A brief introduction to islamic philosophy pdf

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المملكة العربیة السعودیة
وزارة التعلیم العالي
الجامعة الإسلامیة بالمدینة المنورة
عمادة البحث العلمي
قسم الترجمة

تعریف موجز بالإسلام
(باللغة الإنجلیزیة)

A brief introduction to Islam


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بسم االله الرحمن الرحیم
Praise be to Allah the Lord of the worlds and
may peace and blessings be upon the leader of all the
messengers, our prophet Muhammad, and upon his
family and his noble companions.
Indeed Islam is the seal of all the divine
messages that were previously revealed by Allah, it
was sent down upon the seal of his prophets and
messengers, Muhammad, the son of Abdullah, (may
the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and it
is the true religion. Any other religion than it will
not be accepted by Allah.
Indeed Allah has made it a simple and easy
way of life not containing any difficulties or
hardships, nor has He placed upon those who profess
it that which they are not able to carry out. He has
not burdened them with something they have not the
capability to do. It is a religion, which has as its

٤
foundation at-Tawheed [i.e.: To single out Allah, as
the only object of worship and this is known as
“Tawheed al-Uloohiyah.” Like wise to single Allah
out in that which is specific to Him from His noble
names and attributes is referred to as “Tawheed alAsmaa was-Sifaat”. And to single Him out in that
which is related to His Lordship (i.e.: Him being the
sole creator, governor of affairs and possessor of the
creation) is referred to as “Tawheed arRuboobiyah”], honesty is its motto, revolving
around justice, the truth being its backbone, and
mercy being its soul and essence.
It is that great and noble religion, which
guides its worshippers to everything that is
beneficial for them in their religious and worldly
affairs and it warns them from everything harmful to
them from religion and lifestyle. It is the religion
that Allah, the most high has used to rectify by it
creed and character, and has bettered (for those who
adopt and act by it) their worldly life and their life in

٥
the hereafter. He (Allah) has conciliated by it
between the hearts that were once divided and united
those split by whims and desires and purified them
from the darkness of falsehood and directed them to
the truth, and guided them to the straight way. It is
that religion, which is sound and exact, the pinnacle of
precision in everything that it informs of and in all of its
rulings. Thus it doesn’t inform us except with that
which is correct as true, neither does it judge except
with good and justice, with its correct belief system and
sound acts of worship and virtuous moral standards and
upright manners.
Therefore the goal of Islam is to actualize the
following:
· To acquaint mankind with their Lord
and creator, who possesses the most
beautiful names, lofty attributes and
actions of perfection.

٦
· To call the servants to worship only
Allah who is alone and has no
partners, by carrying out that which is
incumbent upon them from the
commands and prohibitions wherein
there is rectifications and betterment
for them in this life and the hereafter.
· To remind mankind of their condition
and destination after their death and that they
shall meet, in their graves and upon their
resurrection, their giving account (for that
which they did in their lives) and their final
outcome being either in Paradise or Hellfire.
It is possible for us to summarize that which
Islam calls to with the following points:
First: Al-Aqeedah (the Islamic
system of belief)

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That is to have faith in the six pillars of Iman
(belief):

  1. Belief in Allah, this is actualized with the
    following:
    · Belief in the Lordship of Allah. That
    He is the Lord, Creator, Possessor,
    and governor of all affairs.
    · Belief that Allah is the sole object of
    worship. That He is the one true god
    and every thing that is worshipped
    besides Him is falsehood.
    · Belief in Allah’s names and
    attributes. That He has the most
    beautiful names and the most perfect
    and noble attributes as they occur in
    His book (i.e.: the Qur’an) and in the
    Sunnah (i.e.: the sayings, actions and
    approval) of His Messenger (may the

    ٨
    peace and blessings of Allah be upon
    him).
  2. Belief in the Angels:
    The Angels are the honorable servants (of
    Allah), that Allah the Most High has created. They
    have submitted to Him completely in obedience and
    He has commissioned various tasks upon them.
    Indeed from among them is Jibreel (Gabriel) who is
    commissioned with bringing down the revelation
    from Allah upon whom He (Allah) pleases from His
    Prophets and Messengers. Likewise from among
    them is Mikaeel (Michael) the Angel commissioned
    with the rain and vegetation. And from among them
    also is Israfeel (Raphael) the Angel commissioned
    with blowing the horn on the Last Day and on the
    resurrection. And likewise from among them is
    Malak al-Mout (the Angel of death), commissioned
    with taking the souls at the time of death.
  3. Belief in the books:

    ٩
    Allah the Most Noble and Majestic, has revealed
    to His Messengers books containing guidance. Much
    of these good and righteous books we know of are:
    · The Tauraah (Torah), which Allah,
    the Most High, revealed to Musa
    (Moses) and it is the greatest of the
    Books that were revealed to the
    Children of Israel.
    · The Injeel (Gospel), which Allah, the
    Most High, revealed to Eesaa (Jesus).
    · The Zaboor (Psalms), which Allah,
    the Most High, gave to Dawood
    (David).
    · The Suhuf (Scrolls), of Ibraheem
    (Abraham) and Musa (Moses), may
    peace be upon them.
    · The Magnificent Qur’an, which
    Allah, the Most High, revealed upon
    His messenger, Muhammad, the seal

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    of all the Prophets. And Allah
    abrogated by it all of the previous
    books, and He has vouched to protect
    it and because it shall remain to be a
    proof over all His creation until the
    last day.
  4. Belief in the Messengers:
    Allah has sent to His creation Messengers, the
    first of them being Nuh (Noah) and the last of them
    being Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of
    Allah be upon him). Indeed all of the Messengers
    were men and were created and they don’t possess
    any qualities of lordship. They are servants from the
    servants of Allah, the Most High, except that Allah,
    the Most High, has enabled them with preaching His
    Message. Allah has sealed the revelation with the
    prophethood of Muhammad (may peace and
    blessings of Allah be upon him) and has sent it to all

    ١١
    people, thus there will be no Messenger or Prophet
    after Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of
    Allah be upon him).
  5. Belief in the Last Day:
    It is the day of resurrection the like of which
    there will be no day after, wherein Allah will
    resurrect all of mankind and bring them back to life
    after their death, in order for them to reside either in
    a land of bliss or in painful punishment. Believing in
    the Last day means to have belief in everything that
    comes after death from the trials of the grave: its
    comforts and delights or its punishment, and that
    which occurs after it like the resurrection and also
    the giving of account, and then the Hellfire or the
    Paradise.
  6. Belief in the Qadr (pre-decree):
    Belief in Qadr is to believe that Allah has
    predecreed all happenings and brought about it

    ١٢
    based upon that which his prior knowledge dictated
    and that which his wisdom necessitated. All affairs
    therefore are known by Allah, the Most High, and
    are written with Him, and Allah has willed them and
    created them.
    Second: The Pillars of Islam.
    Islam is built upon five pillars and a person is
    not considered a true Muslim until he affirms them
    and carries them out and they are:
    · The First Pillar: To bear witness that there
    is no god that has the right to be worshipped
    in truth besides Allah, and that Muhammad
    is the Messenger of Allah.
    This testimony is the key to Islam and the
    foundation upon which it is built. The meaning of
    this is that there is no deity that deserves to be

    ١٣
    worshipped except Allah alone for He is the true
    God and every object of worship other than Him is
    falsehood. The meaning of the testimony that
    Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah is to believe
    in that which he informs of, and to obey him in that
    which he has ordered, and abstain from that which
    he has prohibited and warned against.
    · The second pillar: The prayer
    There are five prayers that are performed five
    times a day. Allah prescribed them in order to forge
    a bond between a Muslim and his Lord. Therein he
    obtains an intimacy with his Lord and he call upon Him
    and it is that which repels a Muslim from acts of
    lewdness and evil.
    A lot of good is built upon them (for the
    Muslim) in his religion and it constantly rectifies for
    him his faith and (brings about) Allah’s immediate
    and long term reward. The servant obtains by way of
    them, inner and physical tranquility and the likes of

