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1.1. Introduction• Have you ever sketched? If you do what is thething you sketched and why did you sketched it?Consider an Architect who wants to design abuilding, a Mechanical Engineer who wantsto design a machine or a machine part; anIndustrial Engineer who wants to design aplant layout; how would he/she start thedesign? Practically all starts and put theiridea with freehand sketch. Freehandsketching is one of the most effective ways tocommunicate a pictorial or verbal idea to aworkman. Sketching may be schematic,expressing new ideas, or instructional toconvey ideas to draftsmen. After these ideas,concepts, and details for a project have beenfinalized, precise technical drawings areproduced using instruments so that partsmay be manufactured or constructed.Freehand sketches are also used by engineersto clarify, evaluate and record preliminaryideas and concepts. Sketches can be used byall persons irrespective of their specializationto support their ideas with figures.The fundamental concepts in technicaldrawing are the same weather instrumentalor freehand drawing is used in representingor transferring ideas. But freehand sketchingis preferable to draw easily and freely ashand writing, and the mind of the sketcherwould be free to concentrate upon an idea,

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1.2. Uses of Freehand Sketching • What do you think is the use of sketching forengineers and designers?Sketching is as much a thinking process as itis a communication technique and it is arapid method of drawing. In addition togaining speed freehand sketches have thefollowing uses;• Transferring information, obtained inthe field or shop, to the engineeringoffice.• Conveying the ideas of the designer tothe draftsman.• Making studies of the layout of theviews required in an instrumentaldrawing.• A means of making preliminarystudies of a design to show how itfunctions.• Furnishing a three-dimensional picture of an object; this will help tointerpret the orthographic views.

Contents
Unit 6: Responsibility 81

  1. Shouldering and Executing Responsibility 82
  2. Costs of Fulfilling Responsibility on Individuals 84
  3. Fulfilling Promises to Promote Understanding in the International Arena 86
  4. Co-operation among Nations for Mutual Benefits 88
  5. The Severity of HIV/AIDS as a Global Pandemic 90
    Unit 7: Industriousness 94
  6. Work as Human Necessity 95
  7. Factors Determining the World of Work 98
  8. Work in an International Perspective 101
    Unit 8: Self-Reliance 105
  9. Self-Reliance 106
  10. Dependency 109
  11. Self-reliance and Morally Sound Decision-making Capacity 112
    Unit 9: Saving 116
  12. Methods of Saving 117
  13. Regulating the National Economy on Realistic International Principles 120
  14. Types of Economy 123
  15. Money and Capital 126
    Unit 10: Active Community Participation 131
  16. Effective Leadership for Active Participation 132
  17. Civic Participation 134
    Unit 11: The Pursuit of Wisdom 140
  18. Knowledge 141
  19. Information as a Source of Knowledge 143
  20. Developing Reading Habits 146
    Introduction
    This book is written for students studying Civics
    and Ethical Education in Grade 12. It will guide
    you through the 11 values with readings, case studies,
    questions and illustrations to support the text. Each unit
    begins with an introduction and states the lessons and
    the outcomes. It also provides a list of the key words
    and concepts you will meet in the unit.
    At the end of each unit, there is a summary of what
    you have read. There is also a glossary of some terms
    or words which you have been introduced to in the
    unit. Finally, there are unit review exercises to enable
    you to test your knowledge and understanding of the
    unit content.
    Each unit is set out in the same way with the unit number
    and title at the top of each page.
    The objectives are listed at the beginning of each lesson.
    A starter activity is in a blue box. This is to introduce
    you to the lesson. The lesson number is in the top right
    corner of each page.
    Readings have a blue background. They provide
    information which explains the lesson objectives.
