one and give a dramatic
    recitation of the poem of his or her choice.
    ➤ Provide students with two pictures of life in Germany, one
    that emphasizes traditional perceptions (perhaps depicting
    a traditional celebration), and the other depicting
    contemporary life. Have students complete a compare and
    contrast chart and then discuss their observations in small
    groups.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    52 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    3.1.2 Diversity within German
    Cultures
    ✤ recognize the existence
    of stereotypes about and
    within German cultures
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 53
    ➤ As students present their poems, look for evidence that
    they
    • demonstrate an understanding and appreciation for
    German Romantic poetry
    • have made a concerted effort to imprint the aesthetic
    quality of the poem
    ➤ As students share observations in small groups, verify that
    their perceptions dispel the stereotypes.
    Global Citizenship • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    3.1 historical and contemporary
    elements of the culture of
    German-speaking peoples
    (continued)
    3.1.3 Accessing/Analyzing Cultural
    Knowledge
    ✤ identify and use a variety
    of sources of information
    to find out about German
    cultures, and analyze
    own assumptions about
    German cultures
    ➤ Have students work in groups to research famous artists
    from the German-speaking world, using various sources
    to gather information (e.g., the Internet, CD-ROMs, books,
    newspaper and magazine articles). Have students
    highlight the characteristic styles and the historical
    contexts that may have influenced these artists. Ask
    students to collect this information in folders and share it
    with the class (BC Resource Package, 64).
    ➤ Invite students to use maps and other relevant sources to
    identify the trends of German immigration to Canada.
    Have students research the presence of German
    institutions and establishments such as museums,
    publishing houses, restaurants, financial institutions,
    churches, and schools, within a given region or province.
    Make a poster to illustrate both the populations and the
    cultural developments of the immigrants, and present the
    poster to the class.
    ➤ Brainstorm with the class a list of famous Germanspeaking people (e.g., activists, athletes, artists, writers,
    etc.) and ask each student to select one person to research
    and then report to the class (BC Resource Package, 74).
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    54 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    3.1.4 Valuing German Cultures
    ✤ explore contributions of
    German cultures to
    their own societies and
    to global society
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 55
    ➤ Look for evidence that students are able to
    • identify and describe characteristic style or styles
    • identify historical elements that influenced the famous
    artist
    • explain how the historical elements influenced the life
    and works of the artist
    ➤ When students present their posters, look for evidence that
    • the information is accurate
    • the cultural contributions made have been
    acknowledged
    ➤ Before students prepare reports on the contributions of
    German-speaking individuals to their own countries and
    the world, discuss criteria such as the following:
    • focuses on the individual’s accomplishments and
    contributions
    • shows insight into the context and importance of the
    contribution
    • information is accurate
    • uses relevant visual materials, music, or other features to
    elaborate the topic
    Global Citizenship • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    3.2 affirming and valuing
    diversity
    3.2.1 Awareness of English
    ✤ identify some English
    words that are used in
    the German language,
    including their altered
    pronunciations and/or
    meaning (e.g., Handy)
    ➤ Have students work in groups to analyze German texts
    from media. Have them look for cognates, verb structures,
    proverbs, and idioms. Then have students make
    comparisons to their first language.
    ➤ Provide students with a short selection written in Old
    English and another selection in modern German. After
    reading both selections out loud in class, have students
    draw comparisons between the two passages. (Ideally, the
    second passage should be a translation of the Old English
    selection.)
    ➤ Divide the class into two groups and have each group
    research the issue of Canada’s trade with Germany. One
    group will explore items most commonly traded in the
    time before and after World War II. The other group will
    explore items most commonly traded today. The
    generated lists will be compared and hypotheses made
    regarding the changes noted.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    56 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    3.2.2 General Language Knowledge
    ✤ identify how and why
    languages borrow from
    one another
    3.2.3 Awareness of Canadian
    Culture
    ✤ identify some of the past
    and present relationships
    between German
    cultures and Canada
    (e.g., immigration, travel,
    trade, war)
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 57
    ➤ As students analyze a variety of texts from the media, look
    for evidence that they are able to
    • identify cognates and common verb tenses used
    • make inferences about the meaning of idiomatic
    expression and proverbs
    ➤ Verify that students see the similarities between the two
    selections.
    ➤ As the lists are presented and hypotheses made, look for
    evidence that
    • students gain an appreciation for the relationship
    between Canada and Germany
    • students understand what factors influence trade
    between Canada and Germany
    Global Citizenship • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    3.2 affirming and valuing
    diversity (continued)
    3.2.4 General Cultural Knowledge
    ✤ recognize that different
    cultures may have
    different interpretations
    of texts, cultural
    practices, or products
    ➤ Brainstorm with students a variety of elements that help
    define culture (e.g., clothing, sports, music, recreational
    activities, education, government, etc.). Have students
    work in small groups and choose one element of culture.
    Students identify ways in which their own culture and
    German-speaking cultures are similar, based on their own
    knowledge and experience. Have students then research
    the cultural element they have chosen in order to support
    or refute their ideas.
    Students present their information in a visual and oral
    format, specifically identifying ways in which their own
    culture and German-speaking cultures are similar.
    ➤ Have students research national heroes, writers, sports
    people, politicians, or artists. Have students identify their
    specific contributions to global society (e.g., A. Einstein, J.
    Bach, J. Strauss, etc.).
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    58 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    3.2.5 Intercultural Skills
    ✤ explore various
    strategies for enhancing
    communication with
    people from German
    cultures
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 59
    ➤ When students research a specific German figure and
    present his/her contributions to society, discuss criteria
    with students before they begin. Criteria might include the
    following:
    • individual’s contributions to global society clearly
    identified
    • accurate and detailed information presented
    • appropriate vocabulary, verb tenses, and language
    structures used
    ➤ When students examine one element of culture in detail,
    discuss assessment criteria before they begin. Criteria
    might include the following:
    • similarities with own culture clearly identified
    • respect for diversity and differences in customs is
    evident
    • accurate and detailed information presented
    • information presented in an interesting and original
    manner
    • pronunciation and intonation are generally accurate
    Global Citizenship • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    3.3 personal and career
    opportunities
    3.3.1 German Language and Culture
    ✤ demonstrate awareness
    of opportunities for
    further studies or careers
    related to German
    ➤ Have students brainstorm professions, jobs, or activities in
    Canada for which a knowledge of German would be
    relevant or useful. Following the brainstorming activity, in
    small groups, have students discuss their personal reasons
    for studying German.
    ➤ Plan a virtual field trip for students in a given domain of
    German culture, such as music, arts, or crafts. As a part of
    the activity, have students identify what impressed them
    the most and the least, and the area that they would like to
    explore further.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    60 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    3.3.2 Cultural and Linguistic
    Enrichment
    ✤ identify aspects of music,
    arts, and crafts of
    different cultures that
    are of personal interest
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Global Citizenship
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 61
    ➤ Create an oral observation rubric appropriate for this task
    and record your assessment of individual students.
    (See examples of oral observation criteria in Classroom
    Assessment, pp. 11 and 14.)
    ➤ As students engage in the virtual field trip, look for
    evidence that
    • students are genuinely engaged in the research for
    cultural information
    • students are able to make assessments relating to
    personal interests
    Global Citizenship • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    62 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    N OTES
    STRATEGIES
    GRADE 12
    Strategies
    language learning strategies
    general learning strategies
    language use strategies
    Students will know
    and use various strategies
    to maximize the effectiveness
    of learning and
    communication.
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
    Grade 12 65
    General Learning Outcome 4: Students will know and use various strategies to
    maximize the effectiveness of learning and communication.
    Under the Strategies heading are specific learning outcomes that will help students
    learn and communicate more effectively. Strategic competence has long been
    recognized as an important component of communicative competence. The learning
    outcomes that follow deal not only with compensation and repair strategies,
    important in the early stages of language learning when proficiency is low, but also
    with strategies for language learning, language use in a broad sense, as well as
    general learning strategies that help students acquire content. Although people may
    use strategies unconsciously, the learning outcomes deal only with the conscious use
    of strategies.
    The strategies are grouped under three cluster headings—see the illustration on the
    preceding page. Under each of these headings there are several strands. Each strand
    deals with a specific category of strategy. Language learning and general learning
    strategies are categorized as cognitive, metacognitive, and social/affective. The
    language use strategies are organized by communicative mode: interactive,
    interpretive, and productive.
    The strategies that students choose depend on the task they are engaged in as well
    as on other factors, such as their preferred learning style, personality, age, attitude,
    and cultural background. Strategies that work well for one person may not be
    effective for another person or may not be suitable in a different situation. For this
    reason it is not particularly useful to say that students should be aware of, or able to
    use, a specific strategy in a particular course. Consequently, the specific learning
    outcomes describe the students’ knowledge of and ability to use general types of
    strategies. More specific strategies for each general category or type are included in
    the comprehensive list of strategies in Appendix E. The specific strategies provided
    in the comprehensive list are not prescriptive but are provided as an illustration of
    how the general strategies in the specific learning outcomes might be developed.
    Teachers need to know and be able to demonstrate a broad range of strategies from
    which students are then able to choose in order to communicate effectively.
    Strategies of all kinds are best taught in the context of learning activities where
    students can apply them immediately and then reflect on their use.
    STRATEGIES
    Strategies • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    General Learning Outcome 4:
    Strategies
    Students will know and use
    various strategies to maximize the
    effectiveness of learning and
    communication.
    4.1 language learning
    4.1.1 Cognitive
    ✤ select and use a variety of
    cognitive strategies to
    enhance language
    learning (e.g., seek the
    precise term, look for
    patterns and
    relationships)
    ➤ Before beginning a project, provide students with the
    opportunity to examine different reference materials. Have
    students work in groups. Provide each group with a
    different source of information to work with (e.g.,
    dictionaries, textbooks, grammars, computer programs,
    etc.).
    Have each group respond to specific questions about the
    reference material to help students focus on the particular
    uses of the material. Then have each group prepare a
    poster which outlines the organization and specific uses of
    the reference material with which they worked. Students
    then report their findings to the class.
    ➤ Provide students with a checklist of language acquisition
    strategies. Have students check the ones they have used
    and identify those they have found particularly useful
    (e.g., use visual clues to create context, listen for key
    words in a conversation, watch gestures and body
    language to help decipher meaning, illustrate new
    vocabulary in a personal dictionary, use acronyms to help
    remember specific grammatical rules and structures, etc.).
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    66 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    4.1.2 Metacognitive
    ✤ select and use a variety
    of metacognitive
    strategies to enhance
    language learning (e.g.,
    evaluate own
    performance or
    comprehension at the
    end of a task)
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 67
    ➤ When students work in groups to examine different
    resource materials, look for evidence that they are able to
    • explain how the material is organized
    • provide specific uses for material
    • suggest ways in which material can be used for specific
    projects
    • use a variety of reference materials when working on
    projects
    • use reference materials independently
    ➤ Have students write a learning log after they have
    completed the checklist. The learning log should identify
    which methods are useful to the students and why, as well
    as new methods that the student will try in the future.
    Strategies • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    4.1 language learning
    (continued)
    4.1.2 Social/Affective
    ✤ select and use a variety of
    social and affective
    strategies to enhance
    language learning (e.g.,
    brainstorm, reread
    familiar self-chosen texts)
    ➤ Have students work in groups of three to prepare a skit
    about studying abroad and looking for an apartment. The
    scenes could include:
  5. Registering at a hotel or university
  6. Engaging a taxi or buying a train ticket
  7. Looking for an apartment
    Have students pretend that one person in the presentation
    has trouble with German and have students repeat
    important expressions several times throughout the
    presentation. Have students in the audience note the
    repeated expressions.
    Have students then discuss the effectiveness of repetition
    of expressions as a communication strategy.
