A Program of Studies For New Muslims english islamic book pdf

A Program of
Studies
For
New Muslims
By:
Mohammed Moinuddin Siddiqui
International Islamic Publishing House
http://www.islambasics.com
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
Objectives and Methodology
PART I: ISLAMIC TEACHINGS
100 – Introduction to Islam
101 – Islamic Beliefs (al-‘Aqa’id)
102 – Prophets of God
103 – Islamic Worship (al-Ibadat)
104 – Islamic Manners
105 – Islamic Morals
106 – Tazkiyyah
107 – Family life in Islam
201 – Jihad.
202 – Al-Halal wa al-Haram
301 – The Islamic Social System
302 – Economic System
303 – Political System
PART II: THE QUR’AN AND THE SUNNAY
100 – Al-Qur’an
101 – Practice Reading of the Qur’an in Arabic
102 – Tafsir
103 – Al-Sunnah
104 – Study of Hadith
P ART III: LIFE OF THE PROPHET
100 – Life of the Prophet
200 – Special Topics Concerning the Prophet
201 – The Prophet’s Family
202 – Companions of the Prophet
PART IV: POLITICAL HISTORY OF ISLAM
100 – The Rightly-Guided Caliphs (al-Khulafah al-Rashidoon)
200 – Banu Umayyah
201 – The `Abbasiyyah
202 – North Africa and Spain
203 – The Crusades and the Muslim Kingdoms
204 – The ‘Uthmaniyah (Ottomans)
205 – Persia
206 – The Indian Subcontinent
207 – The Spread of Islam in Other Areas
208 – The Muslim World Today
PART V: CULTURAL HISTORY OF ISLAM
200 – History of Religious Thought and Practice
201 – History of Education
202 – Civil Life
203 – Architecture and Art
204 – History of Science
PART VI: ISLAM IN .NORTH AMERICA
100 – The American Scene
101 – A Muslim’s View of Christianity
102 – The Islamic Call
103 – The History of Islam in America
PART VII: SUPPLEMENTARY SUBJECTS
100 – Arabic I
101 – Arabic II
102 – Qur’anic Arabic
REFERENCE MATERIAL
Introduction
In 1974, the Planning Committee of the Muslim Students’ Association of the
U. S. and Canada sparked the idea of designing a comprehensive curriculum
for American Muslims who have recently embraced Islam. Such curriculum is
greatly needed by a large population of Muslims in North America to help
them understand Islam as a complete way of life, practice it and live up to its
ideals. To satisfy this need, the task of producing the curriculum and its
supportive material was entrusted to the Department of Education,
Publication and Information. Through the efforts of that Department and the
Islamic Teaching Center, Dr. Mohammad Moinuddin Siddiqui undertook to
work out” A Program of Studies for New Muslims.” His deep commitment to
Islam and conviction of the significance of education as a crucial vehicle for
social change prompted him to devote his time and finish the first stage of
this tremendous and challenging work. The second stage is the writing of text
books which are specifically tailored to the sequential level series of this
program of studies.
The rapid growth of Islam among the people of North America is encouraging
and, at the same time, challenging. The challenge lies with Muslims who
must measure up to their responsibility of increasing the momentum of
propagating Islam and effectively consolidating and strengthening their
ranks. Only through developing the true Islamic personality, knowledgeable
and committed, capable of taking initiative and broad-minded, can we meet
the challenge. Education is the most effective process to accelerate the
development of such an Islamic personality and to strengthen and
consolidate the ranks of the Muslims. It is an activating force which will
enable them to substitute actions based on truth and reality for actions
rooted in imitation and outmoded traditions. Education is a central tool to
bring about Islamic social change we want to see among Muslims in North
America. This change can come only from the actions of the Muslims
themselves. To act correctly, a Muslim must first acquire authentic
knowledge, change his mode of thought and improve his practical ability.
These changes must result from the Muslims’ own decisions and efforts if
they are to be educationally enduring, religiously sound, socially important
and physically permanent. It is with this aim and intention that the Islamic
Teaching Center has prepared “A Program of Studies for New Muslims” It is
an attempt to enable the New Muslim to respond to his environment in North
America equipped with an Islamic framework reflecting his beliefs, values,
attitudes and behavior which characterize him as a new breed of men
enjoining right, eradicating evil, forbidding wrong and believing in Allah.
We pray to Allah Ta’ ala that this program may prove beneficial to our
brothers and sisters who have recently embraced Islam. Yet it is also a good
idea for all of us to use this program to increase our knowledge.
May Allah Ta’ ala grant us success and keep us firm on His path.
Your brother in Islam
EITigani A. Abugideiri, Ph.D.
Director General
Islamic Teaching Center
Objectives and Methodology

  1. Objectives
    The main objective of this program of studies is to provide a concise yet
    broad framework for the study of Islam primarily by Americans who have
    recently embraced it. To attain the main objective it is necessary that, in
    addition to the knowledge of Islamic beliefs and practices, the new Muslim
    should have some academic knowledge of the Qur’an and the Hadith, the
    life of the Prophet, the political and cultural history of Islam, the lives and
    works of the Companions and the scholars of Islam. On a practical level he
    should learn how to perform Salat and Hajj, observe Siyam and give
    Zakat, read and understand Qur’anic Arabic, memorize short surahs and
    establish a Muslim community.
    The program is divided into three levels which are progressively detailed:
    100 series, 200 series and 300 series. The first level is the most basic and
    should be mastered by every Muslim. The second and third levels are also
    important because they provide more detailed and specific information of the
    materials and concepts introduced in the first level.
  2. Methodology
    The program is designed in such a way that a new Muslim can use any or all
    of the following methods, depending on his situation:
  3. Self-study
  4. Study circles (Halaqah)
  5. Group discussions
  6. Lectures
  7. Individual projects.
    The 100-level courses are most suitable for self-study and study circles. The
    200- and 300-series courses are academic in nature, the 300-level courses
    being rather specialized. These courses should be taught by a competent
    teacher in a classroom or in a group discussion set-up.
    If this program is structured as a formal class-type instruction, it will require
    that each instructor undertakes the selection of supportive materials and
    texts (the eighth part of the program is a listing of available reference
    materials and texts). However, the performance expected of each student is
    stated in general terms in the sequentially numbered items of the syllabii.
    This program
    of studies, therefore, may be used with students of various ages and
    educational backgrounds by critically selecting the appropriate materials and
    texts.
    The following example is presented in order to assist instructors in writing
    performance (or behavioral) objectives.
    Each performance objective must include these four areas:
  8. Who will be performing?
  9. The specific performance expected.
  10. The conditions under which the performance will take place and,
  11. The measurement of the students’ mastery of the performance.
    Each of the sequentially numbered items in the syllabii of this program is a
    concept easily restated as a performance. The following example from Part I,
    course 100- “Introduction to
    Islam,” should make this point clear.
    1.1 Explanation of the Concept of Islam
    Performance objective:
    Given selected chapters from Islam in Focus and class discussion of what is
    Islam, the student will define (in writing or orally) what Islam is
    distinguishing it from Muhammadanism, Christianity or Judaism completely
    and accurately.
  12. Who will be performing?
    The student
  13. What is the performance?
    Defining (in writing or orally) what is Islam distinguished from
    Muhammadanism, Christianity or Judaism.
  14. What are the conditions?
    Given selected chapters from Islam in Focus and class discussion of what is
    Islam.
  15. What is the measurement?
    Completely and accurately (mastery)
    Each of the preceding questions should be raised about each sequentially
    numbered item in the syllabii. If the instructor is diligent in this regard, the
    process of instruction is quite manageable and each student’s progress is
    measurable.
    Each instructor should select supportive materials which are visually
    attractive. Films, slides and other instructional aids should be used:
    Individual projects may be assigned to students, for example:
    Write research papers on (1) The attributes of Allah, (2) The Life Hereafter,
    (3) The Islamic concept of brotherhood and its application, (4) The
    methodology of Da’wah in America.
    For teaching cultural history it will be extremely useful to make use of
    films and slides of mosques, buildings and cities of the Muslim world. Also art
    objects, samples of calligraphy, dresses, carpets, etc., may be shown to the
    class.
    PART I
    I: ISLAMIC TEACHINGS
    1-100 – INTRODUCTION TO ISLAM
  16. Introduction
    1.1 Explanation of the words: Islam, Muslim, Allah, al- Qur’an, Sunnah.
    Islam is not Muhammadanism; why not?
    1.2 Map of the Muslim world; Muslim majorities and minorities.
    1.3 Muslims in North America; organizations and centers.
  17. Islam as a Message
    2.1 Islam as a message from God to man. The content of the message. The
    messengers.
    2.2 The need for messengers. The last prophet and messenger of God was
    Muhammad.
    2.3 Aspects of the message: (1) faith, and (2) Shari’ah or way of life.
  18. Islamic Faith
    3.1 Al- ‘Aqa’id (the beliefs). The significance of the belief in the oneness of
    God, in the unity of His message, and of the belief in the Hereafter.
    3.2 Belief-systems of other religions as compared to Islamic beliefs.
    3.3 Man’s place in the world: vice-gerent of God on earth; born innocent;
    spiritually and morally responsible for his beliefs and actions.
    3.4 Islamic world-view: oneness of God implies unity of nature, unity of
    mankind, unity of all knowledge, unity of man’s personality, and uniformity
    of criteria for judgement.
  19. Islamic Way of Life
    4.1 The basis of the Islamic way of life, the Shari’ah. The fixed principles and
    the flexible aspects of the Shari’ah.
    4.2 The three classifications: (1) beliefs, (2) worship, (3) human affairs.
    4.3 A description of the “five pillars” of Islam and their significance. No
    asceticism. A balanced way of life.
    4.4 Personal character. Interpersonal relationships. Emphasis on cooperation
    rather than competition. Rights and obligations.
    4.5 Permissible and forbidden acts and things.
    4.6 Social, economic and administrative principles.
    4.7 The dynamic principles: taqwa, amr bi al-m’aruf and nehi ‘an al-munkar,
    and jihad fi sabil Allah.
  20. Islam in History
    5.1 Islam is not an unattainable ideal, nor meant only for a few exceptional
    persons. Islam’s actualization in history.
    5.2 The spread of Islam through preaching and conquest. No compulsion in
    religion but the laws of God must prevail.
    5.3 Islam’s humanizing effects on concepts, morals, manners, human rights
    and responsibilities, law and order, justice, warfare, role of women, slavery
    and international relationships.
    5.4 Seeking knowledge is an obligation on Muslims. Muslims’ love of learning
    and research. Origination of scientific method. Contributions to science,
    medicine, trade and commerce, travel, arts and crafts, architecture and
    engineering, and understanding among people.
  21. Islam in the Contemporary World
    6.1 Islamic movements in the Arab countries, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan,
    Indonesia and Africa.
    6.2 External conflicts: Philippines, Kashmir, Palestine, Eritrea, Chad,
    U.S.S.R., China, Eastern Europe.
    6.3 Islam in America.
    6.4 Islam versus capitalism, communism, nationalism, secularism and
    other “isms.” Islam is not a product or a reaction to some socio-political
    condition or previous religious heritage, but its source is outside of this
    world, God Himself.
    I-101 ISLAMIC BELIEFS (AL-‘AQA’ID)
  22. Tauhid (Oneness of God)
    1.1 Allah is the Creator of everything. He is One and Unique. He is not like
    any of His creatures. He has no spouse, no offspring and no partner.
    1.2 The division of the Attributes of Allah: (1) concerning His being (Living,
    Eternal, etc., and (2) in relation to His creatures (Provider, Merciful,
    Knowing, etc.).
    1.3 The meaning of “La ilaha illa Allah.” Ilah, one who is worshipped and
    obeyed.
    1.4 Tauhid as a conceptual imperative: Oneness of the Creator implies unity
    of nature (universe and not a multi verse), unity of mankind, unity of
    religion, unity of knowledge, and uniformity of criteria of judging people here
    and in the Hereafter.
    1.5 Tauhid as a psychological imperative: to purify our concept of God; to
    eliminate all forms of open and hidden shirk (association of others with God);
    Freedom from fear of death, poverty, dishonor; reliance on Allah;
    remembrance of Allah.
    1.6 Tauhid as a social imperative: compassion toward Allah’s creatures,
    animals as well as humans; unity of mankind; brotherhood of believers;
    uniform justice; establishment of Allah’s commandments (awamir); jihad.
  23. Angels
    2.1 The nature and functions of angels. Jibril, and his role in revelation.
    Munkir and Nakir.
    2.2 Existence of jinns and shay tans.
  24. Scriptures
    3.1 The earlier scriptures and their role in history. Their present form and
    lack of authenticity.
    3.2 Purity and authenticity of the Qur’an.
    3.3 The Qur’an as the abrogation of all previously revealed scriptures.
  25. Messengers
    4.1 Need for messengers. Allah’s promise to send guidance to mankind. Is
    sending of messengers an interference in natural processes?
    4.2 Messengers are chosen by Allah, no one can attain prophethood through
    effort or choice.
    4.3 Wahy and its various meanings occurring in the Qur’an Wahy sent to
    prophets and Messengers.
    4.4 Meaning of “Muhammadar Rasul Allah.” Muhammad’s sunnah as an
    example to follow. Obedience to Muhammad is obedience to Allah.
    4.5 Muhammad is the “Seal of the Prophets.” Later claimants to prophethood
    or messengership are necessarily false. The cessation of wahy.
    4.6 The names of messengers mentioned in the Qur’an.
  26. Life-Hereafter
    5.1 Human soul is an ‘amr of Allah. 5.2 The Day of Judgement. The Book of
    Accounts. The Balance.
    5.3 Jannah and Jahannam (their reality, their duration).
    5.4 Superiority of the life in the Hereafter over the present life.
    5.5 What kind of people will deserve Jannah and what kind Jahannam.
    5.6 The resurrection of the body.
  27. Qadr
    6.1 Meaning of the word “qadr”
    6.2 Early controversy about its meaning and significance.
    6.3 True meaning of this belief.
  28. Nature of Kufr
    7.1 The various meanings of ‘Kufr’ occurring in the Qur’an. Who is a kafir? a
    munafiq? a mushrik? a sinner?