    On many pages, you will fi nd photographs or pictures

APPROACHES OF RESEARCH(QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE)At the end of this section, you will be able to:Þ use different geographic research approaches in action research.Key Terms³ Quantitative³ Qualitative³ Theory³ Independent variable³ Dependent variable³ Inference³ Model³ ApproachWhat do you mean by an approach to treating a problem?There are two basic approaches to research. Their differences are mainly inthe attributes to be measured and the techniques to be used for collecting andanalyzing data. These approaches are calledA the quantitative approach B the qualitative approachA Quantitative ApproachWe use the quantitative approach when trying to verify a given geographicaltheory. We translate the concepts of the theory into variables that can be measuredwith statistical techniques.The advantage of this approach is that the quantitative technique employed byone researcher can be used by another researcher for different objectives or forfurther developing the same information. Very simple examples of this approachare given below:F the decrease in land-lease prices as one travels from the center of a cityto its suburbs;F the decrease in population density as one travels from the center of acity to its edges;F the decrease in temperature towards the poles from the equator.All of the preceding examples investigate changes that occur as a function ofdistance from a defined point – for example, from the center of a city. In theexamples, distance is the determining variable. A determining variable influencesthe variation of other phenomena.Grade 12 Geography 61.3 Approaches Of Research (qualitative And Quantitative)The quantitative approach can be subdivided:F Inferential quantitative approach: the target-study uses an existingdata base and infers characteristics or relationships from it.F Experimental quantitative approach: the research work manipulatesvariables to see their effects on other variables. This approachrequires considerable control over the research environment in orderto manipulate the determining variables. As described above, distanceis the manipulated variable that affects lease price, population andtemperature.F Simulation (model) approach: this approach involves constructing anartificial environment (model) to represent the actual environment weare studying. The artificial environment functions in way that parallelsthe actual environment and generates similar information. We use thatinformation to study the phenomena we are investigating.Example:S = f (Pm, S1, Cl, …etc)This algebraic model simulates the characteristics and development of soilas a system. In the model,S = soil, Pm = parent materials (rock),S1 = slope, Cl = climate.The algebraic model explains soil as a function of its parent material, climate andslope.The quantitative approach and hypotheses regarding an existing theory areestablished and tested. Also, mathematical analysis is frequently used.NoteIn the preceding examples, distance from a center is thedetermining variable. It determines the variation of thesephenomena: land-lease prices population density temperatureIn all of the examples, we assume that any variable that has notbeen mentioned is unchanging (is controlled).Unit 1: Basic Research Methodologies In Geography 71.3 Approaches Of Research (qualitative And Quantitative)B Qualitative ApproachWhat does qualitative method imply in the field of geography?In the qualitative approach, data are used to explain a new theory. No previouslyexisting theory or hypothesis is tested by way of this approach. Quantitativetechniques are not employed. Therefore, the study cannot be repeated by otherresearchers.Common techniques for gathering data in the qualitative approach are: group interviews questionnaires personal observationsSome examples of subjects that could be studied with the qualitative approach toresearch are:F differences between urban and rural populations of Ethiopia.F differences in academic achievement between boys and girls.F effects of harsh climate on human activity.F effects of poor leadership on students’ national examination results. Exercise 1.1I Complete the following sentences correctly.1 The approach we take to research is a function of the subject or attributesof the study and of the techniques to be used for collecting and analyzingdata. The approaches we choose from are and .2 The technique of using interviews and questionnaires in data collectioncomes under the approach.3 In the quantitative approach, hypotheses are established and .4 If a given theory is not to be verified and no hypothesis about it is to beestablished, the approach employed will be .5 To examine the relationship between availability of books and studentgrades in college entrance exam, we would use the approachto research.telephone interviewsin-person interviews (face-to-face)Grade 12 Geography 81.4 The Nature Of Geographic ResearchII Vocabulary Skills: See if you can match the items under column A withtheir definitions under column B. Ignore the unrelatable ones.A B1.4 THE NATURE OF GEOGRAPHICRESEARCHAt the end of this section, you will be able to:Þ reflect the distinct nature of geographic research from other disciplines.Key Terms³ Spatial distribution ³ GIS ³ Spatial dataDo you always focus on the same issue or center of interest?Geography’s focus has developed in scope and approach over time through thedevelopment of technology and accumulation of information.Traditionally, geographical research is related to the locations of places andA A tested hypothesis.B A proposed idea or explanation that isbased on observed or known facts buthas not yet been proved. A predictivestatement that can be tested.C Energetic and fast changing.D Simulation of the real world to explaina designed feature.E To be proved.F Careful observation.G Characters.H To deal with problems.I A document or case that serves