    ➤ Provide students with a guide to help them in skimming
    of non-fiction material encountered during study of the
    media (Manitoba Education and Training, Grades 5 to 8
    English Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation,
    Grade 5 – 244):
  8. Read the title and the first paragraph, and last
    paragraph or summary.
  9. Read all the bold print headings, sub-headings, and
    captions.
  10. Read the first sentence of each paragraph.
  11. If the first sentence does not have the main idea,
    quickly move your eyes to the end of the paragraph
    and read the last sentence.
  12. Reread the heading, then move through the paragraph
    looking for bold print, italics, names, dates, or key
    words on the topic.
  13. After skimming all the paragraphs in the selection, read
    the last paragraph of the selection again.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    68 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    4.2 language use
    4.2.1 Receptive
    ✤ select and use a variety
    of reading and listening
    strategies (e.g.,
    skimming, scanning,
    rereading)
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 69
    ➤ When students prepare skits about studying abroad,
    provide assessment criteria before they begin. Look for
    evidence that they are able to
    • use and emphasize new vocabulary and structures
    • sustain interactions using a variety of strategies (e.g.,
    body language, rephrasing or repeating information,
    asking questions)
    • respond appropriately to questions and cues from others
    ➤ Provide students with a checklist for self assessment of
    skimming strategies, based on guideline. Look for
    evidence that students are able to
    • focus on key words and phrases
    • use bold print, italics, etc. to find information
    Strategies • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    4.2 language use (continued)
    4.2.2 Productive
    ✤ select and use a variety of
    speaking and writing
    strategies (e.g., use a
    variety of resources to
    correct texts)
    ➤ Have students work in pairs. One student reads a portion
    of an article out loud while the other student takes notes.
    Have students then change roles, continuing the readingnote-taking cycle until the article is completed. Have
    students rewrite the article and then verify their article
    with the original article for accuracy.
    Have students first review their own texts with the help of
    German dictionaries and verb books. Then have a
    classmate edit the text. Students then correct their texts
    and either submit them to another classmate or the teacher
    for a final editing. Students then prepare the final copy of
    their text.
    ➤ Show students a TV interview. Have them record and then
    interpret the fillers, hesitation devices, etc., used during
    the interview. Students then work with partners to
    interview each other, using fillers, hesitation devices, and
    circumlocution. Alternatively, two students at a time could
    be asked to interview each other in front of the class.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    70 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    4.2.3 Interactive
    ✤ select and use a variety
    of interactive strategies
    (e.g., start again, using
    different tactics when
    communication breaks
    down)
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 71
    ➤ As students work in pairs to take notes based on an article,
    look for evidence that they are able to
    • focus on key words and phrases
    • listen attentively and actively to his or her partner
    • make accurate modifications to notes during verification
    • use their notes to reproduce the article accurately in
    written form
    ➤ As students edit their work, look for evidence that they are
    • using a variety of resources
    • editing with increasing frequency and ease
    ➤ As students prepare questions and interview a classmate,
    look for evidence that they are able to
    • formulate appropriate questions
    • use fillers and hesitation devices during interview
    • speak clearly, with accurate pronunciation and
    intonation
    Strategies • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    4.3 general learning
    4.3.1 Cognitive
    ✤ select and use a variety of
    cognitive strategies to
    enhance general learning
    (e.g., formulate key
    questions to guide
    inquiry)
    ➤ Provide students with a planning guide to help them
    formulate key questions and ideas for a research project. A
    sample guide could include the following:
    • Name, Date, Topic
    • What questions do I want to answer?
    • In what resources am I likely to find information?
    • How will I record my information?
    • How will I give credit to my sources?
    • How will I share my findings with the class?
    • How will I assess my work?
    (Manitoba Education and Training, Grades 5 to 8 English
    Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation,
    Grade 8 – 182.)
    (See an example of a planning guide in Planning, p. 67.)
    ➤ Have students keep a learning log. Provide students with
    questions such as the following:
    • What did I understand about the work I did today?
    • How did I relate what I already knew with new
    information?
    • How have my ideas changed?
    • What did I not understand?
    • What questions do I still have?
    • How could I find answers to my questions?
    (Manitoba Education and Training, Grades 5 to 8 English
    Language Arts: A Foundation for Implementation,
    Grade 8 – 38)
    (See an example of questions for a reflective log in
    Planning, p. 89.)
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    72 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    4.3.2 Metacognitive
    ✤ select and use a variety
    of metacognitive
    strategies to enhance
    general learning (e.g.,
    reflect upon own
    thinking processes and
    how they learn)
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 73
    ➤ When students use a planning guide to help guide
    research, look for evidence that students are
    • answering questions with detail
    • considering several alternatives
    • applying the planning guide questions to the
    development of the research project
    ➤ Collect students’ learning logs from time to time and look
    for evidence that students respond thoughtfully and with
    appropriate detail.
    Strategies • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    4.3 general learning (continued)
    4.3.3 Social/Affective
    ✤ select and use a variety of
    social and affective
    strategies to enhance
    general learning (e.g.,
    take part in group
    problem-solving
    processes)
    ➤ As students work in groups to prepare projects, have them
    identify different ways in which problems can be solved.
    Have students solve a problem based on one or more
    ways chosen by the group.
    PRESCRIBED LEARNING
    OUTCOMES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR INSTRUCTION
    74 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM) • Strategies
    SUGGESTED LEARNING
    RESOURCES
    SUGGESTIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
    Grade 12 75
    ➤ As students work in groups to arrive at solutions to
    problems, look for evidence that they
    • provide a variety of solutions
    • choose solutions with reasons
    • take risks to express their opinions
    • participate actively in the group
    Strategies • GRADE 12 GERMAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (FOUR-YEAR PROGRAM)
    76 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    N OTES
    G RADE 9 T O G RADE 1 2
    G ERMAN L ANGUAGE AND
    C ULTURE
    Teaching and Learning German
    Language and Culture
    The Philosophy and Principles of Teaching and
    Learning German Language and Culture 3
    Teaching and Learning in the German Classroom 42
    Combined Grades in the Second Language Classroom 96

T EACHING AND L EARNING G ERMAN L ANGUAGE
AND C ULTURE
The Philosophy and Principles of Teaching and Learning German Language
and Culture
Second Language Teaching Methodologies*
Theodore Rodgers argues that methodology in second language teaching has been
characterized in a variety of ways. A somewhat classical formulation suggests that
methodology is that which links theory and practice. Theory statements would include
theories of what language is and how language is learned or, more specifically, theories
of second language acquisition (SLA). Such theories are linked to various design features
of language instruction. These design features might include stated objectives, syllabus
specifications, types of activities, roles of teachers and learners, materials, and so forth.
Design features in turn are linked to actual teaching and learning practices as observed
in the environments where language teaching and learning take place. This whole
complex of elements defines language teaching methodology.


  • Adapted from Language Teaching Methodology by Theodore S. Rodgers, Professor Emeritus, University of Hawaii.
    Figure 1 L ANGUAGE T EACHING M ETHODOLOGY
    Theories of
    Language
    and
    Learning
    Instructional
    Design
    Features
    Observed
    Teaching
    Practices
    Language Teaching Methodology
    (From: Language Teaching Methodology by Theodore S. Rodgers, Professor Emeritus,
    University of Hawaii)
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 3
    Schools of Language Teaching Methodology
    Within methodology a distinction is often made between methods and approaches.
    Methods are held to be fixed teaching systems with prescribed techniques and practices,
    whereas approaches represent language teaching philosophies that can be interpreted
    and applied in a variety of different ways in the classroom. This distinction is probably
    most usefully seen as defining a continuum of entities ranging from highly prescribed
    methods to loosely described approaches.
    The period from the 1950s to the 1980s has often been referred to as “The Age of
    Methods,” during which a number of quite detailed prescriptions for language teaching
    were proposed. Situational Language Teaching evolved in the United Kingdom while a
    parallel method, Audio-Lingualism, emerged in the United States. In the middlemethods period, a variety of methods were proclaimed as successors to the then
    prevailing Situational Language Teaching and Audio-Lingual methods. These
    alternatives were promoted under such titles as Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Community
    Language Learning, and Total Physical Response. In the 1980s, these methods in turn
    came to be overshadowed by more interactive views of language teaching, which
    collectively came to be known as Communicative Language Teaching (CLT).
    Communicative Language Teaching advocates subscribed to a broad set of principles
    such as these:
    ■ Learners learn a language through using it to communicate.
    ■ Authentic and meaningful communication should be the goal of classroom activities.
    ■ Fluency is an important dimension of communication.
    ■ Communication involves the integration of different language skills.
    ■ Learning is a process of creative construction and involves trial and error.
    However, CLT advocates avoided prescribing the set of practices through which these
    principles could best be realized, thus putting CLT clearly on the approach rather than
    the method end of the spectrum.
    Communicative Language Teaching has spawned a number of off-shoots that share the
    same basic set of principles, but which spell out philosophical details or envision
    instructional practices in somewhat diverse ways. These CLT spin-off approaches
    include The Natural Approach, Cooperative Language Learning, Content-Based
    Teaching, and Task-Based Teaching.
    It is difficult to describe these various methods briefly and yet fairly, and such a task is
    well beyond the scope of this document. However, several up-to-date texts are available
    that do detail differences and similarities among the many different approaches and
    methods that have been proposed. (See Larsen-Freeman, and Richards and Rodgers.)
    Perhaps it is possible to get a sense of the range of method proposals by looking at a
    synoptic view of the roles defined for teachers and learners within various methods.
    Such a synoptic (perhaps scanty) view can be seen in the following chart.
    4 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    The Total Physical Response (TPR) teaching method is one in which students respond
    with physical activity to an increasingly complex set of commands. The students’
    physical activity responses signal their comprehension of the command. This is ideally
    suited for beginning language students, but can be adapted and made more complex for
    higher level students.
    The Natural Approach (NA) promotes communicative proficiency by providing realworld, authentic experiences, and language experiences with meaningful contexts.
    As suggested in the chart, some schools of methodology see the teacher as an ideal
    language model and commander of classroom activity, whereas others see the teacher as
    a background facilitator and classroom colleague to learners.
    There are other global issues to which spokespersons for the various methods and
    approaches respond in alternative ways. For example, should second language learning
    by adults be modelled on first language learning by children? One set of schools (e.g.,
    Total Physical Response, Natural Approach) notes that first language acquisition is the
    only universally successful model of language learning we have, and thus that second
    language pedagogy must necessarily model itself on first language acquisition. An
    opposed view (e.g., Silent Way, Suggestopedia) observes that adults have different
    brains, interests, timing constraints, and learning environments than do children, and
    that adult classroom learning therefore has to be fashioned in a way quite dissimilar to
    the way in which nature fashions how first languages are learned by children.
    Figure 2 M ETHODS AND T EACHER AND L EARNER R OLES
    Teaching Methods and Teacher and Learner Roles
    Method Teacher Roles Learner Roles
    Situational Language
    Teaching
    Context Setter
    Error Corrector
    Imitator
    Memorizer
    Audiolingualism
    Language Modeller
    Drill Leader
    Pattern Practioner
    Accuracy Enthusiast
    Communicative
    Language Teaching
    Needs Analyst
    Task Designer
    Improvisor
    Negotiator
    Total Physical
    Response
    Commander
    Action Monitor
    Order Taker
    Performer
    Community
    Language Learning
    Counsellor
    Paraphraser
    Collaborator
    Whole Person
    The Natural
    Approach
    Actor
    Props User
    Guesser
    Immerser
    (From: Language Teaching Methodology by Theodore S. Rodgers, Professor
    Emeritus, University of Hawaii)
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 5
    Another key distinction turns on the role of perception versus production in early stages
    of language learning. One school of thought proposes that learners should begin to
    communicate, to use a new language actively, on first contact (e.g., Audio-Lingual
    Method, Silent Way, Community Language Learning), while the other school of thought
    states that an initial and prolonged period of reception (listening, reading) should
    precede any attempts at production (e.g., Natural Approach).