    7.2 Avoidance of shirk, Kufr and major sins. Abstaining from calling a
    professing Muslim a kafir.
  29. Nature of Islam, Iman and Ihsan
    8.1 The Quranic meaning of Islam.
    8.2 The definition and role of Iman. Is every Muslim a mu’min.
    8.3 The Quranic meaning of Ihsan.
    I-102 PROPHETS OF GOD
  30. Introduction
    1.1 The meaning of the words rasul (messenger) and nabi (prophet).
    1.2 The Prophets mentioned in the Qur’an.
    1.3 The various ways Divine revelation came to man.
    1.4 The characteristics of prophets.
    1.5 The role of prophets in history.
  31. Ibrahim
    2.1 Early life.
    2.2 Isma’il and the ordeal of sacrifice. The building of the K’abah. The birth of
    Ishaq.
    2.3 Ibrahim’s character and preaching.
  32. Musa
    3.1 Historical background.
    3.2 Early life.
    3.3 Call to messengership.
    3.4 Life in the wilderness.
    3.5 Problems in the Torah.
  33. ‘Isa
    4.1 Historical background.
    4.2 Early life.
    4.3 The prophethood if ‘Isa.
    4.4 Problems of the New Testament Gospels.
    4.5 What was the nature of ‘Isa’s teachings?
  34. Yusuf
    5.1 Early life, The dream.
    5.2 Life in Egypt. Temptation, imprisonment, establishment.
    5.3 His encounter with his brothers.
    5.4 His teachings.
    I-103 ISLAMIC WORSHIPS (AL-IBADAT)
  35. Introduction
    1.1 The concept of ‘ibadah in Islam. The purpose of man’s life is the worship
    of Allah. Worship of Allah frees man from worship of others and of self.
    1.2 Elements of worship: cleansing, intention, observing the form and order
    prescribed by the Prophet. Attitudes: humility, sincerity and concentration.
    1.3 Obligatory worships: Salat, Sawm, Zakat and Hajj’. Conditions rendering
    them obligatory: Islam, puberty, possession of senses, power and ability.
    1.4 Other forms of worship: dhikr, reading of the Qur’an, tawbah, istighfar,
    supplication, teaching and learning of Islamic knowledge, meditation.
  36. Taharah
    2.1 Shar’i meaning of taharah and najasah. Kinds of najasah and how to
    cleanse ‘najasah from body and from clothing.
    2.2 Wudu. Elements of wudu. What nullifies wudu and what does not. For
    what purposes it is necessary: for Salat, for touching the Arabic Qur’an, for
    tawaf of K’abah.
    2.3 Ghusl. Elements of ghusl. When ghusl is necessary: janabah,
    menstruation, post-partum flow.
    2.4 What is haram when janab: Salat, touching the Arabic Qur’an, reading
    the Qur’an, going into a masjid, tawaf What is haram during menstruation or
    post-partum bleeding: the above, as well as fasting and sexual Intercourse.
    2.5 Sunnah ghusl, and recommended (mustahab).
    2.6 Masah and tayammum. When they are permissible and how they are
    done. What nullifies masah. What nullifies tayammum.
    2.7 How dururah (necessity or compulsion) cancels obligations.
  37. Salat
    3.1 The importance of Salat. On whom Salat is obligatory. The times and the
    forms of Salat from the Qur’an and Sunnah. Why prayers must be performed
    in Arabic.
    3.2 Kinds of prayers: Fard, Sunnah ,nafil. Individual and collective Janazah.
    3.3 Conditions for the soundness of Salat: wudu or tayammum, covering of
    ‘awrah, clean place, facing qiblah, intention.
    3.5 Elements of Salat: Fard elements, sunnah elements, recommended
    parts.
    3.6 Detailed description of performing Salat (illustrated by pictures or slides).
    Loud and silent parts. Sujud for forgetting some parts.
    3.7 What extraneous actions are permissible during Salat e.g., crying with
    fear of Allah, picking up an infant. What acts are disapproved, and what acts
    nullify Salat.
    3.8 Collective prayers. Imam and followers. Adhan, iqamah, straightening of
    lines, following the imam and never preceding him. How to join an already
    started prayer and how to complete it. Women’s attending collective prayers,
    their rows, children’s rows. A woman can lead a congregation of women only.
    3.9 Friday prayers: ghusl, time of prayers, rak’ats. Khutbah, manner of
    listening. ‘Eid prayers: ghusl, takbirs, form, khutbah.
    3.10 Prayers on special occasions. When entering the masjid mid-morning,
    late night, during the nights of Ramadan, and funeral prayers.
    3.11 Shortening of prayers. Conditions. A traveler following a resident imam,
    a resident following a traveler. Combining prayers.
    3.12 Missed prayers. Keeping order in making up missed prayers.
    3.13 Form of prayer during sickness or during travel in a public conveyance.
    3.14 The importance of the masjid. Manners in a masjid. I’tikaf
    3.15 Supplication.
  38. Siyam
    4.1 Meaning of fasting; kinds of fasting; prohibited days.
    4.2 Islamic calendar, Ramadan; Lailat al-Qadr; the Battle of Badr.
    4.3 Elements of fasting: what is permissible and what is prohibited while
    fasting; suhoor,’ if tar,
    4.4 Exemption from fasting; penalty for breaking fast.
    4.5 Tarawih prayers,
    4.6 ‘Eid al-fitr,
    4.7 Nafil fasting and kaffarah fasting.
  39. Zakat
    5.1 Meaning of Zakat and its importance; Salat and Zakat, and Abu Bakr’s
    action.
    5.2 The spirit of Zakat; the Islamic attitude toward money and possessions.
    5.3 The benefits of Zakat; to the giver, to the recipient, to the society.
    5.4 Kinds of property on which Zakat is obligatory and the rates. Cattle,
    sheep, goats, camels, gold, silver, goods of trade, minerals, agricultural
    products and fruits.
    5.5 Conditions which make Zakat obligatory: nisab, being free of debts, one
    year’s passing, savings and not Income.
    5.6 Recipients of Zakat.
    5.7 Regulations concerning Zakat. Sadaqah (charity); Zakat al-fitr
  40. Hajj’
    6.1 The meaning of Hajj’.
    6.2 The significance of Hajj’: Ibrahim and Isma’il; the brotherhood of
    Muslims; remembrance of the Day of Judgment.
    6.3 The conditions under which Hajj’ is obligatory; the conditions for the
    correctness of Hajj’,
    6.4 Makkah; K’abah.
    6.5 Elements of Hajj: ihram, its place, what is forbidden during ihram, use of
    perfume, hair oil, combing hair, etc.; tawf,’ sa’i; ‘Arafat; Muzdalifah and
    Mina; stoning the jamarat; sacrifice.
    6.6 ‘Umrah and the conditions for ‘Umrah,’ elements of ‘umrah; fard,
    sunnah and mustahab parts of ‘Umrah,
    6.7 Hajj qiran, tamatt’u and single Hajj’.
    6.8 Sacrificial animal, kinds of animals; place and time of sacrifice; method
    of sacrifice; recommended and reprehensible things concerning sacrifice.
    6.9 Ziyarah of al-Madina and the Masjid al-Nabawi; what is permissible
    and what is reprehensible. Ziyarah to Jerusalem.
    6.10 Practical suggestions: travel arrangements, visa, mutawwaf, money.
  41. Other Forms of Worship
    7.1 Reading the Qur’an: wudu; reading without understanding; reading with
    understanding; reading the Qur’an during Ramadan; at other occasions.
    7.2 Dhikr: after each prayer; at various occasions. The pronouncement of
    Bismillah upon beginning. Insha’Allah, Alhamdulillah, jazak Allah, masha
    ‘Allah, etc.
    The merits of Dhikr.
    7.3 D’ua and istighfar. Asking God for everything: forgiveness, patience,
    strength, guidance, knowledge, health, wealth, children. Conditions of d’ua,.
    sincerity, humility, good intentions. Prophet’s d’uas.
    7.4 Medication (muraqibah). Objects of meditation: creation, self, death, Day
    of Judgment, Life Hereafter, one’s past life, self-evaluation, attributes of
    Allah.
    7.5 Teaching and learning. Understanding religious teachings, halaqah for
    study 9f the Qur’an, Hadith, Fiqh and Dhikr.
    7.6 Ihsan. Constant awareness of Allah’s presence.
    I-104 ISLAMIC MANNERS
  42. Salutation
    1.1 Words of salutation and responses; their meanings; the blessings of
    salutation.
    1.2 Who should be first in saluting whom; shaking hands; standing up for
    respect.
    1.3 Who should not be saluted and why.
  43. Personal Habits
    2.1 Cleanliness; washing, wudu, ghusl, use of perfume.
    Cleansing after use of toilet.
    2.2 Hair: hair dressing; artificial hair; dyeing hair; moustache and beard.
    Removal of body hair. 2.3 Nails: cutting of nails, use of nail polish.
    2.4 Disapproved practices: whistling, clapping, sitting in public with legs
    apart, yelling, loud laughter, winking, shaking hands with or touching
    women.
    2.5 Sneezing and yawning.
  44. Exclamations
    3.1 The meaning of the phrases Bismillah, Alhamdulillah, insha ‘Allan,
    subhanAllah, mashaAllah, jazakAllah, yarhamakAllah, Allahu Akbar, la hawla
    wa la quwwata ilia Billah. Disapproval of saying” Wallah” or “Billah”
  45. Manners of Eating and Drinking
    4.1 Food which is permissible and acquired lawfully.
    4.2 Saying’ ‘Bismillah;” eating with right hand; feeling happiness; ending
    with Alhamdulillah; the blessing of company in eating.
    4.3 Manner of eating; plates and utensils (silver, gold); eating together.
    4.4 Hospitality; manners of hosts and guests.
    4.5 Moderation in eating habits.
    4.6 Drinking in three swallows; what drinks are haram
  46. Bathroom Manners
    5.1 Privacy; cleanliness; concept of najasah; wearing shoes or slippers;
    entering with left foot and leaving with right; d’uas
  47. Clothing
    6.1 ‘Awrah for men and women; what may be worn by women in the
    presence of others; conditions of proper dress for women; proper clothing for
    prayers.
    6.2 Cotton, silk, wool, etc.
    6.3 Use of rings, jewelry, for both men and women; use of make-up and nail
    polish.
  48. Sleeping
    7.1 The position of the body.
    7.2 The covering of the body.
    7.3 Sleeping in a masjid.
  49. Naming
    8.1 The best names.
    8.2 A review of names and meanings.
    8.3 Muslim names and Islamic identity.
  50. Manners in speaking and listening.
    9.1 Not raising the voice.
    9.2 Being attentive.
  51. Manners of sitting and walking.
  52. Manners in a gathering or organizational meeting.
  53. Visiting the sick and bereaved, and condolences.
  54. Duties of a Muslim to a Fellow Muslim
    13.1 Salutation, sneezing, sickness, funeral.
    13.2 Not to praise unduly, not to slander nor backbite, not to be sarcastic or
    abusive, not to spy or gossip, to avoid suspicion.
    13.3 Help and protection, removal of needs, forbearance, forgiveness.
    13.4 Smiling, good temper, honor to elderly and love for children,
    compassion for weak, infirm, needy.
  55. Manners with Family Members
    14.1 Announcing when entering home; salutation.
    14.2 Gentleness in speaking; showing affection.
    14.3 Firmness against un-Islamic and disrespectful behavior of children.
    14.4 Sexual propriety.
    I-105 ISLAMIC MORALS
  56. Introduction
    1.1 The meaning of morality.
    1.2 Foundation of Islamic morality; faith and knowledge.
    1.3 The objectives of the Islamic teaching: a balanced life.
    1.4 The wisdom of the Divine commandments.
  57. Personal Character
    2.1 Sincerity, truthfulness and taqwa, fulfilling obligations and promises.
    2.2 Guarding chastity, covering of ‘awrah.
    2:3 Thankfulness and humility before God; trust in God and steadfastness.
    2.4 Moderation in spending and mode of living.
    2.5 Generosity, courage, combativeness for the sake of God; standing up for
    truth and justice; patience.
    2.6 Avoidance of major sins; repentance; fear and hope.
  58. Impersonal Relations
    3.1 Hilm, forbearance, kindness and forgiveness.
    3.2 Gentleness in speech and behavior, restraining anger.
    3.3 Refraining from gossip, slander, backbiting, spying, suspicion, mocking or
    defaming others.
    3.4 Cooperation on the basis of birr and taqwa, not in sin and rebellion.
    3.5 Returning good for evil; defending and protecting Muslims’ life, property
    and honor.
  59. Social Responsibilities
    4.1 Basic principles: mutual responsibility; authority commensurate to
    responsibility; general good; cooperation rather than competition.
    4.2 Parents and children.
    4.3 Husband and wife; ‘amr and skura in the home.
    4.4 Relatives.
    4.5 Neighbors.
    4.6 Orphans and widows.
    4.7 Those in need.
    4.8 Fellow Muslims.
    4.9 Animals
    4.10 Inanimate world.
  60. Business Dealings
    5.1 Tij’arah and riba.
    5.2 Principles of ownership; personal property, inheritance.
    5.3 Returning of trusts, debts.
  61. Administrative Affairs
    6.1 Responsibilities of administrators and judges; justice and unbiasedness.
    6.2 ‘Amr and skura.
  62. Jihad
    7.1 The meaning of jihad.
    7.2 The kinds of jihad – asghar and akbar.
    7.3 Enjoining good and forbidding evil; social action.
    7.4 Fighting in the cause of Allah; positive aspects; rules of warfare.
    I-106 TAZKIYYAH
  63. Introduction
    1.1 Meaning of Tazkiyyah; the role of the Prophet concerning tazkiyyay –
    islam, iman, ihsan.