    ١٤
    which brings him success in this life and the
    hereafter.
    · The Third Pillar: The Zakah (poor-due).
    The Zakah charity is paid every year to those
    who are entitled to it from the poor and other than
    them by those who possess the wealth that attained
    what is known as “Nisaab” (A set amount dictated
    by Islamic law and is only considered and taken
    from one’s wealth when it exceeds his needs and is
    in his possession for the period of one year). It is not
    incumbent upon the poor who don’t possess the
    ‘Nisaab’, rather it is incumbent upon the rich as a
    perfection of their religion in order to develop and
    prefect their state of affairs and character, and to
    repel them from any wrong concerning them and
    their wealth. It is a purification for them of their
    sins, and a form of solace to the needy, and to carry
    out for them that which is in their all around good
    interest. And on top of all this, it is a very small

    ١٥
    amount to pay compared to that which Allah has
    given them of wealth and provisions.
    · The Fourth Pillar: As-Siyaam (fasting)
    · This occurs during one specific month of
    the year, the blessed month of Ramadan, which
    is the ninth month of the Islamic year. In this
    month Muslims come together and leave off
    their base desires from food and drink and sexual
    relations during the daylight hours from sunrise
    to sunset. Allah will in turn compensate them for
    it from His virtue and benevolence as a
    completion to their religion and their faith and in
    order to increase them in perfection and other
    than that from that which fasting contains from
    the good in this life and the next.

    ١٦
    · The Fifth Pillar: Al-Hajj (Pilgrimage)
    It is to set out intending pilgrimage to the sacred
    house of Allah (known as the Ka’bah. It was initially
    built by Adam and its buildings was completed by
    Abraham and it is situated in the city of Makkah in
    Saudi Arabia). Allah made it incumbent upon those
    who are able to do so once in a lifetime. During it
    Muslims from everywhere gather in the best location
    on earth, worshipping one Lord, all wearing the
    same (white) garb, there being no difference
    between a leader and this subjects, the rich and the
    poor, white and the black. All of them engaged with
    the specific rites (of Hajj). From the greatest of them
    being the standing (for worship and supplication)
    upon mount Arafat to making circumbulation of the
    noble Ka’bah, the like of which the Muslims from
    everywhere turn towards in their daily prayers, and
    making the procession between the two mountains
    Safa and Marwa. This too contains many great

    ١٧
    benefits connected to the religion and worldly affairs
    which are too numerous to be counted.
    Third:
    Indeed Islam has arranged the lives of those
    who adopt it, whether individuals or groups with that
    which will generate for them happiness and bliss in
    this life and the next. It has made marriage
    permissible for them and has encourage them to do
    so and has made illicit sexual conduct such as
    sodomy, adultery, fornication, and such type of ugly
    acts prohibited. Islam has made joining the ties of
    kinship and showing sympathy and compassion to
    the poor and destitute and taking care of them
    compulsory upon the Muslims just as it has done so
    with all good conduct and mannerism, and has

    ١٨
    prohibited any type of lowly and vile conduct. It has
    made permissible for them good lawful earnings
    either by trade or leasing and the likes, while at the
    same time making usury unlawful and every type of
    impermissible trade and everything containing fraud
    and deceit.
    Islam has observed the varying levels of the
    people in regards to being steadfast upon its way and
    has observed the rights of others. It has prescribed
    certain punishments as deterrents to those seeking to
    transgress against some of Allah’s rights such as
    those who commit apostasy and illicit sexual
    conduct or indulge in drinking intoxicants and the
    likes. Just as it has prescribed certain punishments as
    deterrents against the rights of people, such as
    murder, theft, slander or violent assault. These
    punishments are a form of retribution, which are
    relevant to these crimes neither exceeding the proper
    bounds nor being negligent of them.

    ١٩
    Islam has also arranged and organized the
    connection between society and its rulers. It has
    made it incumbent upon those being ruled to obey
    their rulers in that which is in accordance with
    obedience to Allah, and it has prohibited revolting
    against the rulers because of that which is built upon
    such an action from evils, general and specific.
    Thus, it is possible for us to say in
    conclusion that Islam comprises of that which will
    build and bring about the most sound and correct
    working link and connection between the servant
    and this Lord and between a person and his society
    in all affairs.
    For certainly, there isn’t any good by way of
    mannerism or conduct, except that Islam has guided
    its followers to it and has encouraged it. Neither is
    there any evil mannerism nor bad conduct except
    that Islam warns its followers against it and has
    made it prohibited. Without doubt this clarifies to us
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    ٢٠
    the perfect nature of this religion and it beauty in
    every aspect.