    A Post-communicative Approach to Teaching and Learning International Languages
    The diversity of methods and approaches that were described above may seem to
    suggest that what makes for good practice is a contested area. However, one finds that
    there is an increasing integration of ideas as to what constitutes effective and meaningful
    second language teaching and learning. Krashen’s theory that second language learners
    “acquire” language skills in many of the same ways that first language learners develop
    linguistic knowledge has had an enormous influence on second language/international
    language theory and practice. Proponents of communicative approaches have had an
    equally powerful influence. In many ways, the contemporary international language
    teacher reflects a “post-communicative” approach to teaching. That is, their
    understanding of the teaching and learning draws significantly on communicative
    theory but incorporates other theoretical perspectives, such as multiple intelligences and
    constructivist theories.
    Communicative Language Teaching*
    Renate Schulz provides a historical background and description of Communicative
    Language Teaching (CLT). In the 1970s and 1980s, second/international language
    instruction moved away from an almost exclusive focus on the components of
    language—grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation—to a focus on the development of
    communicative proficiency—the ability to communicate in the target language
    (language being studied) in real-life contexts. Communicative language teaching builds
    on the understanding that language use is governed not only by phonological and
    grammatical rules, but also by sociolinguistic and discourse rules (Canale and Swain). In
    other words, natural language use is a complex, creative activity that takes different
    forms depending on a variety of factors, including the context in which the interaction
    occurs, the characteristics of the speaker or writer (e.g., age, gender, social status, level of
    education, and geographic origin), the characteristics of the listener or reader, and the
    purpose of the interaction (Hymes).

  • Adapted from “Foreign Language Education in the United States: Trends and Challenges” by Renate A. Schulz.
    6 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    Whereas previous second/international language teaching methods—such as the
    grammar translation and audio-lingual methods—focused predominantly on
    grammatical form within a sentence-level context (or sometimes without any
    meaningful context), communicative language teaching focuses on the meaning of a
    message within a given situation, realizing that different cultures may have different
    ways to perform different speech acts in different contexts. It is the context that
    determines what is said, how it is said, to whom it is said, and why it is said. Thus
    communicative language teaching often uses language functions or speech acts (e.g.,
    asking questions, apologizing, complimenting, reporting, giving directions, and making
    requests), rather than specific grammatical structures, as its organizing principles.
    With the communicative language teaching approach, teachers and students use the
    target language extensively, if not exclusively. Students are given information-exchange
    tasks that they can complete by working in pairs or small groups. This interactive,
    situational language practice requires learners “to interpret, express, and negotiate
    meaning in the new language” (Lee and VanPatten 1).
    Communicative language teaching also advocates the use of culturally authentic texts
    written by native speakers for native speakers instead of simplified or edited texts
    developed expressly for second/international language learners. Effective use of
    authentic texts includes having the learners perform interesting and level-appropriate
    tasks after or while seeing, hearing, or viewing culturally authentic materials. For
    example, it would be inappropriate to give beginning learners a newspaper editorial and
    ask them to translate or summarize its content. However, even beginning learners can
    find dates and names of persons or places and can often get the general sense of what is
    being said.
    Although discrete-point grammar instruction, mechanical pattern practice, and instant
    and direct error correction—which dominated second/international language
    instruction in the past—are generally frowned upon in the communicative classroom,
    attention to grammatical patterns continues to play an important role. This is true
    particularly for adolescent and adult learners, who are often intrigued by—and find it
    helpful to understand—structural differences between their own and the target
    language. The role of grammar is to support the exchange of meaning, the informational
    contents, and the communicative purposes dealt with in the classroom.
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 7
    Constructivist Theory
    Constructivist theory emphasizes the importance of the learner’s active construction of
    knowledge and the interplay between new knowledge and the learner’s prior
    knowledge. Effective international language instruction will provide opportunities for
    students to construct and create their own understanding of how to make meaning from
    what they hear and read, and how they use their understanding to construct and create
    their own meanings in speech and writing. Myriam Met (“Middle Schools”) describes a
    constructivist approach to the learning of international languages in the text that
    follows:
    In order to construct knowledge of a new language, students need exposure to the target
    language. This exposure makes the transmission of meaning in second languages accessible
    and understandable to students. Internalizing the relationship between meaning and the
    forms used to convey it is essential for production; students cannot spontaneously produce
    language they do not understand. In the first phase of internalization, students learn to
    understand what is heard by matching meaning with language. Learners need to notice
    features in the input (vocabulary, syntax, discourse markers) to which they can assign
    meanings. Through a carefully implemented sequence of instructional activities, students
    can be assisted to move through the construction of meaning. Students should be provided
    with comprehensible examples of new structures as used in authentic situations and
    extended spoken and written texts, as well as many opportunities to hear, understand, and
    match language with meaning.
    Characteristics of Effective Programs
    It is well known that almost all young children acquire their first language naturally in
    the course of normal development and that they can acquire a second language
    simultaneously if their second language environment is similar to that of their first
    language environment. Numerous research studies have shown that adolescents and
    young adults can be quite efficient language learners (again with the exception of
    acquiring native-like pronunciation) in situations in which exposure to the language is
    limited to a classroom setting. As Swain and Lapkin (“Canadian Immersion”) point out,
    “Older learners may not only exhibit as much success in learning certain aspects of a
    second language as younger learners, but they can also accomplish this learning in a
    shorter period of time” (150).
    There are several factors or characteristics of effective second/ international language
    programs. In a review of the international literature on effective languages
    programming, Pufahl, Rhodes, and Christian (Other Countries) identified and
    summarized a number of additional factors or characteristics of successful program
    models.
    8 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    An Early Start
    As can be expected, time is a factor. Many international respondents reported that
    beginning language study early promotes achievement of higher levels of language
    proficiency. Seven of the countries that were studied have widespread or compulsory
    education in second/ international languages by age eight, and another eight countries
    introduce second/international languages in the upper elementary grades. In many
    cases, a second second/international language is offered or required in the elementary
    grades. What is essential for the development of a lasting and usable competence in a
    second/ international language is a lengthy, well-articulated, high-quality instructional
    sequence. This means that if language proficiency is the major goal of instruction, then
    the length of formal language study needs to be four years or more.
    A Well-Articulated Framework
    Instruction must be well-articulated in a continuous, sequentially planned and executed
    curriculum through which students progress without interruption from the beginning of
    their second/international language study to high school graduation. Several
    respondents noted the importance of a well-articulated curriculum framework that
    motivates and guides the development of an effective system of second/international
    language education. Many European countries have adapted their second/international
    language teaching at the national level to the frameworks and standards articulated by
    the Council of Europe’s language policy and activities. A Common European Framework of
    Reference for Languages, developed and revised over the past decade, has had high
    impact. The Framework is a planning instrument that provides a common basis and
    terminology for describing objectives, methods and approaches, skills, practices, and
    assessments in language teaching, and it is used for planning syllabuses, examinations,
    teaching materials, and teacher training programs throughout Europe.
    Similar developments have emerged in Canada and the United States. The Western
    Canadian Protocol, Common Curriculum Framework for International Languages (2000) was
    an attempt to improve the effectiveness of international language education in western
    Canada by providing a common well-articulated framework for the development of
    language-specific curriculum.
    Rigorous Teacher Education
    One of the most often cited factors related to excellence in second/ international
    language education is a well-trained teaching corps.
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 9
    Comprehensive Use of Technology
    Innovative technologies and media are frequently cited as a way to increase access to
    information and entertainment in a second/international language, provide interaction
    with speakers of other languages, and improve second/international language teaching
    in the classroom.
    Access to Information and Entertainment
    Most respondents, in particular those from Canada, Denmark, and Thailand,
    highlighted the importance of the Internet and specialized databases for information
    retrieval. In smaller countries, many television shows are broadcast in a
    second/international language and subtitled rather than dubbed. In Denmark, where
    English is omnipresent through the many American and British television programs,
    films, computer games, and music videos, teachers have developed successful strategies
    for integrating students’ informal second/international language exposure into
    classroom teaching.
    Interaction and Collaboration with Speakers of Other Languages
    Access to information on the World Wide Web and the use of new information
    technologies, especially networked computers, has contributed to increased
    communication among second/international language teachers and students in many
    countries. Through email, mailing lists, discussion groups, and chat rooms, the Internet
    has increased access to and communication in the second/international language with
    both native and non-native speakers.
    In addition, improvements in travel and reduced costs have made it possible for
    increased direct contact through tourism, education, and business/work-related
    activities. Satellite communication and improvements in telecommunication have
    brought the “world” into homes throughout the world, no matter how remote.
    Multilingual television channels have increased the linguistic diversity in every nation.
    Effective Teaching Strategies
    Respondents mentioned several innovative methods for language instruction, which fall
    roughly into the categories highlighted below.
    Integration of Language and Content Learning
    Learning content-area subjects through the medium of a second/international language
    has become increasingly popular in many of the responding countries. In some cases, a
    second/ international language is used as the medium of instruction in non-language
    subjects, frequently at the secondary school level when students have acquired sufficient
    proficiency in the second/ international language. In Luxembourg, for example, both
    German and French are used as a medium of instruction throughout students’ school
    careers to support simultaneous learning of both languages. In immersion programs,
    10 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    called “bilingual programs” in Europe, primary school children are taught subject
    matter almost exclusively in a second or international language. Similar bilingual and
    French immersion programs in Canada have demonstrated the possibilities and
    effectiveness of each model.
    Communicative Teaching Methods
    In Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Peru, and Spain, a focus on
    communicative and intercultural learning has not only stimulated a productive
    discussion of teaching objectives, methods, and underlying rationales that are now
    reflected in curricula and textbooks, but has also resulted in increased oral and written
    proficiency for their students.
    Focus on Language Learning Strategies
    Several respondents reported that a recent focus on how to learn a second/international
    language has been important to the success of language education in their countries. In
    Denmark, for example, teachers focus on raising students’ awareness of various
    communication strategies, including strategies to bridge vocabulary gaps, reading and
    listening strategies, and general language learning strategies.
    Building on the First or Subsequent Languages
    There is increasing awareness and knowledge of the importance of the students’ first
    language on second language learning. Successful approaches consider students’ first
    languages as a foundation upon which to build second language proficiency. In
    Luxembourg, several projects demonstrate that acknowledging the sociocultural context
    and the already developed competencies of children in their first language will boost
    learning of subsequent languages.
    Other Characteristics of Successful Programs
    Other notable methods include the sole use of the second/ international language in the
    classroom; a modular approach to teaching in which students are grouped according to
    proficiency level rather than age or grade level; and project-oriented learning that
    emphasizes the use of authentic materials through technology and integrates learning
    about culture and nations with language and content learning.
    The Influence of Contemporary Theory and Practice
    The research summarized in the preceding section has informed the development of the
    Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture: A Foundation for Implementation. In
    developing this document, developing communicative competence has been at the
    forefront of the enterprise. Both the curriculum framework and the suggestions for
    instruction and assessment included in this document demonstrate an acute awareness
    of the importance of meaningful and relevant learning experiences and tasks, which
    provide a context for acquiring and using German.
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 11
    Four Components
    Communicative competence is represented by four interrelated and interdependent
    components. The “Applications” component deals with what the students will be able to
    do in German, the functions they will be able to perform, and the contexts in which they
    will be able to operate. “Language Competence” addresses the students’ knowledge of
    the German language and their ability to use that knowledge to interpret and produce
    meaningful texts* appropriate to the situation in which they are used. “Global
    Citizenship” aims to develop intercultural competence with a particular focus on
    German cultures. The “Strategies” component helps students learn and communicate
    more effectively and more efficiently. Each of these components is described more in the
    Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture: Manitoba Curriculum Framework of
    Outcomes and also in this document.