    1.2 The immortality of the soul, the importance of the Hereafter.
    1.3 The purpose of human life: worship of Allah, knowledge of Allah,
    nearness to Allah.
    1.4 Who are the awlia Allah?
  64. Purification of Heart
    2.1 Contemplation of the Unity of God; removal of all kinds of shirk from the
    heart; trust in God and removal of fears of death, poverty, etc.
    2.2 Contemplation of self: intellect, speech and hearing, knowledge, life
    processes and death.
    2.3 Self-accounting: repentance, asking forgiveness of sins of commission
    and omission.
    2.4 Love of God, fear of God; love and fear of God; loving for God’s sake and
    hating for God’s sake; weeping with fear of God.
    2.5 Reading of the Qur’an and contemplating its meaning.
    2.6 Dhikr, nafil prayers; muraqibah.
  65. Purification of Life
    3.1 Kasb halal; avoidance of doubtful things.
    3.2 Avoidance of major sins.
    3.3 Avoidance of idle talk, idle pursuits, idle thoughts.
    3.4 Moderation in living; detachment from material things.
    3.5 Humility, avoidance of pride; manner of speaking and walking.
    3.6 Company of good people; avoiding ignorant and bad people except
    when helping them.
    I-107 FAMILY LIFE IN ISLAM
  66. Sex
    1.1 A person’s spiritual nature and ultimate goal. The purpose of instincts,
    appetites and desires in human life. No asceticism and no indulgence but a
    disciplined and balanced life.
    1.2 Permissible and haram in sexual expression. The concept of ‘ismat for
    men and women. The concepts of haya (modesty) and khulwah (privacy).
    1.3 ‘Awrah for men and Women.
  67. Marriage
    2.1 Marriage: and family life is ordained by Allah; it is a sunnah No celibacy
    nor monkery in Islam.
    2.2 The purpose of marriage: fulfillment of the sexual urge; procreation; love
    and compassion; relaxation and comforts of home; the family as a socioeconomic unit; upbringing the young; effort and sacrifice; companion ship
    and skura.
    2.3 Rights and obligations of marriage partners. Leadership role of man:
    mehr, support, avoidance of injustice.
    2.4 Obligations of women: guarding husband’s property and trusts,
    obedience.
  68. Steps for Marriage
  69. I Selection of the spouse. Qualities to be sought.
    3.2 Legal eligibility. Permanently forbidden relatives, polytheists; People of
    the Book.
    3.3 Marriage Contract. Requirements for it to be valid.
    3.4 Marriage celebration. Feast given by the bride groom.
  70. Family Living
    4.1 Mutual right and obligation. Sharing of household work, rearing of
    children, sexual etiquette, birth control and abortion.
    4.2 Upbringing of children. Teaching Islamic beliefs, practices and manners.
    Respect for parents and elders.
    4.3 Birth: initial adhan, circumcision of males, ‘aqiqah, nursing of infants.
    4.4 Extended family.
    4.5 Plural wives: why they are allowed; rules of treatment, abuses.
  71. Divorce
    5.1 Permissibility of divorce if unavoidable.
    5.2 Steps before divorce: mediation to reconcile, waiting for matters to
    improve.
    5.3 Kinds of divorce: raj’i (nullifiable during ‘iddah) ,bayan (ordinary) and
    mutlaq (absolute). Divorce procedure. ‘iddah.
    5.4 Relationship during the procedure of divorce.
    5.5 Responsibility of husband and wife toward each other and toward
    children in case of divorce.
    5.6 Khul’a; women initiating the divorce procedure, and its rules.
    5.7 Ila and zihar, and the atonement for them.
  72. The Muslim Family in America
    6.1 Family solidarity: praying together, eating together, recreations and
    vacations.
    6.2 Developing Islamic awareness in children: inculcation of absolute
    religious values rather than the cultural values of the “home country.”
    Countering outside influences.
    6.3 Activity in local Muslim community life. Prayers, Qur’an study, meetings,
    social functions, religious festivals, Ramadan if tars, Islamic school. The
    practicing Muslims constitute one’s community; other relationships are only
    peripheral.
    6.4 Activity in broader Muslim community. Youth camps, summer schools,
    conferences, conventions. Strengthening ties with committed Muslims around
    the country. Engaging in various forms of Islamic work. Travel to the Muslim
    world.
    6.5 Alternatives to outside attractions. Healthy sports, reading habits, travel
    and vacations, visiting Muslim homes. Giving as much responsibility as a
    youngster is ready for, to provide healthy alternatives.
    6.6 Attitude development toward dating and mixing of sexes, alcohol and
    drugs, television and movies, Christian and national holidays, the role and
    behavior of women.
    I-201 JIHAD
  73. Introduction
    1.1 Meaning of Jihad, striving within and striving without.
    1.2 The stages of jihad; a review of the Prophet’s struggle
    (1) to ponder over wahy and transmit it to closest people, (2) to propagate
    the message, (3) to patiently persevere, (4) to organize a community of
    Muslims, (5) to defend the Muslim community from outside attacks, (6) to
    initiate preaching to other groups and nations, and (7) to demolish by force
    any resistance and the structures of
    tyranny.
    1.3 The ultimate aim of jihad is the uplifting of the Word of God above all
    other words, within every human soul and within every group of people, not
    for gain of territory or imperial domination.
  74. The Characteristics of Jihad
    2.1 Islam is a practical religion and uses practical means: preaching or
    fighting if necessary.
    2.2 Jihad is a dynamic response to new challenges -it is not necessarily
    ‘defense of the homeland of Islam.’
    2.3 It is not ‘nationalistic,’ not even in relation to ‘Muslim nationalism.’
    Islam’s call is to all people.
    2.4 Islam regulates the relationship of the Muslim community with nonMuslim communities. A contractual relationship: if contracts are broken then
    jihad becomes incumbent.
  75. Establishment of Allah’s Authority
    3.1 Islam is a call for human freedom, for all mankind: freedom from fear of
    death. poverty, of lordship of one human being over another, of persecution.
    3.2 Islam does not permit Muslims to do injustice nor to suffer injustice. If
    preaching is at intellectual plane, movement is at practical and material
    plane.
    3.3 The meaning of “worship” (‘ubudiyah). Devotional activity, absolute
    loyalty, obedience.
    3.4 The meaning of human freedom. Islam’s freedom versus the Western
    idea of ‘freedom.’
    3.5 The meaning of ‘homeland of Islam’ (dar al-Islam).
  76. The Commandments of Jihad
    4.1 The Makkan period -the reasons jihad was confined to preaching.
    4.2 The Madinan period -the gradual legislation of jihad.
  77. The Battles during the Prophet’s Time
    5.1 Badr -causes, the battle itself, the result, the treatment of the prisoners.
    5.2 Uhud -causes, the battle itself, defeat, pursuit, al-tawbah.
    5.3 Khandaq (the Trench).
    5.4 Battles with the Jewish tribes -causes and treatment of various
    tribes.
    5.5 Conquest of Makkah and later battles.
  78. Jihad in Modern Times
    6.1 Usurpation of Muslim lands -Palestine, Kashmir, USSR, Ethiopia, etc.
    6.2 Persecution of Muslims -Philippines, Thailand, USSR, Chad, Eritrea, Iran,
    etc.
    6.3 Propagation of Islam in Africa, Europe, North and South America, Asia,
    Methods and means.
    I-202 AL-HALAL WA AL-HARAM
  79. Basic Principles
    1.1 Everything is permissible except what is forbidden.
    1.2 Forbidding and permitting is the right of God only; to forbid what is
    permissible or to permit what is forbidden is shirk.
    1.3 Forbidding is not arbitrary; forbidden things are harmful and God knows
    what is harmful or beneficial for man.
    1.4 What leads to haram is also haram: good intentions do not change
    haram.
    1.5 What is haram is haram for everyone.
    1.6 Dururah makes exceptions.
  80. Basic Principles
    2.1 Islam permits clean food and forbids what is unclean. Forbidden are dead
    animals, blood, swine flesh, what is dedicated to other than God; the wisdom
    of these. Fish, seafood and locusts are exempted from this rule. Dead
    animals’ skin and bones; dururah makes them halal. Medical necessity. Sea
    animals are all halal.
    2.3 How to slaughter an animal. Christian and Jewish dhabiha. Stunning by
    electric shock. Not to ask concerning what is not seen by us.
    2.4 Hunting and its rules.
    2.5 Every intoxicant is forbidden, even in small quantities. Any kind of
    dealing in intoxicants is haram,. staying away from where people are
    drinking.
    2.6 Smoking.
    2.7 The prohibited land animals.
  81. Dress
    3.1 Dress is for covering and for beauty. Religion requires decency,
    cleanliness and beautification.
    3.2 Gold and silk are forbidden for men but not for women; reason.
    3.3 Dress of a Muslim woman. Imitating the dress of the opposite sex.
    3.4 Make-up; hair-dressing; cutting of moustache.
  82. Household Items
    4.1 Islam requires cleanliness and beauty, but no ostentation or waste.
    Gold and silver utensils.
    4.2 Pictures: complete and incomplete; paintings, sculptures, photographs.
    4.3 Dogs: hunting and watch-dogs. Cat.
    I-301 THE ISLAMIC SOCIAL SYSTEM
  83. Islamic Foundations of Social justice
    1.1 Development of a conscience; fear of God, purity of faith, sincerity of
    action.
    1.2 Brotherhood of Muslims; no priesthood; importance of knowledge; men
    and women are all servants of God; no distinction except through knowledge
    and taqwa
    1.3 Definition of mutual rights and responsibilities: rights of self; rights of
    parents; rights of spouses; rights of children. Cooperation in good.
    Obedience to Allah, the Prophet, the amir.
  84. Ways of Establishing Social justice
    2.1 Trust in individual; witnessing.
    2.2 Zakat and charity.
    2.3 Teaching of mercy, kindness, justice, generosity, hospitality,
    mutual concern, cooperation for good. No distinction except on basis of
    taqwa and knowledge.
    2.4 Crimes and punishments.
  85. Individual Muslims
    3.1 Right to life, property, honor, free status, marriage, having children,
    legitimate work, assembly, due process of law, travel.
    3.2 Responsibilities to acquire religious knowledge, skills for earning a living,
    participation in obligatory Friday prayers, paying Zakat if applicable,
    participating in ‘amr bil m’aruf and in jihad
  86. Relations between the Sexes
    4.1 Purity and chastity are essential Islamic qualities for both men and
    women; Muslims’ interaction is to be based on sincerity, responsibility and
    purity.
    4.2 The family is the basis of Islamic society. It must be safeguarded by
    every possible means. The sanctity of the marriage relationship; the
    importance of two parents for rearing children.
    4.3 Regulation of relations between the sexes is essential to any civilized
    society. No free mixing between men and women; no being alone together or
    pre-marital intimacy; observing the limits of propriety if mixing occurs;
    Islamic dress and behavior.
    4.4 Islamic regulations concerning sex designed to limit sexual expression
    between husband and wife.
    4.5 Islamic dress for women: reflects the concept of womanhood which Islam
    desires -not simply a matter of external form but of great social significance
    in maintaining pure relations between the sexes. The requirements of Islamic
    dress for women; for men.
    4.6 Islamic teachings regarding fornication, adultery, homosexuality,
    masturbation.
  87. Family Life
    5.1 Harmony rather than strife, cooperation (shura) rather than competition;
    alleviating sibling rivalry; eating together; sharing household work.
    5.2 Religious obligations observed: collective prayers; collective fasting;
    encouraging children to ask questions; a program for teaching religion to
    children.
    5.3 Visiting and inviting other Muslims, participation in community activities.
    Islamic identity comes before everything else; thus associates are of great
    importance: counteracting un-Islamic activities by strong family life and
    suitable activities.
    5.4 Travel and recreation.
    5.5 Old parents and relatives and their care.
  88. Community Life
    6.1 The masjid, Friday prayers.
    6.2 Islamic education for children; halaqahs for adults.
    6.3 Zakat collection and distribution to the needy, orphans, widows, old
    people.
    6.4 Settling family disputes, counseling, ways of mutual help, mediation.
    6.5 Performing Muslim ceremonies, birth, marriage, funeral, burial.
    6.6 Public health, hospitals.
    6.7 Sports, recreations and entertainments, the arts.
  89. Holidays
    7.1 Friday
    7.2 ‘Eids
    7.3 Lailat al-Meraj, Lailat al-Qadr, 15th Shaban.
    7.4 Prophet’s birthday.
  90. Ceremonies
    8.1 Birth.
    8.2 Circumcision, initiation into reading the Qur’an.
    8.2 Wedding.
    8.4 Funeral.
    I-302 ECONOMIC SYSTEM
  91. Private Property
    1.1 The right to own property; punishment for theft.
    1.2 The nature of ownership; a trust; the share of the community;
    community property (water, fire, grass, minerals) .
    1.3 Acquiring private property: to make waste land productive; to mine; to
    work for wages and salary; gift for government; inheritance.
    1.4 Increase in property: trade, improvement of methods, cultivation of land,
    industry.
    1.5 Prohibitions: interest, gambling, prohibition of land rent and sharecropping, hoarding, selling something which one doesn’t own, monopoly,
    trade in prohibited things such as alcohol, drugs.
  92. Public Finance
    2.1 Zakat
    2.1.1Zakat on cash, gold and silver, articles of trade.
    2.1.2 Zakat on cattle, sheep, goats and camels.
    2.1.3 Zakat on produce of the earth.
    2.2 Revenue
    2.2.1 Land tax.
    2.2.2 Customs and tolls.
    2.2.3 Jaz’zya
    2.2.4 Tax on mines.
    2.2.5 Estate on intestate persons; other taxes.
    2.2.6 Income from government-owned and run property and industry.
    2.3 Expenditure
    2.3.1 Expenditure of Zakat Beneficiaries.
    2.3.2 Public administration.
    2.3.3 Defense.
    3 Policies of the Prophet
    4 Policies of ‘Umar
    5 Modern Economv
    5.1 Banking, savings and Joan associations, credit unions.
    5.2 Corporations.
    5.3 Insurance.
    5.4 Nationalization.
    5.5 Use of technology.
    5.6 Savings and investments.
  93. Household Budgeting
    6.1 Keeping records of income and expenditure. Recurring and non-recurring
    expenses.