as asource or reference.J Substances or factors whose effectsare studied.K Measures or investigates.1 To tackle problems2 Dynamic3 Theory4 Critical observation5 Attributes6 To be verified7 Inference8 Model9 Hypothesis10 VariablesUnit 1: Basic Research Methodologies In Geography 91.4 The Nature Of Geographic Researchpeople. In the eighteenth century, geography’s focus shifted to the physicaland human characteristics of places in our world. In the mid-twentieth century,geographical research focused mainly on:F the spatial distributions of phenomena and thingsF the resulting patterns and interactionsF the forces responsible for the formation of the patternsVery lately, geographical research has begun to deal with environmental issueslike hunger, global warming, poverty and the sustainable development of ourecosystem.In July of 2006, in Brisbane, Australia, the International Geographical Union(IGU) commission was formed under the UN Charter that commands worldwidegeographical education. The commission’s position is that the academic disciplineof geography is crucial to achieving sustainable worldwide development. Human PopulationHuman population is an issue of concern to geography, sociology, economics,political science, etc. Each discipline has its own concerns and approaches to thisissue. However, the ideas of all these fields of study about population overlap.Economists’ sphere of interest is largely aggregate demand and supply andresponses to production. Sociologists’ research work greatly emphasizes culturalvalues, the effect of the population factor on the occurrence of crimes, harmonydisorders, etc.The concerns of geography and geographers are mainly to:F assess the spatial distribution of the populationF determine the forces that governed the distribution:K is the distribution due to physical factors? orK is it due to economic factors?F examine patterns of population distribution: (is it sparsely or denselypopulated, is there uniformity or not?)F question whether there is a relationship between the distribution andthe factor observed:K are areas sparsely or densely populated?Grade 12 Geography 101.5 Basic Research Methodology In GeographyK is there uniformity or not?F To investigate possible relationships between population distribution andother factors.F look at the impact of populations on the surrounding natural resourcesF foreward views on the sustainability of the area or locality for the futureThus, we see the differences and similarities between the various disciplines’approaches to the issue of population and we see geography’s specific concernsand approaches to population.In the 1950s and 1960s, the adoption of quantitative techniques in geographicresearch revolutionized the field. Its interest in human-environment relationsbecame deeper and wider. At the end of the millennium, the development of theGeographical Information system (GIS) produced a powerful investigative toolfor geographic research.Do you know what information sciences are? Please study the next sectioncarefully. Geographic Information System (GIS)The Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system that records,stores and analyzes information about features of the earth’s surface. The breakthrough that GIS provided is its ability to generate two-dimensional and threedimensional images of an area. Also, it can receive geographical data from maps,satellites, photographs, and printed texts and books. GIS allows geographers toconduct research on environmental changes. GIS, as an information-acquisitionand interpretation device, has enhanced geographers’ ability to perform accuratehigh-level research. (Encarta, 2007)1.5 BASIC RESEARCH METHODOLOGY INGEOGRAPHYAt the end of this section, you will be able to:Þ use basic elements of research in your action research.Unit 1: Basic Research Methodologies In Geography 111.5 Basic Research Methodology In GeographyKey Terms³ Research problem³ Hypothesis³ Interview³ Sampling³ Questionnaire³ Research report³ Bibliography³ Data analysis³ Primary data³ Secondary dataCan you distinguish a research method from a research methodology?The following three terms are related to one another, but vary in scope.F research, research method, and research methodology.A research project is an inquiry into a problem. The researcher’s motivationmight be curiosity or a specific objective. Research is the foundation of researchmethods and methodology. Research results are important guides for solvingmany business, social, academic and other problems.A research method or technique is a skill that uses different steps or elements to solvethe identified problem and arrive at a possible solution. The main methods are:F the collection and organization of data necessary or related to theproblem.F the use of statistical parameters to treat and interpret the organizeddata.F the evaluation of the accuracy of the result obtained.The concept of research methodology is much broader than the former twoconcepts. It is a science that studies how research is done scientifically. Itconsiders:a why the study is undertaken (its significance at various levels)b how the research problem is identifiedc what assumptions or hypotheses are formulatedd what type of data are collectede why a particular method or technique of analyzing the data is chosenIn short, research methodology has wider dimensions than research methodor technique. It is the philosophy or logic behind the research. Studying basicgeographic research methodology gives you the training you need to acquire theskills below:F gathering materials and data and arranging themGrade 12 Geography 121.5 Basic Research Methodology In GeographyF participating in field workF preparing questionnaires, interviews, etc.F using statistical techniquesF interpreting and reporting results of the study that you have designedor proposed.Activity 1.2Form a group and study the following two options for your group work. Choose th