    Modes of Communication
    Because of the focus on using language to communicate in specific contexts, with a
    particular purpose or task in mind, three modes of communication are used to organize
    some of the specific learning outcomes rather than the traditional language arts (reading,
    writing, listening, speaking, viewing, representing).
    Interaction is most often direct, face-to-face oral communication. It can also take the
    form of written communication between individuals using a medium such as email
    where the exchange of information is fairly immediate. It is characterized principally by
    the opportunity to negotiate meaning actively. Negotiating meaning involves working
    to make oneself understood and to understand others. Interactive communication
    generally requires more speed but less accuracy than the other two modes.
    Interpretation is receptive communication of oral and written messages in contexts
    where the listener or reader is not in direct contact with the creator of the message.
    While there is no opportunity to ask for clarification, there is sometimes the possibility
    of rereading or listening again, consulting references, or figuring out meaning in other
    ways. Reading and listening will sometimes involve viewing and interpreting visual
    elements such as illustrations in books or moving images in television and film.
    Interpretation goes beyond a literal comprehension to include an understanding of some
    of the unspoken or unwritten meaning intended by the author or speaker.
    Production is communication of oral and written messages in contexts where the
    audience is not in personal contact with the speaker or writer, or in situations of one-tomany communication (e.g., a lecture or a performance where there is no opportunity for
    the listener to interact with the speaker). Oral and written presentations will sometimes
    be enhanced by representing the meaning visually, using pictures, diagrams, models,
    drama techniques, or other non-verbal forms of communication. Greater knowledge of
    the language and culture is required to ensure that communication is successful because
    the participants cannot directly negotiate meaning.

  • See Appendix A: Glossary for definitions of terms.
    12 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    Viewing and Representing
    It is common in Canada to conceptualize language arts as comprising six elements
    (reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing, and representing). While the six
    language arts cannot be separated in a real sense in the classroom, viewing and
    representing are discussed separately here because they have been formally identified as
    language arts in this curriculum.
    Many students are avid and sophisticated consumers of visual media, and their
    familiarity with visual forms may facilitate literacy with other forms. Teachers can make
    use of this knowledge by creating links between conventions in visual media and similar
    conventions in written texts.
    Viewing and representing are language arts in their own right. Students need to learn
    the techniques and conventions of visual language to become more conscious, critical,
    and appreciative readers of visual media, and more effective creators of visual products.
    Films and video productions increase students’ experiences, much as written texts do,
    and they offer similar opportunities for discussion. Films also provide rich opportunities
    to explore the similarities and differences between visual and written language. Students
    may enhance their own products and presentations by using visuals with written text
    and/or sound.
    Students may use visual representation for both informal and formal expression.
    Drawing or sketching may, in fact, be the first and most natural way for some students
    to clarify thinking and generate ideas. They may also use tools such as frames, maps,
    webs, and other graphic organizers to comprehend parts and their relationships. Visual
    tools are especially useful because they can represent the non-linear nature of thought
    and show relationships among ideas. For beginning learners of German Language and
    Culture, visual tools may be an effective way to facilitate and demonstrate
    comprehension.
    Students may use representation to express their mental constructs of the ideas, theories,
    or scenes in written texts. Events, ideas, and information may be depicted in graphic
    organizers, storyboards, murals, comic strips, or collages. After studying visual media,
    students make informed use of design elements in developing charts, slides, posters,
    and booklets. Other creative forms of expression, such as music, drama, dance, or
    mathematics, can be a means of representing students’ understanding of a topic or a
    concept. The inclusion of representing as a language art extends the means by which
    students can communicate and demonstrate their learning in authentic ways.
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 13
    Three Types of Language Learning
    As students actively use the language arts, they engage in three kinds of language
    learning:
    ■ Students learn language: Language learning is a social process that begins in infancy
    and continues through life. Language-rich environments enhance and accelerate the
    learning process.
    ■ Students learn through language: As students listen, read, or view, they focus
    primarily on making meaning. Students use language to increase their knowledge of
    the world.
    ■ Students learn about language: Knowledge of how language works is a subject and a
    discipline in itself and is fundamental to effective communication.
    These three kinds of language learning are integrated in the classroom. Students may
    engage in learning tasks principally to make sense of the world. In the process of
    learning through language, however, their facility with language and their knowledge
    about language increases.
    Developing Language Competence
    Language competence is a broad term which includes not only knowledge about the
    language, but also the ability to use that knowledge to interpret and produce meaningful
    texts appropriate to the situation in which they are used. Language competence is best
    developed in the context of activities or tasks where the language is used for real
    purposes, in other words, in practical applications. Tasks involve students in
    understanding, manipulating, producing, or interacting in German while their attention
    is principally focused on meaning rather than form. Activities or tasks will be chosen
    based on the needs, interests, and experiences of students. The vocabulary, grammar
    structures, text forms, and social conventions necessary to carry out the task will be
    taught, practised, and assessed as students are involved in various aspects of the task
    itself, not in isolation.
    Teaching the Form of the Language
    Teaching the form of a second language has been the topic of much discussion but there
    is still a need for more research to clarify many issues that remain unresolved. However,
    we can make the following observations with some certainty:
    ■ Exposing students to the language without explicitly teaching its structures and
    formal properties is not enough to enable most students to become fluent.
    ■ Teaching grammar through exercises that are unrelated to meaningful
    communication will not help students improve their language competence.
    14 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    ■ Activities or tasks which focus on the form of the language should take up a
    relatively small part of the overall class time. The majority of classroom time should
    be spent on communicative activities, in other words, on activities where the focus is
    on meaning.
    ■ Students cannot be expected to master a particular structure after a single lesson on
    it. They need to be exposed to the structure repeatedly, in a variety of situations, and
    have the opportunity to use it over an extended period of time before it will be
    learned.
    How does the teacher decide when to introduce specific structures or forms? In
    programming that takes a task-based or content-based approach, the choice of grammar
    structures or forms to work on explicitly is based on the immediate needs of the
    students. In other words, students learn about the structures and forms they will need to
    use in order to carry out the task that is the focus of the unit. This way of ordering the
    teaching of grammar requires a careful analysis of the tasks the students will work on to
    determine which structures are essential and in which context they will be used. With
    careful planning, the teacher can ensure that specific points are revisited regularly in a
    variety of contexts.
    An effective method of raising the students’ consciousness of particular structures or
    rules is to help them discover the rule themselves. Once they are aware of the structure,
    they will be more likely to notice it in texts they are working with and thus have their
    learning reinforced. Grammatical problem-solving activities (see page 68) can be used to
    help students discover patterns from a number of examples of correct and incorrect
    sentences. If students work in pairs or small groups and are able to do the activity in
    German, they will also be getting an opportunity to use the language in an authentic
    situation, in this case to learn something new. Even if students do the activity in English
    and are guided by the teacher, they will still benefit from the analysis.
    Structural exercises can be effective tools for teaching grammar provided they meet
    certain criteria:
    ■ Sentences used for the exercises should be taken directly from students’ own
    productions or from texts they are using in their communicative activities.
    ■ Understanding the meaning of the sentence should be necessary in order to do the
    exercise.
    ■ Students should have the opportunity to use the structure they have just analyzed to
    accomplish the task that is the focus of the unit.
    See the section on Instructional Methods for more specific details and examples of
    structural exercises (page 51).
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 15
    Teaching Aural Interpretation
    Stephen Krashen’s theory of second language acquisition (Principles and Practice)
    emphasizes the importance of comprehensible input. Students must hear the language
    spoken in situations which help them understand what is being said if they are to
    acquire the language. They may go through a “silent period” before being willing to try
    to use the language themselves, but this does not mean that they are not learning.
    To maximize acquisition of the German language, especially in the very early stages,
    input should have the following characteristics:
    ■ Texts are as authentic as possible. (Authentic means they were produced for
    speakers of German and not for second language learners.)
    ■ Speech is slower and more clearly articulated, although not distorted.
    ■ Syntax is simple, sentences short.
    ■ High frequency vocabulary is used.
    ■ The meaning is clarified by the use of gestures, facial expressions, visuals, or
    concrete objects.
    ■ The topic is familiar to the student.
    ■ The content is interesting and/or relevant to the student.
    As students become more proficient, the language to which they are exposed can more
    closely resemble the normal speech of a native speaker and the non-verbal supports can
    be reduced. In order for students to continue to learn, input should always be just a little
    beyond their current capabilities.
    Since the German classroom may be the only place students are exposed to the
    language, it is important that German be used as much as possible. Students can
    gradually be taught the vocabulary and structures needed to carry out classroom
    routines in German, until the whole class is taking place in the second language.
    Teaching Oral Production
    Oral production activities are distinct from activities where there is interaction (and the
    possibility of negotiation of meaning) between individuals. Even though they are not
    interactive, they must still be communicative. This means that they will have the
    following characteristics:
    ■ The topic is interesting and/or relevant to the students.
    ■ The student producing the text has a real purpose (e.g., sharing factual information,
    expressing a personal opinion).
    ■ The text is presented to a real audience (a person or persons other than a teacher
    who is listening for the sole purpose of teaching and assessing the student).
    ■ Real communication takes place; in other words, the audience does not already
    know what the speaker is telling them.
    16 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    ■ The students presenting the text usually have an opportunity to plan and prepare
    what they are going to say beforehand and to rehearse their presentation. For this
    reason, greater accuracy, better pronunciation and intonation, and greater fluency
    can be expected than in interactive situations.
    Developing Interactive Fluency
    Research has shown that students need more than comprehensible input to learn a
    second language. They also need output; in other words, they need opportunities to
    interact with others and to try to make themselves understood, if they are to develop
    accuracy and fluency. Producing language helps learners to notice gaps in their
    knowledge and then to try to find the correct form, in order to be understood.
    Studies have also shown that nearly two-thirds of the talking that goes on in classrooms
    is done by the teacher. This is rather alarming when we know that interaction is essential
    for learning a language. If the teacher controls dialogue by asking questions of one
    student at a time, each individual student will have very little opportunity to try out
    new vocabulary and structures. Students must have the opportunity to interact in
    German in authentic situations as much as possible.
    Face-to-face interaction is different from other situations (e.g., reading a story, writing a
    letter, listening to a song, speaking to a group) in that negotiation of meaning is possible.
    The speaker knows more or less immediately whether or not the message has been
    understood. The conversational partner may indicate lack of understanding, ask for
    clarification, or simply respond, thinking they have understood. This back and forth
    process continues until a mutual understanding has been reached.
    However, interactive activities, if they are to be effective, cannot be left to chance. They
    must be carefully planned and structured. Here are some suggestions:
    ■ By using cooperative mixed-level groups, the teacher provides students with many
    opportunities to express themselves, to use the language in communicative
    situations, and to test their ability to get their message across. It is important to teach
    and assess cooperative skills related to using the German language in cooperative
    groups. A more detailed description of cooperative learning can be found in the
    section on instructional methods (page 72).
    ■ Students can be taught strategies for making themselves understood, without having
    recourse to English, when they don’t know or cannot remember a word or phrase.
    Strategies include using gestures, synonyms, paraphrasing, looking at word lists
    posted in the classroom, and so on. See the list of interactive strategies in
    Appendix E, page Appendices — 35.
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 17
    ■ Students often need to be encouraged to be a little more precise, a little more
    accurate. However, in interactive activities the focus should remain on the meaning
    the student is trying to convey. It is possible to respond to the message and yet push
    students to improve their language. If they are using a general word, for example,
    respond to what they are saying while at the same time using a more precise word. If
    they make a mistake in grammar or pronunciation, respond to the content (the
    meaning) of their message, but incorporate the correct structure or pronunciation
    into your response. If the idea is vague or very general, ask students to provide more
    details, justify their opinion, or be more precise.
    ■ Students can learn to use similar techniques in their interactions with their fellow
    students. This involves strategies like asking questions to get more information or a
    clearer answer, indicating when one has not understood, or repeating what was said
    in a different way to check for understanding.