    6.2 Control on expenditure: estimation and budgeting.
    6.3 Planning for future: insurances, savings and investments.
    6.4 Computation of Zakat
    6.5 Making of wills.
    I-303 POLITICAL SYSTEM
  94. Political Theory
    1.1 The sovereignty of God and the vice-gerency of man; the supremacy of
    the Shari’ah; hudud Allah.
    1.2 The purpose of the Islamic state: establishment of Salat, Zakat;
    enjoining good and forbidding evil; defending the homeland of Islam; giving
    Islamic advice in international affairs. Other purposes: the welfare of the
    people; administration; justice; security; education; public
    health; public services.
  95. The Structure
    2.1 The leader (amir): qualification and selection; limits of his power; change
    of leadership.
    2.2 The Shura (advisory council).
    2.3 Justice.
  96. People
    3.1 Muslims and non-Muslims.
    3.2 Rights of the individual.
    3.3 Duties of the individual.
  97. Case Studies
    4.1 The Prophet as Head of the Islamic state.
    4.2 Al-Khulafa al-Rashidoon.
    4.3 Ummayah and ‘Abasiyyah.
    4.4 The ‘Uthmaniyah.
    4.5 Pakistan.
    PART II
    II: THE QUR’ AN AND THE SUNNAH
    II-100 AL-QUR’ AN
  98. Introduction
    1.1 The nature of wayh; Jibril and his role; different hadiths concerning
    how wahy came to the Prophet.
    1.2 The first revelation; the Prophet’s distress and Khadijah’s faith;
    interruption and resumption of
    revelation.
  99. The compilation of the Qur’an.
  100. The Qur’an’s Testimony about Itself.
  101. The Makkan and the Madinan Surahs.
  102. The contents of the Qur’an
    5.1 The Unseen; legislation concerning permissible arid prohibited.
    5.2 Muhkamat and mutashabihat.
    5.3 Guidance of the Islamic movement; types of people (believers, rejectors,
    hypocrites, the rebellious, the thankless, those who love the world, the
    humble, the learned, the thankful, etc.).
    5.4 Moral teachings; stories of the prophets and their peoples.
    5.5 The general and the specific.
  103. The Style of the Qur’an
    6.1 “Teaching” -repetition with variety; emphasis on the main themes; the
    whole truth.
    6.2 God’s word is similar to God’s work. Inimitable -only God could do it.
    6.3 God’s speech addressed to man.
  104. How to Read the Qur’an
    7.1 Reading for dhikr.
    7.2 Reading for information or action.
  105. Summary of the Qur’anic Teachings.
  106. Selections from the Qur’an.
    II-101 PRACTICE READING OF THE QUR’ AN IN
    ARABIC
  107. Emphasis on reading correctly.
  108. Memorization of some surahs.
    II-102 TAFSIR
  109. Principles of Tafsir
    1.1 Words have meanings; far-fetched tawil can be misleading; apparent
    meaning and principles of tawil.
  110. Tafsir of al-Fatihah.
  111. Tafsir of Selected Surahs from Juzu 30.
  112. Tafsir of al-Baqarah, Ale-Imran, Al-Nisa.
    II-103 AL-SUNNAH
  113. The Importance of Sunnah
    1.1 From the Qur’an, from the Hadith, from the Companions, from the
    fuqaha, from the imams.
  114. Classification of Sunnah
    2.1 Verbal (Hadith).
    2.2 Action.
    2.3 Approved.
  115. Compilation of Hadith
    3.1 The six Sahib’s, and their compilers.
    3.2 The difference between Hadith and Sunnah.
  116. Classification of Hadith.
  117. The Contents of Hadith.
  118. Selections from Hadith.
    II-104 STUDY OF HADITH
    A systematic study of Hadith under the guidance of some knowledgeable
    person.
    PART III
    III: LIFE OF THE PROPHET
    III-100 LIFE OF THE PROPHET
  119. Arabia before Islam
    1.1 Origin of idolatry among the Arabs; the Arab character and way of life.
    1.2 Makkah and the Quraysh; internal dissensions; Abraha’s attack on
    Makkah.
  120. Muhammad from Birth to Marriage
    2.1 Genealogy.
    2.2 ‘Abdul-Muttalib and his sons; vows to sacrifice a son.
    2.3 ‘Abdullah and Aminah.
    2.4 The Prophet’s birth and foster mother.
    2.5 His mother’s death; the death of ‘Abdul-Muttalib.
    2.6 Abu Talib becomes the Prophet’s guardian; the journey to Syria.
    2.7 The sacreligious war.
    2.8 Marriage to Khadijah; rebuilding of K’abah.
  121. Muhammad’s Call to Messengership
    3.1 His call and the beginning of the Qur’an Khadijah accepts Islam; prayer
    prescribed.
    3.2 The first Muslims, , Ali, Abu Bakr and his companions.
    3.3 Open preaching; persecution; Hamza’s Islam; ‘Utbah’s attempt at
    compromise; Ibn Mas’ud recites the Qur’an publically.
    3.4 Persecution of Muslims: Yasir and his family, Bilal, Khabbab; persecution
    of other companions.
    3.5 Migration to Abyssinia; the Quraysh’s deputation and Ja’far’s speech.
    3.6 ‘Umar accepts Islam.
    3.7 The boycott and aftermath.
    3.8 M’iraj.
    3.9 The death of Abu Talib and Khadijah.
    3.10 The first Ansar, and the first pledge at al- ‘Aqabah.
    3.11 The Friday prayers in Madinah.
    3.12 The second pledge at al- ‘aqabah.
  122. Hijrah and Life in Madinah
    4.1 Prophet’s hijrah,’ building of mosque and houses.
    4.2 Covenant with the Jews.
    4.3 Brotherhood between Muhajirun and Ansar, regulation of life in Medinah.
    4.4 The Adhan.
    4.5 Jews and hypocrites; the deputation of Christians.
    4.6 Change of Qiblah.
    4.7 Battle of Badr and its causes: Qur’anic verses concerning Badr; Quraysh
    and Banu Qunaiqa.
    4.8 Battle of Uhud; verses concerning Uhud.
    4.9 Battle of the Ditch and raid on Banu Qurayza.
  123. 10 Al-Hudaybiya and the pilgrimage.
    4.11 The occupation of Makkah; the Battle of Hunayn.
    4.12 Arabia accepts Islam.
    4.13 The farewell pilgrimage.
    4.14 Usama’s expedition; the Prophet invites rulers to Islam.
    4.15 The Prophet’s death.
    III-200 SPECIAL TOPICS CONCERNING THE PROPHET
  124. The Prophet’s Characteristics and Character
    1.1 His person; his manners.
    1.2 His character.
  125. Status of the Prophet
    2.1 Isra and M’iraj -detailed description,
    2.2 Miracles.
    2.3 Intercession on the Day of judgement.
    2.4 Example for the Muslims; love of him is incumbent on Muslims. His
    example as a legislator, teacher, friend, husband and father, human being,
    messenger.
  126. The Prophet in the Scriptures
    3.1 In the Qur’an.
    3.2 In the Taurat, the Injil, the Hindu scriptures.
  127. The Prophet’s Methodology of Da’wah
    4.1 Early preaching of the Quraysh; persecution and his response. ‘Utbah;
    meeting with the leaders; Ibn Maktum.
    4.2 Preaching to Arab tribes.
    4.3 Preaching to Ansar.
    4.4 Preaching to Jews and Christians.
    4.5 Deputations.
    4.6 Letters to rulers.
  128. The Prophet’s Training of His Companions
    5.1 Strengthening of the faith; gentleness and forbearance.
    5.2 Dependence on the Qur’an alone.
    5.3 Break from jahili habits.
    5.4 Training for complete obedience.
    5.5 Each according to his ability and taste.
  129. The Constitution of Madinah
    III-201 THE PROPHET’S FAMILY
  130. Wives
    1.1 Khadyah. Genealogy. Earlier Marriages. Business. Marriage to the
    Prophet. Acceptance of Islam. Love of the Prophet. Character and
    personality. Hadiths Concerning her merits. Children. Death.
    1.2 Saudah. Genealogy. Earlier marriage to the Prophet. Personality and
    character. Children. Death.
    1.3 ‘Aishah. Genealogy. Birth and childhood. Marriage to the Prophet.
    Emigration and joining her husband. Rumor concerning her, and the Qur’anic
    attestation to her innocence. Her love of the Prophet and his love of her. Her
    person, dress and character. Her piety, hospitality. Her depth of knowledge
    and ijtihad. Her life after the death of the Prophet. Her merits. Death.
    1.4 Hafsah. Genealogy. Birth. Acceptance of Islam. First marriage and
    emigration. Marriage to the Prophet. The incident of tahrim. Character.
    Merits. Death.
    1.5 Zaynab daughter of Khazimah. Geanology. Earlier marriages. Marriage to
    the Prophet. Character. Merits. Death.
    1.6 Imm Salmah. Genealogy. First marriage. Acceptance of Islam. Emigration
    and life in Madinah. Husband’s martyrdom. Marriage to the Prophet. Life with
    the Prophet. Children (from her first marriage). Character. Merits. Death.
    1.7 Zaynab daughter of Jahash. Genealogy. Islam and emigration. First
    marriage. Divorce. Marriage to the Prophet. Character. Merits. Death.
    1.8 Juwayriyah. Genealogy. First marriage. Marriage to the Prophet.
    Character. Merits. Death.
    1.9 Umm Habibah. Geanealogy. First marriage. Islam and emigration.
    Death of her. husband. Marriage to the Prophet. Character. Merits. Death.
    1.10 Safiyah. Genealogy. Earlier marriages. Marriage to the Prophet.
    Character. Merits. Death.
    1.11Rihanah. Genealogy. First marriage. Marriage to the Prophet. Death.
    1.12 Maymunah. Genealogy. First marriage. Marriage to the Prophet.
    Character. Merits. Death.
    1.13 Marya the Copt. Son Ibrahim and his death in infancy.
  131. Daughters
    2.1 Zaynab. Birth, Marriage. Islam and emigration. General description of her
    life. Children. Death.
    2.2 Ruqayyah. Birth. First marriage and divorce. Marriage to ‘Othman.
    Islam and emigration. Children. Personality and character. Illness and death.
    2.3 Umm Kulthum. Birth. First marriage and divorce. Islam and
    emigration. Marriage to ‘Othman after Ruqayyah’s death. Character. Death.
    2.4 Fatimah. Birth. Marriage to ‘ Ali. Description of the marriage as told by ,
    Ali. Her mehr and dowry. Merits. Her life. The Prophet’s death and her grief.
    Her sickness and death.
  132. Sons
    3.1 Qasim, ‘Abdullah and Ibrahim -both died in infancy.
  133. Qur’anic verses and hadiths concerning the Prophet’s
    household.
    III-202 COMPANIONS OF THE PROPHET
  134. Introduction
    1.1 Who were the Companions of the Prophet?
    1.2 Early Companions; Muhajirin; Ansar; participants in Badr; Ahl al-Bayt;
    ‘Ashra Mubashshirin.
    1.3 Qur’anic ayats concerning the Companions; hadiths concerning them.
    1.4 Probity and ijtijad of the Companions.
    1.5 Companions as an actualized ideal community.
    1.6 Khulafah, generals, scholars and teachers, preachers, the pious.
  135. Their Sabr Under Persecution
    2.1 Yasir and his family; Bilal and K,habbab, Suhayb.
    2.2 Migration to Abyssinia; J’afar’s speech.
    2.3 The boycott.
  136. Their Taqwa
    3.1 Abu Bakr’s taqwa.
    3.2 ‘Umar’s taqwa.
    3.3 Hanzalah’s story.
    3.4 Other Miscellaneous stories.
  137. Their Devotion in Salat
    4.1 Abu Bakr’s, ‘Abdullah bin Zubair’s, ‘Umar’s, ‘Uthman’s, , Ali’s, Muslim
    bin Yasir’s salat.
    4.2 Salat while watching; Ammar and’ Abbad.
    4.3 Ibn ‘Abbas and salat.
  138. Charity and Self-Sacrifice.
    5.1 Abu Bakr’s, ‘Umar’s, ‘Uthman’s and Ali's sacrifices. 5.2 'Umar's trying to emulate Abu Bakr. 5.3 Sahabah dying thirsty for others. 5.4 'Uthman's generosity. 5.5 Abu Dharr reprimands his servant. 5.6Aisha’s charity.
    5.7 ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas’ charity.
  139. Their Love of the Prophet
    6.1 `Ali speaks up although a boy; his sleeping in the Prophet’s bed.
    6.2 Abu Bakr in the Cave of Thawr.
    6.3 Miqdad’s speech.
    6.4 ‘Abdullah bin’ Abdullah bin Abi Sulul’s incident.
    6.5 Abu Ayyub Ansari’s stories.
    6.6 ‘Urwah bin Mas’ud’s report to Quraysh after Hudabiyyah.
    6.7 An Ansar woman’s concern about the Prophet after Uhud.
    6.8 Aby ‘Ubaidah loses his teeth at Uhud.
    6.9 Zaid’ s refusal to go with his father.
    6.10 Other miscellaneous incidents.
    PART IV
    IV: POLITICAL HISTORY OF ISLAM
    IV-100 THE RIGHTLY-GUIDED CALIPHS (ALKHULAFAH
    AL-RASHIDOON)
  140. Introduction
    1.1 The meaning of caliph (khalifah).
    1.2 The significance of the caliphate -politico-religious office.
    1.3 The principles of Islamic polity.
    1.4 Caliphate and kingship.
  141. Abu Bakr
    2.1 Fadail.
    2.2 Early life; his titles; his physical appearance.
    2.3 Conversion to Islam; his propagation of Islam.
    2.4 His devotion to the Prophet; gives his daughter in marriage; hijrah with
    the Prophet.
