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Published E.C. 2002 by the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia,
Ministry of Education, under the General Education Quality
Improvement Project (GEQIP) supported by IDA Credit No. 4535-ET,
the Fast Track Initiative Catalytic Fund and the Governments of Finland,
Italy, Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
© 2010 by the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Ministry of
Education. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means
including electronic, mechanical, magnetic or other, without prior
written permission of the Ministry of Education or licensing in
accordance with the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Federal
Negarit Gazeta, Proclamation No. 410/2004 – Copyright and
Neighbouring Rights Protection.
The Ministry of Education wishes to thank the many individuals, groups
and other bodies involved – directly and indirectly – in publishing this
textbook and the accompanying teacher guide.
Copyrighted materials used by permission of their owners. If you are the
owner of copyrighted material not cited or improperly cited, please
contact with the Ministry of Education, Head Office, Arat Kilo, (PO Box
1367), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

INTRODUCTION
People in the industrialized nations enjoy not only the highest standard of living, that is,
the material comforts which are measured by the goods, services and luxuries
available to an individual, but also quality life. Quality life depends upon business and
employment, services, health and nutrition, population, leisure time in addition to
standard of living. Much of this is due to chemistry.
Chemistry enables us to design all sorts of materials: drugs to fight diseases; pesticides
to protect crops and our health; fertilizers to grow abundant food; fuel for
transportation; fibres to provide comfort and variety in clothes; building materials for
housing; plastics for diverse uses; and much more.
When we address ourselves the most fundamental question: What is the nature of
life? Chemistry provides essential information on this subject. The theories of
chemistry illuminate our understanding of the material world from tiny atoms to giant
polymers.
Everything you see, smell, taste and touch is made up of matter. Even the way you
perceive the world through your senses involves chemical reactions.

Chemistry is the science that deals with matter and the changes that it undergoes. It is
a study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and of the changes that
occur in matter.
Perhaps the only permanent thing in the world is change. Iron rusts, snow melts,
paints peel off and firewoods burn. We grow up, we grow old. Living plants and
animals undergo ceaseless change, and even dead animals and plants continue to
change as they decay. Such changes fascinated people and inspired them to look
more closely at nature’s way of working.
Understanding change is closely related to understanding the nature and composition
of matter- the physical material of the universe. Matter is anything that occupies space
and has mass.
It has long been known that matter can change or be made to change from one form
to another. These changes are broadly classified into chemical and physical changes.
Chemical changes, more commonly called as chemical reactions are processes
whereby one substance is transformed into another as a result of combination or