    ■ None of these suggestions will work unless the classroom provides a safe
    environment for students, an environment where they know they can make mistakes
    without being ridiculed or punished. Students need to understand that taking risks
    (trying out new vocabulary and structures, using language that they are not quite
    sure of, trying to say things they want to say but have not yet learned fully) and
    making the inevitable mistakes are part of the process of effective language learning.
    Teaching Written Interpretation
    Students learning to read German at the middle or secondary level have the advantage
    that they already know how to read in their first language and can transfer many of their
    skills and strategies to the task of reading German, their second or additional language.
    The alphabet is the same. Students already understand that a written text has a message
    and that it is made up of individual words. They know that they don’t always have to
    understand every word, they can read ahead and come back, or they can just guess at
    the meaning of words they don’t know, and so on.
    Since written language is a source of comprehensible input in the same way that oral
    language is, much of what was said about aural interpretation above is true of written
    interpretation as well. Written texts used in the early stages of learning German should
    have the following characteristics:
    ■ They are as authentic as possible. (Authentic means they were written for speakers
    of German and not for second language learners.)
    ■ Syntax is simple, sentences are short, texts are also short or made up of short
    sections.
    ■ High frequency vocabulary is used.
    ■ The meaning is clarified by the use of illustrations and other contextual clues.
    ■ The topic is familiar to the student.
    ■ The content is interesting and/or relevant to the student.
    18 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    As students become more proficient, the written texts to which they are exposed can
    more closely resemble the normal language of a native speaker with fewer visual
    supports. In order for students to continue to learn, input should always be just a little
    beyond their current capabilities.
    The term “written interpretation” is a reminder that the objective of reading is to
    interpret the meaning of the text. Activities such as reading aloud, while they have their
    place in the second language classroom, are more suited to practising good
    pronunciation or learning the correlation between sounds and spelling than to
    developing comprehension. For beginning readers of German it is difficult to attend to
    the meaning of a text at the same time as the sound-symbol system.
    Teaching Written Production
    Research on teaching writing shows that student achievement is higher when the
    teaching approach emphasizes writing as a process, rather than writing as a product.
    In the traditional product-oriented approach, form and correctness are the focus of
    attention. The teacher provides drills on specific skills, makes many of the major
    decisions for the students (e.g., topic, length, what form the text will take), and is the
    only audience. Students are asked to concentrate on following rules, to work alone, and
    to constantly pay attention to technical matters such as grammar and spelling. They
    usually write only one version of the text, which the teacher corrects. Because no one
    else will read the writing, students often pay little attention to the teacher’s comments.
    Research has clearly shown that a concentration on grammar actually slows students’
    development as writers because the insistence on correctness reduces their willingness
    to experiment and invent. Grammar instruction that relates directly to students’ writing,
    and is in response to their needs, is effective in improving writing.
    The experience of classroom teachers and research conducted during recent years shows
    that a process-oriented approach to teaching writing is more successful. In this
    approach, students are led through a series of stages in their writing and gradually learn
    to use this process independently.
    Strategic Learning in German Language and Culture
    Fostering strategic learning in the German Language and Culture classroom is essential
    for ensuring effective and lifelong learning. To develop high levels of language skills,
    including literacy, students need instruction in the strategies that skillful learners use in
    approaching language tasks. Students need to be taught learning strategies through
    demonstration, explicit instruction, guided practice, and independent practice with
    feedback and support. Therefore, students enrolled in the Grade 9 to Grade 12 German
    Language and Culture are encouraged to acquire and apply a wide range of strategies to
    enhance their learning and their ability to communicate effectively.
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 19
    Strategies are systematic and conscious plans, actions, and thoughts that learners select
    and adapt to each task. Strategies are often described as knowing what to do, how to do
    it, when to do it, and why it is useful. The German Language and Culture curriculum
    includes clusters of specific learning outcomes designed to promote three types of
    strategic learning in the German Language and Culture classroom: language learning
    strategies, language use strategies, and general learning strategies.
    Language learning strategies refer to actions taken by learners to enhance their own
    language learning. These strategies are subdivided into three categories: cognitive,
    metacognitive, and social/affective.
    Cognitive language learning strategies operate directly on the language. These include
    such strategies as using different techniques for remembering new words and phrases,
    deducing grammar rules or applying previously-learned rules, guessing at the meaning
    of unknown words, and using a variety of ways to organize new information and link
    the new information to previously-learned language.
    Metacognitive language learning strategies are higher order skills that students use to
    manage their own learning. These include planning for their language learning,
    monitoring their own language learning, and evaluating their success in language
    learning.
    Social language learning strategies are actions learners take that involve interactions with
    native speakers of the German language or interactions with other learners of German in
    order to assist or enhance their own language learning. For example, asking another
    student for help to understand a text written in German, or asking a native speaker for
    an unknown vocabulary item would be social language learning strategies.
    Affective language learning strategies are methods students use to regulate their
    emotions, motivation, and attitudes to make themselves more conducive to learning.
    Language use strategies are actions taken to enhance communication. These strategies are
    often used with no intention of trying to acquire language, but instead with the intention
    of improving communication. The language use strategies in Grade 9 to Grade 12 German
    Language and Culture: Manitoba Curriculum Framework of Outcomes are organized
    according to the three communicative modes: interaction, interpretation, and production.
    General learning strategies refer to actions taken by learners to enhance their own general
    learning. As with language learning strategies, general learning strategies are divided
    into three sub-categories: cognitive, metacognitive, and social/affective. There is a distinctive
    similarity between language learning strategies and general learning strategies; the
    determining difference, however, is whether the purpose of the application of the
    specific strategy is the learning of the language or of other concepts. Often, the other
    concepts include subject-area concepts, such as social studies or health concepts.
    20 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    The strategies that students choose depend on the task they are engaged in as well as on
    other factors, such as their preferred learning style, personality, age, attitude, and
    cultural background. Strategies that work well for one person may not be effective for
    another person or may not be suitable in a different situation. For this reason it is not
    particularly useful to say that students should be able to use specific strategies at a
    particular grade level. The goal is to help students become more active, more selfdirected, more autonomous, and more expert in choosing the strategies that work best
    for them. Effective language learners tend to use more strategies and to apply them in a
    more appropriate fashion than less effective learners. A global list of strategies that will
    benefit students can be found in Appendix E of this document.
    Strategies should be introduced as they are needed. When strategies are introduced and
    explained in terms of their value to the learner and are demonstrated and practised over
    time, they can produce long-lasting, significant improvements in the students’ ability to
    construct meaning, acquire language, and achieve the German Language and Culture
    learning outcomes. All students benefit from strategic instruction, but individual
    students need varying degrees of support in learning and using strategies.
    Inclusive Teaching Approaches
    Every classroom is a diverse classroom. Students bring with them a rich array of cultural
    backgrounds, learning styles, personal interests, and characteristics. It is important for
    teachers to consider the needs of all the learners in the classroom. The charts that follow
    provide an overview of points to consider and useful strategies for adapting instruction
    for diverse students.
    Balanced Instruction in German Language and Culture
    Planning for balance while ensuring sufficient instruction and practice in all the learning
    outcomes defined for a particular grade is a particularly challenging task. Teachers
    strive to incorporate a variety of instructional strategies and teaching and learning
    activities in their classrooms. This includes varying instructional groupings and
    methods to meet the learning needs of a wide range of students.
    Teachers also strive to ensure balance in their delivery of the curricular learning
    outcomes. They are attentive to the need for integrating the Application, Language
    Competence, Strategies, and Global Citizenship learning outcomes to achieve balanced
    instruction. They are careful to provide instruction in linguistic elements, such as
    grammar or vocabulary, within the context of concrete applications.
    Themes, integrated units, and learning sequences provide opportunities for explicit
    instruction in many learning outcomes. Instructional activities such as mini-lessons are
    necessary to introduce, develop, or reinforce particular skills. In every planning
    decision, reflective teachers ask:
    ■ What is an appropriate balance for my students?
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 21
    ■ Am I achieving that balance in my classroom, both in the short term and the long
    term?
    ■ Is my instruction helping students to achieve the appropriate learning outcomes of
    the German Language and Culture curriculum?
    Teachers strive for balance in their classrooms. A communicative approach requires the
    teacher to be a guide and a language model. One of the main functions of the teacher is
    to discover or invent ways of encouraging students to communicate meaningfully with
    each other. Instead of actively directing and controlling all activities, the teacher will set
    up conditions for meaningful practice, and then take on roles such as observer,
    facilitator, resource person, catalyst, challenger, and encourager.
    Teachers also endeavour to provide a range of learning materials and resources. It is
    important to provide many opportunities for students to interact with a wide range of
    oral, literary, and media texts, from varied sources. See Sample List of Text Forms in
    Appendix B.
    A balance between classroom-centred experiences and real-life, authentic applications of
    the German language focused outside the classroom is essential in preparing German
    Language and Culture students for the world beyond the German classroom. This can
    be achieved through a wide range of activities, such as interactions with guest speakers
    and other visitors from outside of the school community, pen pal experiences, exploring
    Internet sites, viewing German television or film productions, etc. Similarly, students
    must be provided with a wide range of opportunities for using the German language in
    meaningful ways.
    Adaptation Strategies
    “Differentiating the curriculum” refers to adjustments in content, teaching strategies,
    expectations of student mastery, and scope and sequence. The students work at different
    paces. Gifted students are more likely to develop study and production skills,
    experience success, and feel challenged by instruction that encourages learners to master
    information more quickly. General adaptation strategies to ensure success with these
    learners are found on page 35.
    Strategies for the International Language Classroom
    Suggested student adaptation strategies for the international language classroom may
    include, but are not limited to, the following:
    ■ researching and discussing cultural issues/perspectives in more depth
    ■ posing questions that involve inferencing and focusing on complex cross-curricular
    themes or global problems
    ■ explaining reasons for taking a certain position or making a specific decision both
    orally and in writing in German
    22 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    ■ creating original songs, stories, short plays, poems, designs, etc., showing
    multicultural perspectives of a specific theme or having a futuristic twist
    ■ being held accountable for additional listening comprehension tasks
    ■ creating experiences and performances that reflect the results of research, interviews,
    or surveys in the target language
    ■ retelling a story or experience from other content areas in the target language
    ■ writing editorials, letters, etc. to German newspapers in the United States
    ■ emailing articles, commentaries, reviews, etc. to German schools, publications,
    organizations, newspapers, or magazines
    ■ being given assignments involving more sophisticated computer research and
    reporting in the target language
    ■ receiving handouts, information for web searches, etc. in the target language
    ■ processing a greater volume of any given print material
    ■ being given the option of independent world language projects of choice
    Adaptation Strategies For Selected Scenarios
    “Making Connections”
    ■ Based on the scenario interview, write an essay in German projecting the guest
    speaker’s future. Focus on further development of vocabulary related to that career.
    Present orally as a commentary on the guest’s class visit.
    ■ Write a prospective business plan for the guest based on knowledge of the speaker’s
    current business and the German-speaking culture. Email the plan to the speaker.
    “You Are What You Eat”
    ■ Create a catering business in a German-speaking country. Plan meals for business
    conferences and typical celebrations in the German culture. Include prices and
    optional services offered.
    ■ Create a new recipe for a German-speaking culture that satisfies certain criteria (e.g.,
    seasonal dishes, diet dishes, or a dish that might appeal to target culture teens).
    ■ Do an independent project in related areas (e.g., manners for a changing society,
    diseases related to food consumption, or emotions associated with certain foods in a
    German-speaking culture/ country).
    “Dare to Say No”
    ■ Create a “perfect” teen/parent for a German-speaking culture. The “ideals” will be
    based on what the student considers to be the best resolutions to the problems
    identified as a result of the scenario activity.
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 23
    ■ Create a support group for teens based on problems identified and act as
    “facilitator” for the group.