    2.5 Abu Bakr’s sacrifices at Madinah; his participation in various battles.
    2.6 As imam during the Prophet’s last illness.
    2.7 The Prophet’s death and his election; inaugural address.
    2.8 Usamah’s departure to Syria. his operations and the result.
    2.9 The apostates, the siege of Madinah and its defeat.
    2.10 The reconquest of Arabia; Khalid’s operations against Talha, reclamation
    of the Bani Tayyi, the Battle of Buzakhah, Bani Tamin; the trial of Khalid;
    Khalid’s operations against Musaylamah; Sajah, the Battle of Yamamah.
    2.11 Bahrain, Oman and Mahrah, Yaman and Hadramaut.
    2.12 The frontier expeditions.
    2.13 Iraq, Syria; Khalid, Muthanna.
    2.14 Abu Bakr’s illness, choice of a Successor, testament.
    2.15 His death.
  142. 16 His family, his home and his habits; his love of the Prophet.
    2.17 Some hadiths concerning Abu Bakr.
  143. ‘Umar
    3.1 Fadail.
    3.2 Early life, Grandfather, father; ‘Umar’s birth. ‘Umar’s training and
    achievements before Islam.
    3.3 Convension of Islam.
    3.4 Hijrah and his life with the Prophet.
    3.5 His role in Abu Bakr’s election and during his caliphate.
    3.6 ‘Umar’s caliphate.
    3.7 The conquest of Iraq and Syria; the Battles of Buwaib, Qadisiyyah,
    Yermuk; Jerusalem and ‘Umar’s entry into the city.
    3.8 The deposition of Khalid.
    3.9 The conquest of the Iranian provinces.
    3.10 The assassination of ‘Umar.
    3.11 A review of the conquests.
    3.12 ‘Umar’s policies: toward the dhimmis; toward the governors; toward the
    people; his ijtihad.
    3.14 ‘Umar’s personal habits, characteristics and family life.
    3.15 Hadiths concerning the merits of ‘Umar.
  144. ‘Uthman
    4.1 Fadail.
    4.2 Early life.
    4.3 Conversion to Islam. Marriage to Ruqayyah. Persecution and hijrah to
    Abyssinia. Return to Makkah and hijrah to Madinah.
    4.4 Life with the Prophet. Generosity; buying of a well; buying of land near
    the Prophet’s mosque; Badr, Uhud; Ruqayyah’s death and marriage to Umm
    Kulthum. Chief Officer of the Prophet is Madinah. Ba’it Radwan; equipping
    the Tabuk expedition.
    4.5 His role during Abu Bakr’s and ‘Umar’s caliphates.
    4.6 His election to khilafat.
    4.7 ‘Uthman’s khilafat. Conquests: Armenia, Caucasus, Anatolia, Afghanistan,
    North Africa, Cyprus, Central Asia, Nubia.
    4.8 Expansion of the Prophet’s mosque; copying of the Qur’an and its
    distribution.
    4.9 Civil disturbances; their causes; Abdullah ibn Saba; the rebels’ demands,
    4.10 ‘Uthman’s actions.
    4.11 ‘Uthman’s martyrdom.
    4.12 A review of the events.
    4.13 ‘Uthman’s character and qualities.
    4.14 Hadiths concerning the merits of ‘Othman.
  145. ‘Ali
    5.1 Fadail.
    5.2 Early life. His embracing Islam; life in the Prophet’s household.
    5.3 Hijrah and life in Madinah. Participation in battles.
    5.4 Role during the khilafats of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman.
    5.5 Election to khilafat. Controversies; battles, Jamal and Siffin; arbitration;
    kharijiyyah; martyrdom.
    5.6 A review of the events.
    5.7 ‘Ali’ s administration; his justice.
    5.8 His other accomplishments; character and qualities.
    5.9 Hadiths concerning the merits of ‘Ali.
  146. A Review of This Period and Its Importance for Muslims
    6.1 The rapid expansion of Islam.
    6.2 Commerce.
    6.3 Administration.
    6.4 Finances.
    6.5 Social structure.
    6.6 The ideal Islamic state.
    IV-200 BANU UMAYYAH
  147. Amir M’uawiyah
    1.1 His personality; political acumen and statesmanship; his winning over of
    his enemies (hilm); his assistants; his bold campaigns.
    1.2 Early life; Islam after the conquest of Makkah; Prophet’s scribe.
    1.3 His role during Abu Bakr’s, ‘Umar’s and ‘Uthman’s khilafats.
    1.4 ‘Ali’s election. ‘Ali’s decision to depose M’uawiyah; M’uawiyah’s insistence
    on retaliation of the murder of ‘Othman; Siffin; arbitration.
    1.5 ‘Ali’s assassination; Hasan’s abdication. M’uawiyah consolidates his rule.
    1.6 Conquests: Balkh; Hirat; Khurasan; Mukran; Kabul; Ghazni, Bukhara;
    Tirmidh.
    1.7 Attacks on the Byzantines; M’uawiyah’s navy, conquest of Cyprus
    and Rhodes. Attack on Constantinople (Ibn ‘Abbas, Husain and Abu Ayyub
    involved).
    1.8 ‘Uqbah bin Naf’i’s conquests in North Africa.
    1.9 Bay ‘ah for Yazid; wasiyyah to Yazid; concerning Husain. Death.
    1.10 M ‘uawiayh’ s administration: army and navy; postal service;
    agriculture; water management; redress of grievances; injustice; religious
    freedom and tolerance; propagation of Islam; construction of masjids;
    translation of medical books.
    1.11 M’uawiyah’s character and qualities.
  148. Husain
    2.1 Husain’s character and qualities; his relations with M’uawiyah.
    2.2 Husain leaves Madinah for Makkah after Yazid’s accession.
    2.3 The messages from Kufah; advoce by well-wishers; Muslim bin’ Aqil sent
    to Kufah; betrayal by Kufans.
    2.4 Husain leaves for Kufah; he is surrounded by Hurr; his attitude.
    2.5 Husain’s martyrdom. Effects of his martyrdom.
    2.6 ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair’s stand and khilafat.
  149. Banu Umayyah from 680 to 750
    3.1 YazifJ: (680-683).
    3.2 Marwan ibn al-Hakam (683-685).
    3.3 ‘Abdul Malik (685- 705). Al-Hajjaj ibn Usuf and’ Abdullah ibn Zubair. AlHajjaj reduces Arabia and Iraq. Muhammad ibn Qasim’s conquest of Sind;
    conquest of Central Asia; Byzantines and Berbers. Arabicizing of the
    administration. Partisans of Ali and Khwarij. 'Abdul Malik's achievements. 3.4 Al-Walid (705-715). Conquest of Spain. Tariq ibn Ziyad, Musa bin Nusair, and Muhammad ibn Qasim. 3.5 Sulayman (715-717). Attempt to conquer Constantinople. 3.6 'Umar binAbdul-‘ Aziz (818-720). Return to Islamic rule. ‘Umar’s
    reforms. ‘Umar’s character and qualities.
    3.7 Yazid II ( 720-724) and Hisham (724-743). The Battle of Tours (732).
    Uprisings of Shi’an ‘AIi and the ` Abbasiyyah.
    3.8 The end of the Umayyahs. The revenge by Saffah.
    3.9 A review of the Umayyahs. Administration; military organization;
    conquests; the people -Arabs, new Muslims, dhimmis and slaves; social life;
    intellectual activities; kalam, poetry, education and science, architecture;
    trade and commerce; control of the Mediterranean.
    IV-201 THE ‘ABBASIYYAH
  150. The Early ‘Abbasiyyah (750-849)
    1.1 ‘ Abbasiyyah heritage. The Muslim world and civilization in 750.
    1.2 Al-Saffah (750-754) and al-Mansur (754-775). The new order;
    suppression of uprisings. Wars with the Byzantines. Foundation of Baghdad
    (762). Barmakis.
    1.3 Al-Mahdi (775-785). The rise of Barmakis. Patronage of the arts. Al-Hadi
    (785-786).
    1.4 Harun al-Rashid (786-809).Jihad against the Byzantines. Style of life in
    Baghdad. Love of learning. Uprisings in al-Maghrib and Samarqand. Harun’s
    character and qualities.
    1.5 Al-Amin (809-813). Civil war.
    1.6 Al-Mamun (813-833). Trouble in Iraq. Egypt. Conquest in the
    Mediterranean. Bait al-Hikmah. M’utazilah controversies. Imam Ahmad
    Hanbal.
    1.7 Al-Mut’asim (822-842). Turkish bodyguard. Samarra, the new capital.
    Wars with the Byzantines. Afshin’ s revolt.
    1.8 Al- Wathiq (842-849). Correcting the mistakes of his predecessors.
    1.9 A review of early’ Abbasiyyah. Administration: vizier; revenues; the
    army; postal service) provinces; qadaat. Social life. Sciences and arts;
    medicine, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, alchemy, geography,
    history, al-Hadith, Fiqh. Sea trade, trade with Europe. Industry. Elementary
    and higher education.
  151. Later ‘Abbasiyyah (849-1258)
    2.1 The loss of power; the slow decline.
    2.2 The review of events from al-Mutawakkil to the fall of Baghdad (857-
    1258). Breaking up of the khilafat. Qaramitahs, Isma’ilis, the Sufis.
    Autonomous kingdoms; Tahiris; Saffaris; Samanis; Ghaznavis, Mahmud
    Ghaznavi; Buwayhis, ‘Adadul Daulah; the Seljuqis, Tughral, Alp Arsalan,
    Malik Shah, Nizam al-Mulk, the decline of the Seljuqis. Genghis Khan,
    Hulagu; Baghdad falls (1258).
    IV-202 NORTH AFRICA AND SPAIN
  152. Introduction
    1.1 Conquests westward from ‘Umar’s time to Banu Umayyah’s time.
    1.2 Conditions after the conquest.
  153. Umayyah Dynasty (756-1031)
    2.1 ‘Abdul Rahman al-Dakhil. Consolidation of territories. Beginning of
    Islamic culture. Treatment of dhimmis. Spread of Islam.
    2.2 Al-Hakam (796-882) and’ Abdul Rahman II (822-852).
    The influence of Muslim culture; the Christian fanatics.
    2.3 Muhammad I to Abdullah (852-912).
    2.4 ‘Abdul Rahman III (912-961). Fatimis of Tunis. Wars with Christians. AlNasir. Al-Zahra. His administration.
    2.5 Al-Hakam II (961-976). Peace and prosperity. The library of Qurtuba.
    2.6 A brief survey of the period from 976-1492. Hisham II, Hajib al-Mansur;
    the Hammadis; the petty kingdoms; al-M’utamid (1068-1091); al-Maghrib
    and Idrisis; Aghlabis, Isma’ilis; Murabits of Morocco; Yusuf ibn Tashfin; Le
    Cid; al-Muwahhidin, ‘Abdul Mumin, al-Mansur; Nasiris; Abu’ Abdullah.
    2.7 Muslim culture in Spain. The philosophers: Ibn Bajjah, Ibn Tufail, Ibn
    Rushd, Ibn Maimun. The Sufis: Ibn ‘Arabi. Literature: Ibn ‘Abd Rabbihi, Ibn
    Hazm. History: Ibn Khaldun. Travels: Ibn Battutah, Ibn Jubair. Translation
    bureau in Toledo. The sciences: al-Majriti, al-Zarqali, Ibn al-Bay tar. Medicine
    and surgery: al-Zahrawi, Ibn Zuhr. Industry;” Education.
    2.8 Other events. Conquest of Sicily. Muslim kingdoms of Sicily. Muslim
    culture in Sicily. Tulunis of North Africa; Ikhshidis, Kafur. The Fatimis of
    Egypt. ‘Ubaidullah’s and al-Qaim’s conquests in the Mediterranean. Jawhar
    and the four.dation of al-Qahirah, Nizar al-‘Aziz. The
    fall of the Fatimis. Al-Hakim’s excesses in religion and government, the
    Durzis. Al-Tahir; al-Basasiri’s capture of Baghdad. Arts and sciences under
    the Fatimis, ‘Ali ibn Yunus, Ibn al-Haytham; architecture and crafts.
    IV-203 THE CRUSADES AND THE MUSLIM KINGDOMS
  154. Origin of the Crusades.
    Early attempts by Christians; paper propaganda. First Crusade (1096-1099).
    The Christian kingdoms. Impact of Islam on the Crusaders.
  155. Zangis and Nuris (1127-1162).
    The Second Crusade (1147-1149). Nuruddin, Shirkuh; Salahuddin Ayyubi
    (1169-1193). Liberation of Jerusalem. The Third Crusade (1189-1192). Fall
    of ‘Akkah. Peace settlement. Salahuddin’s character and qualities. Ayyubis.
  156. Fourth (1202-1204) and Fifth (1218-1221) Crusades.
    The sack of Constantinople. Al-Kamil. The Sixth to the Ninth Crusades (1228-
    1274). Al-Salih, Turan Shah.
  157. The Bahri Mamlukes (1250-1382).
    Al-Zahir Baybars Ruknuddin’s victory over the Mongols. Campaign against
    Christian kingdoms. Restoration of ‘Abbasi khilafat. Character of Baybars.
    Qalawun and his achievements.
    Burji Mamlukes (1382-1517). Timur. Capture of Cyprus.
  158. Culture, Ibn Taimiyyah; Ibn Khaldun; Abdul Fida; al-Maqrizi.
    Science and education. Industry. Trade. Social and political
    structure.