    ■ Direct and produce a TV talk show entitled “Parents & Teens Around the Globe.”
    Students role-play parent and teen guests.
    Types of Adaptations
    Three types of adaptations for exceptionally able learners—acceleration, enrichment,
    and grouping—are described in this section.
    Acceleration
    Acceleration involves grade-skipping or changing the rate of presentation of the general
    curriculum to enable the student to complete the course in less time than usual.
    Prescribed seat-time is not necessary for achievement of the learning outcomes.
    Acceleration can occur in any subject area. Middle school students should be able to take
    high school courses; high school students take college courses with appropriate credit
    accrued. Some provision must be made for continued acceleration or high-level
    enrichment. Unless the student has a pre-identified problem, social or emotional
    development should not inhibit acceleration.
    The following are some examples of accelerated types of programs:
    ■ Flexible Pacing: Assignment to classes should be based on the ability to be
    challenged and handle the work, not on age.
    ■ Content Acceleration: Superior performance in some areas may be addressed with
    placement in a higher grade level for the areas warranting it.
    ■ Multi-Age Classes: Classes can be formed in which two or more grade levels are
    combined. Students can accelerate through self-pacing.
    ■ Compacting (also known as telescoping): This refers to a form of acceleration in
    which part of the curriculum is addressed in a shorter period of time than is usual.
    Previously mastered content material is determined through pre-evaluation and
    eliminated.
    ■ College Course Work: Qualified students take college courses for college credit
    while completing high school requirement (concurrent enrollment). College courses
    may be taken in the summer.
    ■ Early College Admission: Once all high school graduation requirements are met,
    early admission to college is an option.
    ■ Advanced Placement: The advanced placement program (APP), administered by the
    College Entrance Examination Board, enables high school students to obtain both
    high school and college credit for demanding course work offered as part of the
    school curriculum.
    24 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    Enrichment
    Enrichment is another way to meet the differentiated needs of exceptionally able
    students. Well-articulated assignments that require higher cognitive processing,
    in-depth content, and alternate modes of communication can be effective and
    stimulating.
    The following are some examples to consider when differentiating classroom instruction
    to meet the needs of academically or artistically talented students:
    ■ Alternate Learning Activities/Units: Opportunities to pursue alternate activities
    permit students to engage in new learning and avoid the boredom of repeating
    instruction or unnecessary practice in skills already mastered.
    ■ Independent Study: Students conduct well planned, self-directed research projects
    carefully monitored by the teacher. Prerequisites include instruction in field-based
    and library research skills, the scientific method, and other authentic types of
    inquiry.
    ■ Advanced Thinking Processes: Assignments in all curriculum areas should
    emphasize higher-level thinking skills such as synthesis, analysis, and evaluation.
    ■ Guest Speakers: University faculty, parents, business and industry leaders, or other
    teachers in specific fields can provide information on topics beyond the teacher’s
    expertise.
    ■ Mentors/Internships: Both mentors and internships allow students to interact with
    adult experts in fields of mutual interest and increase awareness of potential careers.
    Mentors act as role models.
    ■ Alternate Resources: This category may include materials from a higher grade level
    or access to business, university, and community resources such as laboratories,
    libraries, and computer facilities.
    ■ Exchange Programs: Students attend schools in a different community or country to
    enrich educational experiences.
    Grouping
    Grouping involves placing students of like ability together in homogeneous
    arrangements such as special classes or clustering in the same classroom. Grouping
    allows for more appropriate, rapid, and advanced instruction and challenges students
    without isolating them.
    Students may be grouped using the following arrangements:
    ■ Pullout Programs: These programs combine regular class integration and
    homogeneous grouping on a part-time, regular basis. Pullout programs require
    careful coordination and communication between the teachers of both classes.
    ■ Cluster Grouping in the Regular Classroom: This type of grouping permits
    homogeneous and heterogeneous grouping according to interests and achievement.
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 25
    ■ Cluster Scheduling: Schedules are arranged so that exceptionally able students can
    take their required core courses together to enhance rapid pacing and provide
    greater depth and breadth to course content.
    ■ Honours and Enriched Classes: These classes provide opportunities for practising
    higher-level thinking skills, creativity, and exploration of in-depth course content.
    ■ Seminars: Aimed at research, interdisciplinary studies, visual and performing arts,
    academic subjects, or other areas of interest, seminars provide interaction with
    specialists who can give guidance in specific areas.
    ■ Resource Centres: A district can establish a resource centre available to all students,
    but reserve it at times for exceptionally able students from a broader geographical
    area (e.g., inter-district).
    Additional Adaptations
    The following charts outline various strategies for adapting learning activities to
    accommodate students with diverse talents, exceptionally able students, and students
    with specific learning needs. Teachers may wish to refer to these during their
    instructional planning and as a check to be sure that they are using inclusive classroom
    practices.
    26 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    STRATEGIES FOR STUDENTS WITH DIVERSE TALENTS
    Intelligence Students learn
    best by
    Planning questions
    for teachers
    Learning activities
    Linguistic Verbalizing, hearing,
    and seeing words
    How can I use the
    spoken or written word?
    Creative writing
    Formal speech
    Humour or telling jokes
    Impromptu speaking
    Journal or diary keeping
    Oral debate
    Poetry
    Storytelling
    Words—used in reading,
    writing, speaking
    Logical-Mathematical Conceptualizing it,
    quantifying it, thinking
    critically about it
    How can I bring in
    numbers, calculations,
    logic, classifications, or
    critical-thinking skills?
    Abstract symbols,
    formulas
    Calculation
    Counting
    Deciphering codes
    Finding patterns
    Forcing relationships
    Graphic organizers
    Number sequences
    Outlining
    Problem solving
    Syllogisms
    Spatial Drawing it, sketching it,
    visualizing it
    How can I use visual
    aids, visualization,
    colour, art, or
    metaphor?
    Active imagination
    Colour schemes
    Designs and patterns
    Drawing guided imagery
    Mind mapping
    Painting pictures
    Pretending
    Sculpture/models
    Bodily-Kinesthetic Dancing it, building a
    model of it, doing a
    hands-on activity
    related to it
    How can I involve the
    whole body or use
    hands-on experience?
    Body language
    Dancing—folk or creative
    Drama/acting
    Inventing
    Martial arts
    Mime
    Physical gestures
    Physical exercises
    Playing sports and games
    Role-playing
    Adapted from the Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 27
    STRATEGIES FOR STUDENTS WITH DIVERSE TALENTS (CONTINUED)
    Intelligence Students learn
    best by
    Planning questions
    for teachers
    Learning activities
    Music Singing it, chanting it,
    finding music that
    illustrates it, putting on
    background music while
    learning it
    How can I bring in
    music or environmental
    sounds, or set key
    points in a rhythmic or
    melodic framework?
    Creating music
    Environment sounds
    Humming
    Listening to music
    Music performance
    Music composition,
    creation
    Percussion vibrations
    Rhythmic patterns
    Singing
    Tonal patterns
    Vocal sounds and tones
    Interpersonal Working on it with
    another person or group
    of people
    How can I engage
    students in peer-sharing,
    cooperative learning, or
    large-group simulation?
    Collaboration skills
    Cooperating
    Cooperative learning
    Empathy practices
    Giving feedback
    Group projects
    Intuiting others’ feelings
    Listening
    Person-to-person
    communication
    Receiving feedback
    Sensing others’ motives
    Talking to others
    Teamwork/division of
    labour
    Intrapersonal Relating to a personal
    feeling or inner
    experience
    How can I evoke
    personal feelings or
    memories, or give
    students choices?
    Being alone
    Complex guided imagery
    “Centring” practices
    Emotional processing
    Focusing/concentration
    skills
    Higher-order reasoning
    “Know thyself” practices
    Metacognition techniques
    Mindfulness practices
    Silent reflection methods
    Telling about feelings
    Telling about thinking
    Thinking strategies
    Naturalist-Physical World Observing it, classifying
    it, appreciating it
    How can I relate the
    student’s learning to
    the physical world?
    Discovering, uncovering
    Observing, watching
    Forecasting, predicting
    Planting
    Comparing
    Displaying
    Sorting and classifying
    Photographing
    Building environments
    Adapted from the Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks
    28 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    STRATEGIES FOR STUDENTS WITH DIVERSE TALENTS
    Multiple Intelligences Grid of Life (Fogarty)
    Multiple Intelligences Grid of Ideas
    The Olympic Games or Games of Life
    Verbal Logical Spatial Bodily Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist
    Biographies Graphic arts Greek
    architecture
    Fitness National
    songs
    Teamwork Individual
    achievement
    Nutrition
    Writing about
    heroes
    Biochemistry Pottery Sports Raps Cooperation Pride Health
    Historical
    fiction
    Laws of
    physics
    Painting Practice Practising
    music
    Competition Sense of
    accomplishment
    Wellness
    Myths Statistics Posters Routines Relaxation
    music
    Sportsmanship
    Logs Biochemistry
    Literature Percentages Photos Regimens Mediation Coaching Journals Climate
    News
    reporting
    Logical
    thinking
    Graphic
    organizers
    Physical
    therapy
    Composing Mentoring Psychology
    of peak
    performance
    Culture
    Expository
    writing
    Sequences Graphs Conditioning Performing Global
    relationships
    Biofeedback
    Features Cause/effect Visualization
    techniques
    Experiences Selecting
    appropriate
    music
    Conflict
    management
    Endurance Attitudes
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 29
    STRATEGIES FOR STUDENTS WITH DIVERSE TALENTS
    PLANNING MODEL USING BLOOM’S TAXONOMY
    Bloom’s Taxonomy is a model that focuses on six levels of thinking. The six levels roughly
    form a two-tiered arrangement that represents levels of complexity in thinking. Knowledge
    and comprehension are the lower or more concrete levels of thinking. Analysis, evaluation,
    and synthesis represent higher or more complex levels of thinking. The application level,
    which falls between the lower and higher levels, can be very complex depending on the
    task.
    A variety of instructional strategies and products may be categorized for each level of
    thinking. Teachers who design a variety of learning activities that require different levels of
    thinking will provide appropriate opportunity for the diverse number of students whose
    thinking levels range throughout the spectrum.
    The following chart provides a model for instructional planning based on Bloom’s
    taxonomy of thinking. Also see International Languages and Bloom’s Taxonomy on
    page 32.
    Level Definition Instructional Strategies Activities, Tasks,
    & Products
    Students recall
    information, recite,
    or write
    • ask • define • describe
    • discover • identify
    • label • list • listen
    • locate • match • memorize
    • name • observe
    • recite • recognize
    • remember • research
    • select • state • tell
    • books • diagrams • events
    • exams • facts in isolation
    • films • film strips
    • magazine articles • models
    • newspapers • people • plays
    • quiz • radio • recordings/records
    • tapes • tape reading • vocabulary
    • workbook pages
    Students restate
    the information in
    their own words
    • ask • change • compare
    • convert • defend • discover
    • distinguish • edit • explain
    • express • extend • generalize
    • give example • identify
    • illustrate • infer • interpret
    • listen • locate • match
    • observe • paraphrase
    • predict • relate • research
    • restate • rewrite
    • show symbol • summarize
    • transform • translate
    • causal relationship
    • comparison of like/unlike items
    • conclusion/implication based on data
    • diagrams • films • filmstrips • graph
    • magazines • models • newspapers
    • outline • own statement • people
    • photograph • radio
    • response to questions • revisions
    • skit • speech • story • summary
    • tape recording • television
    Adapted from the Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks Lower, less complex, more concrete levels Comprehension Knowledge
    30 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    STRATEGIES FOR STUDENTS WITH DIVERSE TALENTS (CONTINUED)
    PLANNING MODEL USING BLOOM’S TAXONOMY
    Level Definition Instructional Strategies Activities, Tasks,
    & Products
    Students apply the
    information in one
    or more contexts
    • apply • build • change
    • choose • classify • construct
    • cook • demonstrate • discover
    • dramatize • experiment
    • interview • list • manipulate
    • modify • paint • prepare
    • produce • record • report
    • show • sketch • solve
    • stimulate • teach
    • use guides, charts, maps
    • artwork • collection • crafts
    • demonstration • diagram • diorama
    • diary • drama • forecasts
    • illustration • list • map • meeting
    • mobile • model • paint
    • photographs • project • puzzle
    • question • recipe • scrapbook
    • sculpture • shifting smoothly from
    one gear into another • solution
    • stitchery
    Students
    understand
    component parts
    to be able to
    compare and
    contrast or
    categorize
    information
    • advertise • analyze
    • categorize•classify•compare
    • contrast • differentiate
    • dissect • distinguish
    • infer • investigate • point out
    • select • separate • solve
    • subdivide • survey
    • argument broken down • chart
    • commercial • conclusion • checked
    • diagram • graph • parts of propaganda statement identified • plan
    • prospectus • questionnaire
    • report survey • report • solution
    • survey • syllogism broken down
    • word defined
    Students judge
    what they have
    analyzed and
    support their
    opinions
    • combine•compose•construct
    • create • design • estimate
    • forecast • hypothesize
    • imagine • infer • invent
    • predict • produce
    • rearrange parts • role-play
    • write
    • advertisement • article • book
    • cartoon • experiment • formation of
    a hypothesis or question • game
    • invention • lesson plan • machine
    • magazine • new game • new product
    • new color, smell, taste • news article
    • pantomime • play • poem
    • puppet show • radio show • recipe
    • report • set of rules, principles, or
    standards • song • speculate on or
    plan alternative courses of action
    • story structure • television show
    Students create
    and/or gather
    pieces of
    information to form
    a novel thought,
    idea, product, or
    perspective
    • appraise • choose • compare
    • consider • criticize • critique
    • debate • decide • discuss
    • editorialize • evaluate
    • give opinion, viewpoint
    • judge prioritize • recommend
    • relate • summarize • support
    • weigh
    • conclusion • court trial • critique
    • debate • decision • defense/verdict
    • discussion • editorial • evaluation
    • group discussion • group • letter
    • news item • panel • rating/grades
    • recommendation • self-evaluation
    • standard compared
    • standard established • survey
    • valuing
    Adapted from the Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks Level depends on complexity of task Higher, more complex, more abstract levels Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Application
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 31
    STRATEGIES FOR STUDENTS WITH DIVERSE TALENTS
    INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGES AND BLOOM’S TAXONOMY
    Adapted from the Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks
    Knowledge/
    Comprehension
    Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
    What students will do:
    • Write telegrams
    • Arrange lines of
    dialogues
    • Fill out authentic
    forms for the target
    country
    • Explain proverbs,
    slang
    • Listen for sequence
    • Explain the “What?
    Who? Where? How?
    Why?”
    • Give description of
    scenes from a video
    presentation
    • Describe pictures
    from the target
    country
    • Define words
    • Listen and
    paraphrase in English
    a conversation heard
    in the target
    language
    • Draw picture from
    verbal information
    of a target culture’s
    scene or object
    What students will do:
    • Dub cartoons, TV
    shows
    • Command others
    step-by-step to
    prepare a typical
    cultural dish
    • Produce questions
    with correct
    pronunciation
    • Apply a cultural
    custom to a real-life
    situation in the
    target country
    • Interview classmates
    on their daily
    activities
    • Plan a menu for
    occasions typical of
    the target culture
    • Make shopping lists
    for various cultural,
    social events
    • Apply rules of
    correct cultural
    protocol while
    dining in the target
    country
    • Classify words,
    poems, authentic
    materials, genre
    • Apply gestures
    learned to an
    authentic situation
    • Apply reading
    strategies to
    understand authentic
    texts
    What students will do:
    • Identify elements of
    a particular literary
    form
    • Analyze the lyrics of
    popular songs to
    compare both
    cultures’
    perspectives
    • Compare points of
    view found in two
    editorials
    • Analyze a story,
    poem, and other
    authentic materials
    • Analyze a scene in
    the target culture
    • Find evidence to
    support opinion
    • Compare students’
    customs with the
    target culture’s
    • Conduct a survey
    and analyze the
    results
    • Analyze the typical
    foods of the target
    country for
    nutritional value
    • Identify the best
    route to a historic
    site in the target
    country
    • Play the role of a
    tourist who bargains
    for merchandise in
    the target country
    What students will do:
    • Write an alternative
    ending to a story
    • Predict
    consequences if
    other historical
    events would have
    resulted differently
    • Write titles for a
    play, story, or article
    • Write headlines in
    newspaper style on
    current issues in the
    target country
    • Predict future
    events
    • Write a diary of an
    imaginary trip
    • Extend a story
    • Hypothesize the
    reaction to different
    situations based on
    the cultural beliefs
    • Compose a poem,
    skit, role play,
    advertisement
    • Create hypothetical
    real-world situations
    found in the target
    culture
    • Create an
    infomercial
    What students will do:
    • Prioritize solutions to
    cultural dilemmas
    • Express and justify
    opinions on creative
    products of the
    culture
    • Give and support
    opinions about issues
    • Evaluate TV shows,
    movies, cartoons
    • Write an editorial
    giving and supporting
    own opinion
    • Express the pros and
    cons of policies
    • Give and support the
    decision in a mock
    trial
    • Write an ambassador
    with suggestions for
    the resolution of a
    real-world problem
    • Justify decisions of
    sites to visit in the
    target culture
    • Read an editorial in a
    target-country
    newspaper; respond
    and send response
    • Evaluate best World
    Wide Web pages for
    source of current
    events in the target
    country
    32 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    STRATEGIES FOR EXCEPTIONALLY ABLE (GIFTED) STUDENTS
    To ensure success with exceptionally able students …
    ✦ allow for choice within
    assignments and projects.
    ✦ use compacting.
    ✦ allow students to make
    independent plans for
    independent learning.
    ✦ provide mentoring or
    apprenticeship with
    professionals.
    ✦ teach entrepreneurship.
    ✦ use theory of multiple
    intelligences.
    ✦ use tiered assignments
    which are more complex
    or abstract.
    ✦ use Socratic questioning.
    ✦ use critical and creative
    questioning strategies.
    ✦ use open-ended
    questioning strategies.
    ✦ use interdisciplinary units.
    ✦ allow in-depth enrichment
    learning.
    ✦ allow time with likeintellectual peers.
    ✦ use accelerated pace of
    instruction.
    ✦ allow dual enrollment or
    early admission
    opportunities.
    ✦ remove time and space
    restrictions to allow for a
    long-term integrated plan
    of study.
    ✦ provide more difficult or
    abstract resources.
    ✦ allow for concrete or reallife investigations and
    explorations.
    ✦ teach coping skills.
    ✦ allow students to suggest
    modifications in the
    content of their learning,
    the process which they
    use to learn, and the
    product they produce to
    show their learning.
    ✦ clearly communicate
    criteria and parameters to
    avoid students taking
    unacceptable risks or
    creative detours.
    Adapted from the Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 33
    STRATEGIES FOR STUDENTS WITH SPECIFIC LEARNING NEEDS
    CONSIDERATIONS FOR MEETING SPECIFIC LEARNING NEEDS
    IN SKILL AND INSTRUCTIONAL AREAS
    To ensure success with speaking …
    To ensure success with assessment …
    To ensure success when working in groups …
    ✦ give sentence starters.
    ✦ use graphic organizers to
    organize ideas and
    relationships.
    ✦ use visuals.
    ✦ allow extra response time
    for processing.
    ✦ use cues and prompts to
    help the student know
    when to speak.
    ✦ use partners.
    ✦ phrase questions with
    choices embedded in
    them.
    ✦ use choral reading or
    speaking.
    ✦ use rhythm or music.
    ✦ allow practice
    opportunities for speaking.
    ✦ practice role-playing
    activities.
    ✦ use a variety of authentic
    assessments.
    ✦ establish criteria and
    expectations prior to
    instruction.
    ✦ teach test-taking
    strategies.
    ✦ teach the format of an
    upcoming test.
    ✦ allow adequate time for
    test taking.
    ✦ allow paper-and-pencil
    tests to be taken in a
    different space.
    ✦ allow a variety of ways to
    respond (e.g., orally,
    pictorially, tape
    recordings).
    ✦ give choices.
    ✦ assess learning
    continuously over time, not
    just at the end of a unit of
    study.
    ✦ use rubrics.
    ✦ use self-assessment tools.
    ✦ teach group rules and
    expectations.
    ✦ teach skills of
    independence (e.g.,
    bridging phrases,
    disagreeing agreeably,
    voice level).
    ✦ teach manageable
    strategies for moving in
    and out of groups within
    the classroom setting.
    ✦ post rules and
    expectations.
    ✦ give adequate time but
    not “fooling around” time.
    ✦ be in close proximity to
    groups as they work.
    ✦ teach students to selfmonitor group progress.
    ✦ assign student roles or
    responsibilities in the
    group.
    ✦ teach a signal for getting
    attention of all groups.
    ✦ practice and assess
    students’ behaviors in
    small-group settings.
    ✦ use cooperative learning
    strategies.
    ✦ use a wide variety of
    groupings (e.g., flexible,
    cluster, skill).
    Adapted from the Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks
    34 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    STRATEGIES FOR STUDENTS WITH SPECIFIC LEARNING NEEDS (CONTINUED)
    CONSIDERATIONS FOR MEETING SPECIFIC LEARNING NEEDS
    IN SKILL AND INSTRUCTIONAL AREAS
    To ensure success with reading …
    To ensure success with writing …
    ✦ use pre-reading and postreading activities to preteach or reinforce main
    ideas.
    ✦ use before, during, and
    after reading strategies
    (e.g., before—preview
    questions; during—pausing
    to reflect; after—selfevaluation, summary).
    ✦ provide advanced
    organizers when showing
    videos.
    ✦ use peer tutoring.
    ✦ provide audiotaped
    materials (text or study
    guides).
    ✦ teach self-questioning.
    ✦ paraphrase key points
    and/or have students
    paraphrase key points.
    ✦ summarize key points
    and/or have students
    summarize key points.
    ✦ label main ideas.
    ✦ label 5Ws—Who? What?
    When? Where? Why?
    ✦ allow highlighting of
    texts, passages, key
    words, or concepts.
    ✦ use visual imagery.
    ✦ explain idioms that appear
    in reading passages.
    ✦ allow silent pre-reading.
    ✦ allow partner reading.
    ✦ use computer programs or
    games.
    ✦ allow students to quietly
    read aloud
    (subvocalization).
    ✦ use graphic organizers.
    ✦ use preparatory set (i.e.,
    talk through what a
    reading passage is about
    using new vocabulary and
    concepts).
    ✦ shorten writing
    assignments.
    ✦ require lists instead of
    sentences.
    ✦ dictate ideas to peers.
    ✦ provide note takers.
    ✦ allow students to use a
    tape recorder to dictate
    writing.
    ✦ allow visual representation
    of ideas.
    ✦ provide a fill-in-the-blank
    form for note taking.
    ✦ allow students to use a
    computer for outlining,
    wordprocessing, spelling,
    and grammar check.
    ✦ provide a structure for the
    writing.
    ✦ allow collaborative
    writing.
    ✦ provide a model of the
    writing.
    ✦ allow use of different
    writing utensils and paper.
    ✦ use a flow chart for
    writing ideas before the
    student writes.
    ✦ brainstorm a word bank of
    possible words that would
    be needed prior to the
    writing activity.
    ✦ narrow the choice of
    topics.
    ✦ grade on the basis of
    content; do not penalize
    for errors in mechanics and
    grammar.
    ✦ allow choices of
    manuscript, cursive,
    keyboarding.
    ✦ allow different positions of
    writing paper and/or
    surfaces.