    IV-204 THE ‘UTHMANIYAH (OTTOMANS)
  159. Anatolia during the Period of the Seljuqis
    1.1 Turkish migrations and ghazwahs in Anatolia (1018-1071). The
    foundation of Seljuqi state in Anatolia. Kay-Qubad (1220-1237).
    1.2 The Mongol invasion and the destruction of Seljuqi state.
    1.3 The Seljuqi administration; the Islamization process; the economy, trade,
    and foreign relations.
    1.4 The formation of principalities (Beyliks). The spirit of ghazwah among the
    Turkish tribes.
  160. The Early ‘Uthmaniyah
    2.1 The origin of the ‘Uthmaniyah tribe.
    2.2 Osman (‘Uthman) (1290-1326). His conquests; character and
    achievements.
    2.3 Orkhan (1326-1359). Conquest of Brusa and Izmit. Building activity;
    educational activity. The qanun and Shari’ah. His administration. Conquest of
    Gallipoli.
    2.4 Murad I (1359-1389). European conquests. Crusades. Conquests in the
    Balkans. Fight with the combined forces of Balkans and Murad’s martyrdom.
    Character and achievements of Murad.
    2.5 Bayazid (1389-1402). Conquests in Asia Minor. Attempts at
    Constantinople. Timur crushes Bayazid. Fratricidal wars.
    2.6 Muhammad I (Mehmet I) (1402-1421) and Murad II (1421-1451). Reestablishment of unity and resumption of wars in Europe.
  161. The ‘Uthmaniyah (Ottoman) Empire
    3.1 Muhammad II (Mehmet Fatih), the Conqueror (1451-1481). Conquest of
    Constantinople (1453). Expansion in Europe and Black Sea. Reconstruction of
    Constantinople. Muhammad Fatih’s administration; finances; land reform;
    trade.
    3.2 Bayazid II (1481-1512), Selim I (1512-1520), and Sulayman the
    Magnificent (1520-1566). Wars with Venice, Persia, Egypt, Hungary; the
    Seige of Vienna; alliance with France; wars in the Mediterranean.
    3.3 The state of the Empire at the time of Sulayman. The government; the
    army; the law; the people; the economy; foreign relations.
    3.4 Selim II (1566-1574). The Battle of Lepanto (1571). The Turkish fleet.
  162. The Slow Decline
    4.1 Causes of Decline.
    4.2 Murad III (1574-1595). Nur Banu (mother and Safiyah (wife). Wars with
    Persia and Austria.
    4.3 Muhammad III, Admad I, Osman II (1595-1623). Treaty of ZsitvaTorok (1606). Revolt in Syria and Asia Minor. War with Shah’Abbas.
    4.4 The later ‘Uthmaniyah (1623-1807). Wars with European powers and
    Russia.
    4.5 The state of the Empire at the end of the eighteenth century.
    Organization of the Empire; law and order; the Sufi orders; the society;
    Africa; Egypt, Syria and al-Hijaz.
    IV-205 PERSIA
  163. The Il Khans (1258-1349)
    1.1 The Muslim world in 1260.
    1.2 The Il Khans and their administration. Hulagu and his successors.
    Devastation of Central Asia. Ahmad (13811284), Arghun and Gaykhatu
    (1284-1295), and Ghazan (1295-1304). Ghazan defeats the Mamluk;
    conquers Syria. Ghazan builds up Islamic institutions.
    1.3 Minor kingdoms.
    1.4 Timur (1336-1405). Conquests begin. Timur and Bayazid. Timur’s
    character.
    1.5 Khalil Sultan (1404-1409), Shah Rukh (1404-1447), Ulugh Beg, Abu Said
    (1452,1469), Uzun Hasan (1453-1478), and the Turkomen of the White
    Sheep. Yaqub (1478-1490).
    1.6 Persia at the end of the fifteen century. Rumi, Jami; historians;
    architecture.
  164. The Sajavis
    2.1 The origin.
    2.2 Isma’il I (1500-1524). War with Uzbegs. Persecution of the Sunnis. Clash
    with Selim I. His character.
    2.3 Tahmasp (1524-1576). Clash with Sulayman. Humayun takes refuge
    with Tahmasp. Treatywiththe ‘Uthmaniyah; betrayal of Zayazid (1561).
    European intrigue.
    2.4 ‘Abbas I (1578-1629). English advisers. Wars with Uzbegs and the
    ‘Uthmaniyah. ‘Abbas’ administration.
    2.5 Safi (1629-1642), and the end of the Safavis.
    2.6 Safavi administration.
    2.7 Persia during the eighteenth century. Nadir Shah, ‘Adil Shah, Abdali,
    Zand dynasty, Lutf’ Ali Khan.
    2.8 Persian culture. Society and education; religion; architecture; crafts:
    carpets and textiles, ceramics, painting, enamel work.
    IV-206 THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT
  165. Arabs in India (712-1051)
    1.1 Muhammad ibn al-Qasim (712) and the conquest of Sind. His recall.
    1.2 Arab expeditions in western India (712-1051). Their social relations.
  166. Turkish and Pathan Kings (998-1526)
    2.1 Mahmud (998-1030). Mahmud’s expeditions in northern India. The Battle
    of Somnath (1926). His influence on India.
    2.2 Mahmud’s successors (1175-1290). Muhammad Ghauri (1175-1206).
    Qutbuddin Aybed (1206-1210); Iltutmash (1211-1236); Radiyah (1236-
    1240); Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246-1266); Balban (1266-1290). The
    achievements of the “slave dynasty.”
    2.3 The Khiljis (1290-1320), Jalaluddin and Alauddin. Early conquests of Alauddin. Conquest of Deccan. ‘Alauddin’ s administration. His successors:
    Mubarak, Khusro.
    2.4 The Tughluqs (1320-1413). Muhammad (1324-1351). His reforms, the
    shifting of the capital; token currency; Mongol invasion, internal troubles,
    Firuz and later Tughluqs. Timur’s invasion (1398).
    2.5 The Sayyids and the Lodhis (1414-1526). Khidr, Khan; Bahlul, Sikander
    and Ibrahim Lodhi.
    2.6 Delhi sultanate. Administration; revenue; army; treat ment of Hindus;
    learning. Scholars: al- Biruni, al-Baihaqi, ‘Ufi. Economic conditions; social
    conditions.
    2.7 The Islamization process; the conversions; the Shari’ah,education.
  167. The Mughals (1526-1857)
    3.1 India at the time of Babar’s invasion. Delhi sultanate of Ibrahim Lodhi.
    Kingdom of Kashmir (1346-1540). Sharqi kings of Jaunper. Muslim kingdoms
    of Malwa and Gujrat, Khandesh, and Bangal. The Bahmains of Deccan. The
    Islamization of India. The great teachers.
    3.2 Zahiruddin Baber (1482-1530). Babar’s early life. The first Battle of
    Paniput (1526). Babar, King of Delhi. Babar’s character and achievements.
    3.3 Humayun. His checkered life. His campaign against the Lodhis and
    Gujrat. His defeat by Sher Khan Suri, and flight to Iran. Sher Shah Suri
    (1540-1545). Sher Shah’s achievements. Return of Humayun.
    3.4 Akbar (1556-1605). Second Battle of Paniput. Bayram Khan. Akbar’s
    political policy. Akbar’s conquests. Din IIahi.
    3.5 Jehangir (1605-1628). Early years. Khusro’s revolt; the hostility of Sikhs.
    Nur Jehan’s influence. His wars. Shah Jehan’s revolt. Jehangir’s character.
    Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi. European interests.
    3.6 Shah Jehan (1628-1658). Consolidation of power. Shah Jehan as a
    ruler; as a builder. The four sons of Shah Jehan and their struggle for power.
    3.7 Aurangzeb ‘Alamgir (1658-1707). Extension of empire. Restoration of
    Islamic practices. His treatment of nonMuslims. The Sikhs, Rajputs and
    Maratthas. Rise of Sivaji. The campaign against Deccan. Aurangzeb’s
    character and achievements.
    3.8 The Mughal administration; public services; the army; law and order;
    revenue system; education and learning; urban life; industry;
    communication; social life.
    3.9 The decline of the Mughals. Aurangzeb’s successors. The rise of
    Maratthas; Ahmad Shah Abdali and the third Battle of Paniput (1761). The
    Sikhs. The coming of Europeans.
    IV-207 THE SPREAD OF ISLAM IN OTHER AREAS
  168. Southeast Asia
    1.1 The coming of Islam. Traders, awlia, and native kings. Sumatra’s Muslim
    islands, Ferlec and Pasai (Samudra, 1281 or before). Ibn Battuta’s visit
    (764/1345).
    1.2 From Sumatra to Malacca (1400). Sultan Muzaffar Shah (1445-1459).
    Malaccan dependencies adopt Islam.
    1.3 Acheh adopts Islam in the mid -fourteenth century. ‘Ali Mughayat Shah
    captures Pasai in 1524 from Portuguese. ‘Alauddin (1548-1571) fights
    Portuguese. Iskander Muda (6108-1637). Women’s rule :1641-1699).
    Islamization of neighboring islands.
    1.4 Borneo, Sulu and Mindanao Islamized by Arab traders. Spainards’
    resistance (1570).
    1.5 Islam in Java (1400-). Islamic preachers’ activity. Shaikh Ibn
    Maulana’s efforts in west Java (1526). South and central Java’s conversion
    by awlia.
    1.6 Moluccas. Maulana Husain’s preaching of Islam. Zain al-‘Abidin (1486-
    1500). Islamization of the island. South Borneo’s conversion.
    1.7 Celebes and East Borneo. Prince of Tallo embraces Islam (1605). His
    subjects adopt Islam and become its champions. The conversion of Raja
    Makota by two preachers, followed by his court and later his people.
    1.8 Javanese Islam. Sultan Agung (1613-1646) and mystics.
  169. Sub-Saharan Africa
    2.1 Bilad aI-Sudan. Al-Fazari’s mention of Ghana in eighth century; al-Bakri
    (460/1067-1068) supplies more detail. Muslim traders and their superior
    position.
    2.2 Takrur (Senegal) and Malal were Muslim in eleventh century. ‘Abdullah
    bin Yasin’s preaching and reform; his conquest of Sijilmasa.
    2.3 Mali. Mansa Musa’s (1312-1337) conquests. Ibn Battuta’s description
    (753-4/1352-3). Mali’s relations with pagan tribes, North Africa and Middle
    East.
    2.4 Songhay empire. The king adopts Islam in the fifth/eleventh century.
    Mali’s and Songhay’s relationship. Sonni Ali, Baru, and Askiya Muhammad. The influence of Muhammad binAbd al-Karim al-Maghidi; Takedda, Katsina
    and Kano; jihad against’ ‘mixers.” Daud bin Muhammad (956-991/1545-
    1583).
    2.5 Bornu-Kanem. Umayyah influence on Kanemi Islam. Links North Africa,
    the Middle East, and with Mali.
    2.6 Hausa. Islam comes from Mali in early eighth/fourteenth century.
    Fulani ‘ulama’s influence. Muhammad Rumfa’s centralization of power.
    ‘Umaru bin Kanajeji’ s rule (9th/15th). Fulani ‘ulama’s influence in Bagirmi
    and Waday.
    2.7 Moroccan conquest and the rule of the pashas (1591-1660).
    2.8 Mande groups. Islam in Gambia, Ivory Coast, Upper Guinea and Liberia.
    2.9 Reform movements of eighteenth century. Ibrahim Musa’s jihad (1725)
    in Futa Jallon (Senegal and Gambia). Futa Toro’s reform movements.
    Sulayman Bal and `Abd al-Qadir.
    2.10 ‘Uthman dan Fodio (b. 1167/1754). ‘Uthman’s jama’a and its influence
    and power. ‘Uthman’s jihad.
  170. East Africa
    3.1 Early contacts. The first hlj’rah to Abyssinia. Trade along the coast.
    Coastal settlements of Kilwa. Ibn Battuta’s visit (731/1331).
    3.2 The Horn of Africa. Somali coastal towns, Zayla, Mogadishu. Islamization
    of Zanzibar. Arab traders and immigrants. Muslim states in the interior, in
    Shoa (238/896-7). Seven kingdoms as tributaries of Abyssinia. Description of
    the Muslim society by Ibn Battuta. Relations with Christians and nomadic
    tribes.
    3.3 Portuguese and ‘Uthmaniyah interests in the sixteenth century. Ahmad
    Gran’s jihad. Harrar as a center of Islamic learning. The Galla kingdoms; Gall
    influence.
    3.4 The Yao people south of Somalia.
    IV-208 THE MUSLIM WORLD TODAY
    I. Disintegration of Muslim Power
    1.1 The decline of the ‘Uthmaniyah Empire. Napoleon in Egypt; risings in
    Europe; Serbia, Greece, Muhammad Ali of Egypt and his revolt. Wars with Russia. The Wahhabi movement; Saud ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz. The mahdi of Sudan. 'Abd al-'Aziz (1861-1876) and 'Abd al-Hamid (1876-1909). 1.2 North Africa. French imperialism in Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco. 1.3 the British in East and West Africa; the Dutch in Indonesia. 1.4 Persia: the Qajar dynasty (1795-1825). Muhammad Shah. Nasiruddin. Babism and Baha'ism. Muzaffaruddin. 1.5 The disintegration of the Mughal Empire. Mysore. ShahAlam and the
    Marhattas. The British East India Company and its conquests. The revolt of
    1857 and British rule. British prejudice against the Muslims of India.
    1.6 Attempts at Islamic revival. Jamaluddin Afghani. Sir Syyed Ahmad
    Khan and his defeatist mentality. Apologist writers of Turkey, Egypt and
    India.
  171. The Muslim World Today
    2.1 The state of the Muslim world after World War I. The Europeans rule
    supreme.
    2.2 Turkey. Ataturk and his hatred of Islam. Turkish nationalism, secularism
    and westernization. ‘Ismet Inonu. Restoration of democracy. Islamic
    movements in the Turkish population. The continuing struggle.