    Adapted from the Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 35
    STRATEGIES FOR STUDENTS WITH SPECIFIC LEARNING NEEDS (CONTINUED)
    CONSIDERATIONS FOR MEETING SPECIFIC LEARNING NEEDS
    IN SKILL AND INSTRUCTIONAL AREAS
    To ensure success with visually-impaired learners …
    To ensure success with hearing-impaired learners …
    To ensure success when working in groups …
    ✦ describe what you are
    doing.
    ✦ provide preferential seating.
    ✦ provide material in large or
    braille print.
    ✦ give student an individual
    copy of visual information
    presented to the group.
    ✦ use black-and-white
    printed hand outs.
    ✦ use audiotaped books.
    ✦ use tactual materials to
    represent concepts—
    contact a vision
    consultant to assist with
    the design.
    ✦ be aware of lighting
    requirements.
    ✦ stand away from window
    glare when talking to the
    student.
    ✦ allow extra time to
    complete a task.
    ✦ use multi-modalities
    (visual, auditory, tactile)
    to teach the same
    concept.
    ✦ teach vocabulary in
    context.
    ✦ use cues, prompts.
    ✦ use graphic organizers.
    ✦ use frequent repetition of
    key points.
    ✦ break down instructional
    units into smaller steps.
    ✦ show relationships among
    concepts through graphs,
    outlines, and webbing.
    ✦ use color coding to show
    concepts and
    relationships.
    ✦ use peer tutors.
    ✦ highlight important
    information.
    ✦ teach mnemonics as a
    memory tool.
    ✦ teach visual imagery.
    ✦ use rhythm, music, and
    movement.
    ✦ use lists.
    ✦ use matrix to organize
    information; allow students
    to construct some of their
    own.
    ✦ use pictographs
    ✦ provide preferential seating.
    ✦ use visual cues (overheads,
    drawings maps,
    demonstrations, visual
    samples of new vocabulary).
    ✦ face student directly when
    speaking.
    ✦ emphasize key points; don’t
    overload with information.
    ✦ repeat or rephrase what
    other students say—hearing
    what other students say is
    often difficult for hearingimpaired students.
    ✦ highlight text and study
    guides.
    ✦ provide note-taking
    assistance during lectures
    to allow hearing-impaired
    student to concentrate on
    the teacher.
    ✦ use peer tutoring.
    ✦ use study sheets to
    organize information.
    ✦ pre-teach vocabulary.
    ✦ use captioned videos,
    films, etc.
    ✦ show videos or visuals
    before presenting
    information to provide a
    knowledge base for
    students.
    ✦ use alternative testing
    methods.
    ✦ minimize background
    noise.
    ✦ simplify vocabulary.
    ✦ use preprinted outline of
    materials.
    Adapted from the Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks
    36 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    STRATEGIES FOR STUDENTS WITH SPECIFIC LEARNING NEEDS (CONTINUED)
    CONSIDERATIONS FOR MEETING SPECIFIC LEARNING NEEDS
    IN SKILL AND INSTRUCTIONAL AREAS
    To ensure success with understanding new concepts …
    To ensure success with attention deficit learners …
    ✦ surround students with peers who are good role models. Encourage peer tutoring and
    cooperative, collaborative learning.
    ✦ maintain eye contact with students during verbal instruction.
    ✦ make directions clear and concise. Be consistent with daily instructions.
    ✦ simplify complex directions. Avoid multiple commands.
    ✦ make sure that students comprehend before beginning the task.
    ✦ repeat in a calm, positive manner, if needed.
    ✦ help students to feel more comfortable seeking assistance. (Most ADD students won’t ask for
    help.)
    ✦ assign only one task at a time.
    ✦ monitor frequently. Use a supportive attitude.
    ✦ modify assignments as needed. Special education personnel can identify specific strengths and
    weaknesses of students.
    ✦ make sure you test knowledge and not attention span.
    ✦ give extra time for certain tasks. Students with ADD may work more slowly. Don’t penalize for
    needed extra time.
    ✦ require a daily assignment notebook if necessary. Make sure students write down all assignments
    each day. Parents and teachers may sign the notebook on a daily basis and use this as an
    additional form of communication with one another.
    ✦ pre-teach new concepts.
    ✦ identify priority learning
    from less important
    material.
    ✦ provide adequate time.
    ✦ provide meaningful
    practice, review,
    repetition.
    ✦ use flow charts.
    ✦ connect previous learning
    to new information.
    ✦ use multiple means of
    learning the same
    material (visual, auditory,
    tactile).
    ✦ have student set personal
    goals.
    ✦ use peer tutors.
    ✦ use multiple intelligences
    information to deliver
    material in a variety of
    ways.
    ✦ use cooperative learning
    and small groups.
    ✦ provide cues.
    Adapted from the list compiled by members of CH.A.D.D. (Children with Attention Deficit Disorders) in
    Meeting The Special Needs of Students. Mission Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 1997, p. 10.
    Adapted from the Nebraska K-12 Foriegn Language Frameworks
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 37
    Developing Intercultural Competence
    Intercultural competence is a combination of knowledge, skills, and attitudes which
    enable individuals to communicate and interact across cultural boundaries. In the
    German Language and Culture curriculum, these include the skills of finding
    information about German-speaking cultures, interpreting it in order to understand the
    beliefs, traditions, and cultural values of German-speaking people, relating one’s own
    culture to cultures of German-speaking peoples, and interacting with members of these
    cultures. In the process of developing these skills, language learners will acquire
    knowledge of various aspects of these cultures, a heightened awareness of their own, as
    well as knowledge of the processes of interaction between the two cultures. They will
    also work towards an attitude of increased openness, curiosity, and willingness to look
    at the world from the point of view of others.
    Culture in this curriculum is broadly defined as the general context and way of life, the
    behaviours and beliefs of a community of people whose history, geography, institutions,
    and commonalities are distinct and distinguish them to a greater or lesser degree from
    all other groups (Leblanc 44). The historical and contemporary elements of the culture
    from which the content is drawn may include
    ■ historical and contemporary events
    ■ significant individuals
    ■ emblems or markers of national identity such as myths, cultural products, significant
    sites, and events in the collective memory
    ■ public institutions
    ■ geographical space (regions, landmarks, borders, climate)
    ■ social distinctions
    ■ conventions of behaviour
    ■ beliefs, taboos, perceptions, and perspectives
    Choices about which elements to include should reflect the importance of the element
    within the culture, and the interests and developmental level of the students.
    Although cultures exert pressure on their members to conform to a variety of norms,
    most cultures are not homogeneous. Within each one, there are groups of people who
    have beliefs, values, and practices that are different from the majority or mainstream
    culture. These differences may be based on religion, national or ethnic origin, social
    class, race, or colour. A number of learning outcomes in this curriculum are aimed at
    making students aware of the diversity within a particular culture in the Germanspeaking world as well as differences between them and Canadian cultures.
    38 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    The development of intercultural competence can take place in three contexts: in the
    classroom, as fieldwork, or as an independent experience. In the classroom, activities are
    planned and structured by the teacher and usually take the form of a rehearsal for
    interaction in real time. In the classroom, students have the opportunity for discovery
    and analysis of the culture along with reflection on their learning without the pressure
    of real time. In other words, they do not have to respond immediately. In fieldwork,
    activities are still planned and structured, but the interaction is now in real time.
    Independent experiences are those carried out by students outside of the structure of
    the course. This curriculum guide will deal principally with classroom activities, but
    with some comments on fieldwork.
    Resources
    Finding resources for students at a beginner level of second language learning is a
    challenge. Authentic documents, in other words, documents created for native speakers
    of German and not for language learning, are useful in that they provide students with
    actual contact with the culture. However, finding authentic documents in which the
    language is appropriate for beginners can be difficult. Documents that have a high level
    of visual support (pictures, charts, maps, etc.) and a minimum of text are the easiest to
    use. Students can be taught interpretation strategies for dealing with so-called “difficult”
    texts. See the Sample List of Text Forms in Appendix B for ideas on the kinds of
    documents to look for.
    Other kinds of resources are also useful for different kinds of activities. Outdated
    textbooks with stereotyped representations of the culture, for example, can be used to
    make students aware of such stereotypes. Resources can also take the form of cultural
    artifacts (costumes, food, music, everyday objects, crafts, etc.). These materials, which
    are concrete and appeal to the physical senses, are especially useful for younger students
    as a bridge to more abstract ideas. The greater the variety of resources, the more the
    students will become aware that culture is expressed through various forms, not just
    classical literature and fine arts.
    Discovery
    Students at the middle level may be very diverse in their level of cognitive and affective
    development. Some may be ready to handle abstract concepts such as “culture” while
    others are not. Some may be able to take another’s perspective, while others may be very
    ethnocentric in their attitudes. For this reason, initial experiences should be concrete and
    should involve as many of the physical senses as possible.
    Interpretation
    As students begin to use authentic texts, they will need to be taught skills for delving
    beyond the literal meaning.
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 39
    Relating
    “Whenever we encounter the unknown we attempt to understand it in terms which are
    part of our familiar world and our understanding of it. […] Comparison therefore needs
    to be part of the teacher’s explicit methods…” (Byram and Zarate). By exposing students
    to experiences of other modes of behaviour, either in the form of real-life experiences
    (e.g., food) or through media (e.g., television programs), and then having them compare
    these experiences with their own modes of behaviour, they will begin to understand that
    their own way is not the only way, but just one of many ways that are influenced by
    culture. If students in the class are from a variety of cultural backgrounds, this
    understanding will be reinforced even more.
    Reflection
    Personal experience of elements of another culture is not, in itself, enough to counteract
    the tendency to reject that which is different. It is through a process of reflection and
    discussion following the experience that students can become aware of the process of
    socialization, of the natural tendency to stereotype, to reject that which is different and
    to see it as a threat to one’s identity. In early stages of learning, this discussion may take
    place in English until students have the vocabulary and structures to begin to express
    their feelings and thoughts in German.
    The experience of contact with a new cultures, reflection on that experience, and the
    varied responses of other students in the class who may be from different cultural
    backgrounds can take students one step further than just knowledge of that culture.
    Ideally they will come to understand the concept of culture and the phenomena (e.g.,
    ethnocentrism, empathy, stereotyping, exoticism, discrimination, culture shock) that are
    characteristic of the relationship with other cultures.
    Integration with Other Subjects
    Intercultural competence can be developed in courses other than second language
    courses. Social studies and language arts are the subject areas where integration is most
    easily achieved. A process of collaborative planning between the German teacher and
    the social studies or language arts teachers can be fruitful for both. In addition, students
    benefit from seeing the links between areas of study, transferring knowledge from one
    domain to another, and making connections that might otherwise have gone unnoticed.
    The collaborative planning can take a variety of forms, from simply keeping each other
    informed of units of study that might provide opportunities for reinforcement of
    learning, to actually planning units together.
    40 Grade 9 to Grade 12 German Language and Culture
    A Model for German Language and Culture Courses at the Secondary Level
    As the preceding discussion demonstrates, there are many factors and aspects of
    teaching and learning that must be considered in developing an effective instructional
    program and classroom. We can conceptualize this as being the interplay of six factors:
    learner, teacher, course content, learning environment, pedagogy, and assessment.
    Figure 3 A M ODEL FOR E FFECTIVE T EACHING AND
    L EARNING ( S ECONDARY L EVEL )
    
    
    
    
     
     
    
    L2
    (second language)
    best practices
    current research
    personalized approach
    school and community
    learner-centred classroom
    lesson plans that reflect the
    WCNP Common Curriculum Framework
    for German Language and Culture
    variety of assessments • inclusive practices
    teacher expectations • diversity • technology
    professional activities • ethical conduct and
    professionalism
    meaningful learning experiences
    integration of the target culture
    connection with other disciplines
    Adapted from New Jersey World Languages Curriculum Framework, Winter 1999
    Teaching and Learning German Language and Culture 41