    2.3 The Arab countries. Revolt against the ‘Uthmaniyah. Betrayal by the
    British and French. The history of Zionism. Struggle for independence. The
    Muslim nation states and kingdoms. Islamic movements. Gamal ‘abd al-Nasir
    and his hatred of Islam. The wars with Israel. The newfound wealth: oil. The
    Arab world today.
    2.4 Iran. Ahmad Shah (1909-1929). World War I and the rise of Reza Khan.
    Reze Shah Pahlavi (1925-41). Iran after World War II. The Islamic
    movement and the tyranny of the Shah.
    2.5 India and Pakistan. Struggle for independence. The Indian National
    Congress and the Muslim League. The partition of India. The Islamic
    movements in India and Pakistan. Hindu and Western-influences on the
    Muslims of the subcontinent. The Indo-Pakistani wars and the
    separation of Bangladesh. India, Pakistan and Bangladesh today.
    2.6 South-East Asia. Independence of Indonesia and Malaysia. The
    Philippines. Islamic movements.
    2.7 The African countries. The emergence of African nationalism.
    Independence of African countries. Islam in Africa today.
    2.8 Muslims in the communist world: China, USSR and Eastern Europe.
  172. A Review of the Muslim World
    3.1 Independent Muslim countries. Population. Political structures. The
    economics. Education.
    3.2 The rise of Islamic consciousness. Anti- and un-Islamic
    governments. The Islamic movements and their role in awakening the
    Muslim conscience.
    3.3 Islamically-oriented governments and their efforts in restoring the
    Islamic way of life.
    PART V
    V: CULTURAL HISTORY OF ISLAM
    V-200 HISTORY OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND
    PRACTICE
  173. Tafsir of the Qur’an
    1.1 Meaning of tafsir. Principles oftafsir (or tawil). Need for tafsir. Tafsir
    as one of the functions of messengership.
    1.2 Companions ofthe Prophet: Abu,Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, ‘Aishah,
    Ibn Mas’ud, Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn K’ab, Ibn Zubair, Abu Musa.
    1.3 Famous tafsirs: Tabari, al-Ash’ari, Zamakhshari, al-Razi, al-Baydawi, Ibn
    Kathir, al-Suyuti, Jalalayn.
    1.4 Recent tafsirs: Tantawi, Syyed Qutb, Maududi, Said Noorsi.
    1.5 Dangers of far-fetched tawil: words lose meanings; no solid foundation.
  174. The Hadith
    2.1 Hadith during the Prophet’s time.
    2.2 Companions: Abu Bakr’s and ‘Umar’s attitudes. Abu Huraira, ‘Aishah, Ibn
    ‘Abbas, Ibn Mas’ud, Anas.
    2.3 Compilations of hadith: “Al-Muwatta” of Malik and “Al-Musnad” of Ahmad
    Hanbal. The two “Sahihs” of Bukhari and Muslim. “The Six Sahihs.” Other
    collections.
    2.4 The science of critical biography. “Tabaqat” of Ibn s’ ad.
  175. The Fiqh
    3.1 The meaning of Fiqh. The Qur’an and Hadith as the main sources. Other
    sources: analogy, concensus, considered opinion.
    3.2 The Companions: ‘Umar, ‘Ali, Ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Aishah.
    3.3 The Qur’an and Hadith as Sources of legal judgments judgments during
    the period of the Khulafah al-Rashidoon and during the Umayyah period.
    3.4 Formalization of Fiqh. Major schools: Maliki, Hanifi, Shafi’i, and Hanibali.
    Other schools: J’afari, Zahiri, and ‘Ibadi.
    3.5 Harun al-Rashid adopts hanafifiqh. “Kitab al-kharaj” of Abu Yusuf.
    Popularity of the various schools.
    3.6 Principles of ijtihad. Knowledge and understanding of the Qur’an and
    Hadith; knowledge of subject matter; consistency with other principles of
    Shari’ah; the principle of istihsa; the concept of dururah (Necessity and
    duress).
    4 .The Kalam
    4.1 Hadiths concerning speculation in theology.
    4.2 What kinds of rational debates are permissible: the attributes of Allah,
    their perfection; the relationship between man and Allah; the nature of
    human knowledge.
    4.3 Hasan al-Basri, M’utazilah, al-Ash’ari.
    4.4 The philosophy: al-Razi, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Ibn Rushd. Al-Ghazzali’s
    “Incoherence of the Philosophers.”
  176. The Theories of Leadership
    5.1 The Prophet’s various roles: bearer of revelation and its expounder,
    example in character and conduct, teacher of beliefs and religious practices,
    titular head of the Muslim community, commander-in-chief, chief judge.
    5.2 Succession in Prophetic roles: ‘ulama as successors in religious teaching,
    khulafah as successors in the political sphere, faqihs as successors in
    legislation, qadis as successors in settling disputes and determining
    punishments.
    5.3 The characteristics sought in a political leader.
    5.4 Islamic democracy. The sovereignty of Allah; obedience to Allah and His
    Prophet; election of the ruler; principle of consultation and advice (shura).
    5.5 The development of political theories: the emergency of monarchy;
    khalifah and sultans; the role of ‘ulama; the Shaikh al-Islam during
    ‘Uthmaniyah and Mughal periods.
    5.6 The Shi’a theory of Imamat. The Khariji theory. Rebellions and failures.
    5.7 Islamic democracy in modern times. Pakistan, a case study.
  177. Tasawwuf
    6.1 The ‘Unity of Allah’ from the Qur’an and Hadith: neither monism nor
    pantheism.
    6.2 The concept of ‘nearness to Allah’ in the Qur’an and Hadith, and the way
    to attain it.
    6.3 The concepts of ‘ishan’ and poverty (jaqr), purification of self (tazkiyyah),
    religious practice (riyadah), and detachment from the world as exemplified in
    the lives of the Prophet and his Companions.
    6.4 Islamic tasawwuf taqwa, jihad, and following the Sunnah in its totality.
    6.5 Examples of Muslim Sufis: Junayd, ‘Abd al-Qadir Jilani, Mu’inuddin
    Chishti.
    6.6 The theory of tariqah. What is praiseworthy and what is reprehensible in
    it. The dangers: monasticism, limited brotherhoods, association with Allah,
    contempt of Shari’ah, laziness and easy way out.
    V-201 HISTORY OF EDUCATION
  178. Aims of Muslim Education
    1.1 The importance of the knowledge of religion from the Qur’an and Hadith.
    1.2 Religious aims: to understand Islamic faith and practice; to develop
    Islamic personality in morals and manners; to read and understand the
    Qur’an; study of the Prophet’s life and Sunnah; to grasp the dynamic
    principle of Islam; to be a Muslim by commitment by realizing Islam’s
    perfection and superiority over all man-made systems.
    1.3 Secular aims: pursuit of all knowledge as the revelation of the attributes
    of Allah; to learn some profession or means of livelihood.
    1.4 Universality of elementary education.
  179. The Organization of Education
    2.1 The halqah (the circle).
    2.2 The maktab (the writing school).
    2.3 The mosque school; the bookshop school.
    2.4 The madrasah (school of public instruction).
    2.5 The university.
  180. The Curriculum
    3.1 Academic: Tafsir, hadith, Fiqh; mathematics, science, medicine, logic and
    philosophy, language and literature; social sciences, history, geography,
    political science, law, sociology, psychology.
    3.2 Vocational: very comprehensive studies in all applied Sciences.
    3.3 University curricula: Shar’iyyat, literary studies, rational studies
    (including science).
  181. The Teacher-Pupil Relationship.
  182. Methods
    5.1 Formal lectures, Reading of a text, explaining difficult passages. Threestep presentation: general outline, more depth, singling out difficult portions.
    5.2 Memorization by students, repetition of what is memorized, reflection on
    the content, and application.
    5.3 Service of the teacher and close personal association with him.
  183. Libraries
    6.1 Libraries as centers of education. Important Muslim libraries. Their
    destruction.
  184. Classification of Subjects.
    V-202 CIVIL LIFE
  185. Cities
    1.1 The early settlements: Basra and Kufah in Iraq, Fustat in Egypt,
    Qayrawan in Maghrib. Baghdad a little later.
    1.2 Population: Arab tribes, mawali (the new Muslims), dhimmis. Fusion of
    different groups in ‘Abbasiyyah times.
    1.3 The layout of cities: the jan’i the palace of surroundings, the suqs and
    grouping of trades, quarters for various religious and ethnic groups; city
    planning, streets, gardens and parks, residential quarters.
    1.4 Life in the capital: the khalifah and his court, the princes and the high
    officials, the bureaucracy. The wazir. Various departments: army, land
    distribution, treasury, justice. The qadis. The merchants, craftsmen and
    artisans. Muhtasib. Mosques, schools and colleges. The
    servants and slaves. Baths and public places.
  186. Countryside
    2.1 The Muslim world in early period: desert and sub-desert regions, oases,
    fertile land along the rivers. Water: network of irrigation, wells and wheels,
    fair distribution of water.
    2.2 Nomadism: camel-nomadism and sheep- and cattle nomadism.
    2.3 Agriculture: the science of agronomy, development of large estates into
    gardens. Old methods and crops. Introduction of new crops: mills,
    sugarcane. New methodology: sugar, flax, cotton, wheat, barley. Fruits and
    vegetables. Classification of land: subject to kharaj, waqf Large and small
    estates. Peasants, land owners.
    2.4 Mineral resources: iron and copper as the basis of metallurgy; silver and
    gold. Other minerals: alum and natron, rock salt, stone quarries.
  187. Industry.
    3.1 State-regulated industries: arms and arsenals, papyrus and paper,
    luxury fabrics, coinage mints.
    3.2 Free crafts, numerous and varied. Textiles and textile corporations:
    workshops, artisans and apprentices. Guilds of craftsmen. Muhtasib.
    V-203 ARCHITECTURE AND ART
    Note: This course should be taught with slides of buildings and art objects,
    and if possible with displays of actual art and and craft objects.
  188. Architecture
    1.1 Mosques. Basic elements of a mosque: mihrab) minbar and covered
    area. Other parts: courtyard, water fountain, minerets, dome, windows.
    1.1.1 Prophet’s mosque: at the time of the Prophet; later additions; the
    present mosque. Mosques of early khulafah’s time in Basra, Kufa and Fustat.
    Dome of the Rock and Umayyah mosque in Damascus.
    1.1.2 Architecture of the mosque from the time of the Umayyah to the
    present: structure, mosaics, calligraphy, geometric designs. The concepts of
    simplicity, unity, abstraction and infinity as expressed in large mosques.
    1.1.3 Umayyah, ‘Abbasiyyah, Seljuqi, Fatimi, Moorish, Ayyubi, Mamluk,
    ‘Uthmaniyah, Safavi, Mughal and South Asian architecture, with emphasis on
    their different styles and characteristics. Names of great architects and
    patrons.
    1.2 Tombs and palaces. Umayyah buildings in Jericho, Syria and Jordan.
    ‘Abbasiyyah buildings in Baghdad and vicinity, Alhambra in Granada, Fatimi
    buildings in Tunis and Cairo, tombs of Seljuqi period in Anatolia and USSR.
    Safavi. ‘Uthmaniyah and Mughal tombs, palaces and public buildings.
    1.3 Public works. Famous irrigation works, bridges, karavanserai, madrasahs
    and universities.
  189. Arts and Crafts
    2.1 Decorative art: on mosques and buildings, on textiles, enamels.
    2.2 Pottery: unglazed, glazed, paint, lustre technique.
    2.3 Metalwork and woodwork.
    2.4 Miniature painting: the Seljuqi, Persian and Mughal schools.
    2.5 Calligraphy: Kufi, Naskhi, Nast’aliq.
    2.6 Carpets, rugs, brocades, velvet and embroideries.
    V-204 HISTORY OF SCIENCE
  190. Mathematical Sciences.
    1.1 Arithmetic. Translations. Hindi-Arabic numerals, Methods of calculation.
    Thabit ibn Qurra, al-Karaji and al-Kashi.
    1.2 Geometry. Translations. Contributions of Abu Kamil, Abu al-Wafa, alKuhi, ‘Umar Khayyam and Ibn alHa ‘ytham. Applications.
    1.3 Algebra. The origination. Al-Khwarizmi and ‘Umar Khayyam.
    1.4 Trigonometry. Invention of Plane and spherical trigonometry. Abu alWafa’s and al-Battani’s
    contributions.
    1.5 Astronomy. Translations. Al-Farazi, al-Khawarizmi, al-Farghani, alBattani, al-Zarqali, al-Biruni, Ulugh Beg. Observatories, instruments,
    theories.
    1.6 Applications. Music. Mechanics and hydraulics. Astrology. Daily matters:
    kharaj) zakat) inheritance, specific gravity.
  191. Natural Sciences
    2.1 Physics. Properties of matter. Studies of sound, light, magnetism,
    motion, weight and gravity. Al-Kindi, al-Razi, al-Farabi, Ibn al-Ha’ytham, alBiruni, ‘Umar Khayyam.
    2.2 Alchemy and chemistry. Chemical properties of matter. Chemical
    processes. Application of chemical knowledge. Al-Razi, Abu Mansur
    Muwaffak, Abu al-Qasim, al-Mardini, Ibn Sina.
    2.3 Natural history. Plants and animals. AI-Asma’i, ‘Ali al- Tabari, alDinawari, Ibn Wahshiyah, Muwaffak, al-Biruni, al-Bakri.
    2.4 Geography. Geodetic measurements, description of geographicsl features
    of countries, road maps, largescale maps, influence of geography on
    civilizations. Al-Khwarizmi, Ibn Khurdadhbih, al- Y’aqubi, Abu Zaid, Ibn
    Serafion, Ibn Fadlan, al-Mas’udi, al-Balkhi, Ibn Hawqal, al-Maqaddasi, alBakri, Nasir-i-Khusro.
    2.5 Other sciences: agriculture, biology, geology, botany and zoology.
  192. Medical Sciences
    3.1 Physicians of Umayyah and ‘Abbasiyyah courts. Translations.
    3.2 The great masters: al-Razi, al-Zahrawi, Ibn Sina.
    3.3 Research in diseases, infections and cures. Surgery.
    3.4 Hospitals and dispensaries. Pharmacology. Al-Biruni, Ibn aI-Bay tar, ]abir
    ibn Hayyan, al-Razi, Muwaffak.
    PART VI
    VI: ISLAM IN NORTH AMERICA
    VI-I00 THE AMERICAN SCENE
  193. The Bases of Western Thought and Practice
    1.1 World view: the influence of Greek thought, the supremacy of human
    reason; the influence of Christian theology: sin, guilt and vicarious
    atonement. Lack of integration.
    1.2 Duality, man as a tragic hero; the resultant pessimism and humanism.
    1.3 Branches of Western thought. Individualism and human rights;
    democratic tradition; liberalism and secularism. Dialectic materialism and
    communism; the rights of society and state.
  194. American Culture
    2.1 The utilitarian principle and materialism. Land and wealth as status
    symbols. Success and progress. Reaction among the young and its various
    manifestations.
    2.2 Individualism. The Protestant work ethic. English elitist and the frontier
    experience. The industrial revolution. The loss of religious values following
    Christianity’s encounter with science. The breakdown of the family. Alienation
    and isolation.
    2.3 Patriotism. Loyalty to the country, to group and race. Secret
    organizations. Pressure groups. Ethnic loyalties. Zionism.
    2.4 Free enterprise. Money makes money. Utilitarian principle; theories
    of optimization. Big versus small business. Upward mobility. The end (making
    money) justifies the means. Consumption and waste; built-in obsolescence;
    decline in quality in favor of quantity;
    lack of respect for environment and resources; business pressure groups.
    2.5 Freedoms. From what? for whom? to do what? The U.S. Constitution.
    Slavery. Emancipation. The development of democracy.
    2.6 Work. The Protestant theology: work as a Divine norm necessary for
    salvation. Efficiency. Lack of personal fulfillment in present work systems.
    Women better the home and the labor market.
    2.7 Religion. Protestantism; attitude toward other religions. Church: leader
    or follower? Skepticism, atheism, existentialism. How American society is
    inimical to faith and real religious values. Trend toward Eastern religions.
    2.8 Family. Nuclear family. Parent-child relationship. Child-parent
    relationship in adulthood. Equality of sexes. Housework -who shall do it? Wife
    and mother or secretary. Birth control and abortion. Lack of religious
    constraints equals lack of concept of limits and concept of responsibility.
    Sexual chaos.
    2.9 Leisure. Recreation and sports. Travel: the ever beckoning outdoors and
    recreation spots. Literature, theatre, music, cinema, television, art. Sports.
    Socializing. Drugs and alcohol.
    2.10 Science, pure and applied. Technology and labor-saving machines. Is
    man obsolete? Medicine and public health. The immense increase in
    knowledge in the second half of the twentieth century. Myths we live with:
    man is all-powerful; no limit to his knowledge; what he cannot find out on his
    own is not worth knowing about; he is responsible to no one but himself.
    2.11. Social sciences. Genetics and evolutionary theory: man is an animal.
    Sociology: religion is a response to human societal needs. Psychology: the
    importance of the self; how one feels is the determining factor; the
    discarding of common sense approaches in favor of “the experts”
    approaches. Since religion is a man-made system, it can be discarded or
    replaced; the concept of sin and accountability are lost.
    2.12 Professions. Specialization. Professionals: the new priests.
    2.13 Education. Experiments with methodology. School atmosphere, the role
    of the school in the attitude and value-training of the youngster, the roles of
    the teachers and administrators. Higher education.
    2.14 The American Dream. Dream or reality? Ideas versus ideologies.
    VI-I0l A MUSLIM’S VIEW OF CHRISTIANITY
  195. Christian Theology
    1.1 Man’s relation to God through Christ. Trinity. Resurrection, judgment,
    heaven and hell.
    1.2 View of man. Original sin. Vicarious atonement. “God so loved the world.
    ..” “Being saved” through faith. Belief versus action. Abolition of Divine law of
    Moses. Christian virtues: celibacy, monkery. View of women.
    1.3 The Qur’an’s critique of the Trinity. Jesus in the Qur’an and Hadith.
    1.4 The history of Christian theology from the time of Christ to the present
    day.
  196. Catholicism
    2.1 The Catholic Church. Its structure and heirarchy.
    2.2 The role of the church in the life of a Catholic. Infalliability of the Pope.
    The Sacraments. Mortal and venial sins, confession and absolution.
    2.3 History of the Church. Popes and kings in the Middle Ages. Indulgences.
    The Inquisition. The Church and scientists. Reformation.
    2.4 The influence of Islamic thought.
  197. Protestantism
    3.1 Historical aspects: Luther, Calvin, Zwingli. The place of the Bible. Faith in
    the prophecies.
    3.2 Dozens of denominations; what is common among them.
    3.3 Social concerns: missionaries and their activities.
    3.4 The Protestantethic:liberalism,individualism, humanism, hard work,
    thriftiness.
    3.5 Splinter groups: Mormons, Christian Scientists, Unitarians, Quakers.
  198. Historical Relationship Between Muslims and Christians
    4.1 The Qur’anic injunctions concerning relations with People of the Book.
    4.2 The Prophet’s treatment of the Christians of Najran.
    4.3 ‘Umar’s document to the Christians of Eilia.
    4.4 Christian subjects under various Muslim dynasties: Umayyah,
    ‘Abbasiyyah, Umayyah of Spain, ‘Uthmaniyah.
    4.5 Muslim subjects under Christian rule: Spain, Czarist Russia, French,
    British and Dutch imperialism, Ethiopia, Philippines.
    4.6 Crusades. Propaganda against Islam, the Prophet and Muslims, and its
    lasting effect to the present time.
    4.7 Christian ‘scholars’ of Islam. Orientalists and their antiIslamic
    propaganda.
    4.8 The influence of Muslim scientists and philosophers. Renaissance,
    Reformation, the scientific awakening, medicine and hygiene.
    4.9 The interface: the essentially fixed boundaries of Christendom;
    Islam and Christianity in Africa, Islam in Europe, America and Australia.
    VI-I02 THE ISLAMIC CALL
  199. The Plight of the Kafir
    1.1 Varieties of kufr: Unbelief, Association, Ingratitude,Pride.
    1.2 Manifestations of kufr: self-indulgence, pessimism, loss of direction and
    purpose, tyranny, alienation, crime.
    1.3 Modern expressions of kufr,’ Scientism, Secularism, Humanism,
    Materialism, Communism, Nationalism, Existentialism, Racism, Socialism and
    Capitalism.
    1.4 Man against his own soul; man against man; man against nature; man
    against God.
    1.5 The search for knowledge and truth. The expanding universe and the
    shrinking man. Man the unknown. Movement without progress.
  200. The Islamic Call
    2.1 Call toward submission: belief, gratitude, humility, acknowledgement of
    being a creature.
    2.2 Manifestations of Islam: self-discipline, hope, direction and purpose,
    justice, love, doing good to others.
    2.3 The Islamic ‘hammer:’ breaking of modern idols. Islamic foundations of
    science, of life on this earth, of human relationships, of wealth and
    resources, of human ranking, of human groupings.
    2.4 Man is united with his own soul, with his fellow man, with nature and
    with God:
    2.5 Knowledge and truth. The revealed knowledge and truth. The acquisition
    of knowledge, revealed and learned. The ultimate goal.
  201. Methodology of the Islamic Call
    3.1 Formation of a vanguard. Association on the basis of commitment to
    Islam; mutual training and education.
    3.2 Formation of an association. Inviting others. Selection of active persons,
    and their training and education. Speakers, writers and organizers. Rules for
    change of leadership. Shura.
    3.3 Characteristics of the association: Islamic objectives, spiritual and moral
    strength of its workers, Islamic limits on its activities.
    3.4 Activities: spreading the message of Islam through the spoken and
    written word, publications, seminars, conferences, camps, schools, Islamic
    centers and mosques, circles for teaching and learning, circles for dhikr and
    ‘ibadat.
    3.5 The MSA as a case study. Its formation and growth, constitution,
    activities. Future goals.
  202. Muslim Communities
    4.1 Definition of a community. Association on the basis of objectives.
    4.2 Elements of a community: objectives; leadership and shura; active
    workers; planning; finances; participation of members.
    4.3 Methodology for establishing a Muslim community. Requirements: a
    group of Muslim families in one town, and a desire for Islamic identity. Steps:
    forming an association; establishing Friday prayers and fasting of Ramadan;
    celebrating Islamic occasions; collection of Zakat; purchasing homes in the
    same locality; starting businesses; Muslim professionals and workers;
    mosque, school and cemetery; participation’ in civic affairs; representation in
    city, county and state governments.
    VI-IO3 THE HISTORY OF ISLAM IN AMERICA
  203. The first Muslims in America
    1.1 Muslim explorers.
    1.2 The Atlantic Slave Trade and Muslim Africa.
    1.3 The preservation of a syncretized Muslim consciousness in Slave
    societies.
  204. The Rise of “Back to Islam” Movements
    2.1 The existence of Muslims after the legal abolition of slavery.
    2.2 The possible influence of Muslims on Marcus Garvey.
    2.3 Noble Drew Ali and the Moorish Americans.
    2.4 Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam.
    2.5 Fard Muhammad’s role in the development of the Nation of Islam.
  205. Indigenous American Muslims in the Twentiety Century
    3.1 Muslim organizations, centers and masjids in North America.
    3.2 The World Community of Islam in the West and Wallace D. Muhammad.
    3.3 National Muslim movements.
  206. The Impact of Immigrating Muslims on Islam in America
    4.1 The main source areas of immigration.
    4.2 The probable reasons for immigration.
    4.3 Prospects for cooperation among all the various groups.
    PART VII
    VII: SUPPLEMENTARY SUBJECTS
    VII-IOO ARABIC I
  207. The alphabet.
  208. Common Arabic expressions used by Muslims.
  209. Arabic words.
  210. The Arabic article.
  211. Gender.
  212. Nouns and adjectives.
  213. Pronouns.
  214. Verbs: simple conjugations.
  215. Simple forms of broken plural.
  216. Special vocabulary of important words.
    VI-IOI ARABIC II
  217. Nouns: duals and cases.
  218. Verbs: derivatives and their conjugations.
  219. Adjectives: comparatives and superlatives.
  220. Adverbs.
  221. Prepositions and their effect in sentences.
  222. Structure of the Arabic sentence.
  223. Numbers: cardinals and ordinals.
    VII-I02 QUR’ANIC ARABIC
  224. The Qur’anic vocabulary.
  225. The reading of juzu 30 with word-by-word translation
    REFERENCE MATERIAL
    VIII: REFERENCE MATERIALS I. ISLAMIC
    TEACHINGS
    The Message of Islam M. M. Siddiqui
    Islamic Correspondance Course (11 units) M. M. Siddiqui
    Towards Understanding Islam A. A. Maududi
    Islam in Focus H. Abdul Ati
    Mysteries of Fasting al.Ghazzali
    Marriage in Islam M. ABdul Rauf
    Purdah A. A. Maududi
    Milestones Syyed Qutb
    Social Justice in Islam Syyed Qutb
    Parents’ Manual leba Siddiqui
    Economic Problems of Man A. A. Maududi
    Islamic Theory of Interest A. I. Qureshi
    Political Theory of Islam A. A. Maududi
    First Principles of the Islamic State A. A. Maududi
    Articles from Islamic journals
    II. THE QUR’AN AND THE SUNNAH
    The Holy Qur’an Text, and A.Yusuf Ali’s translation
    Tafhim al-Qur’an Text, and commentary by A. A Maududi
    Sahih Muslim Translation by A. H. Siddiqi
    Mishkat al.Masabih Translation by James Robson
    Islam in Focus, Appendix I H. Abdul Ati
    Islamic Correspondence Course (Unit 0) M. M. Siddiqui
    III. LIFE OF THE PROPHET
    Islamic Correspondence Course (Unit 2) M. M. Siddiqui
    The Benefactor Waheeduddin
    Life of Muhammad Ibn Hisham
    Life of Muhammad M. H. Haykal
    Only a Prophet Could Do It A. H. Nadwi
    Some Companions of the Prophet Fazl Ahmad
    Heroes of Islam Series A. H. Siddiqi
    IV. POLITICAL HISTORY OF ISLAM
    Islamic Correspondence Course (Unit 7) M. M. Siddiqui
    Life of Abu Bakr H. R. Sherwani
    Omar the Great, Volumes 1 and 2 Shibli Numani
    Some Companions of the Prophet (1, 2 and 3) Fazl Ahmad
    A Short History of Islam S. F. Mahmud
    The Preaching of Islam T. W. Arnold
    The Cambridge History of Islam (1 and 2) Holt, Lambton, Lewis
    V. CULTURAL HISTORY OF ISLAM
    History of Islamic Origins of Western Education M. Nakhosteen The
    Cambridge History of Islam (Vol. 2) Holt, Lambton, Lewis
    Art of Islam C. J. DuRy
    Islamic Architecture D. Hill and O. Graber
    A Short History of Islam S. F. Mahmud
    Non-Muslims Under Muslim Rule A. H. Siddiqi
    VI. ISLAM IN NORTH AMERICA
    Islam and Alcoholism Malik Badri
    Birth Control A. A. Maududi
    Parents’ Manual leba Siddiqui
    Islam and the World A. H. Nadwi
    The Five Great Religions Edward Rice
    Historical Atlas of the Religions I. R. al-Farooqi
    Christian Ethics I. R. al-Farooqi
    VII. SUPPLEMENTARY SUBJECTS
    Arabic for English-Speaking Students M. Abdul Rauf
    Qur’anic Arabic Mahmoud Sieny
    In all categories articles from periodicals should be extracted and
    compiled.